Science Journal

 

Researcher
 
Volume 2 - Issue 11 (Cumulated No. 17), November 1, 2010, ISSN 1553-9865
 
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Research 0210
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: researcher@sciencepub.net 

CONTENTS

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Titles / Authors

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1

Diversity And Abundance Of Spider Fauna Of Narmada River At Rajghat (Barwani) (Madhya Pradesh) India

 

*Shailendra Sharma, **Amrita Vyas, **Rekha Sharma

 

*Department of Zoology, Shri Umiya Girls College, Mandleshwar -451221 (M.P.) INDIA.

**Department of Zoology, Holkar Science College, Indore-452003 (M.P.) INDIA.

shailendra.b.sharma@gmail.com; amritavyas2008@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: The Biodiversity of Narmada valley having rich biodiversity of spiders. The spiders of Narmada valley were collected from Barwani from last week of August to Jan. 2010, using insect nets, tapping sticks, umbrella. Pit fall trap etc. During this study 117 specimens were collected from the Rajghat (Barwani). 44 species were identify belonging to 12 Families. Among the specimens most of the individuals were adult and few females were observed the Family Araneidae represented 13 species, Salticidae represented 9 species, Oxyopidae 3,and Eracidae 4 species, Theriddidae 3, and Thomosidae represented 2 species , Lycosidae 3 and Pholcidae represented 2 species. Families Clubionidae 1, Philodromide 1, Tetragnathidae 2, Uloboridae, represent 1 species. The population of Spiders was abundant species richness and diversity was high during the month of October to December.

[Shailendra Sharma, Amrita Vyas, Rekha Sharma. Diversity And Abundance Of Spider Fauna Of Narmada River At Rajghat (Barwani) (Madhya Pradesh) India. Researcher. 2010;2(11):1-5]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsrsj021110.01

 

Keywords: Spiders, Biodiversity, Insect, Raighat, Narmada Valley

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2

Free Radical Scavenging activity of Multi-vitamin Plant (Sauropus androgynus L. Merr)

1Gayatri Nahak and 1Rajani Kanta Sahu

1Department of Botany, B.J.B. Autonomous College, Bhubaneswar751014, Orissa, India

gayatri_bioteq@yahoo.co.in, sahurajani@yahoo.co.in

Abstracts: Sauropus androgynus L. Merr., also known as katuk, star gooseberry, or sweet leaf, is a shrub grown in some tropical regions as a leaf vegetable which contains about 6-10% protein content. It is one of the most popular leaf vegetables in South Asia and Southeast Asia and is notable for high yields and palatability. In India it also known as Multivitamin Plant as it contains an excellent sources of provitamin A, Carotinoid, Vitamin B and C, protein and mineral. It has highly nutritive value and contains phytochemicals which can act as antioxidant. The antioxidant activity of Multi-solvent extracts of Sauropus androgynus obtained from ethanol, methanol and water were tested by measuring their ability to scavenge reactive hydroxyl radical through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and Hydoxyl radical scavenging assay. In general, the ethanolic extracts were better free radical scavengers than the Mathanolic and aqueous extracts. Similar results were seen in the Hydroxyl assay. Our findings also showed a strong correlation of antioxidant activity with the total phenolic content. The findings indicated promising antioxidant activity of crude extracts of the above plant and needs further exploration for their effective use in both modern and traditional system of medicines.

[Gayatri Nahak and Rajani Kanta Sahu. Free Radical Scavenging activity of Multi-vitamin Plant (Sauropus androgynus L. Merr.). Researcher. 2010;2(11):6-14]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsrsj021110.02

Key words: Sauropus androgynus L. Merr., Antioxidant activity, DPPH, Hydroxyl radical

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3

The Effects Of Management Practices On The Physical And Chemical Water Qualities And Its Possible Implications On Fish Health In Maiduguri Metropolis

Thilza I.B.1, And Muhammad T.2

1. DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY MEDICINE, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, P.M.B 1069, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA.

2. WHO NATIONAL POLIO LABORATORY, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI TEACHING HOSPITAL, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA.

E-MAIL: thilzathilzathilza@yahoo.com; TEL: +234 8032164709 AND +234 8051420343

ABSTRACT: Fish performs all their body functions in water. The quality of the water in which fish are contained is therefore very important to their livelihood. In the present study, some physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, alkalinity, PH, turbidity, suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbondioxide, nitrites, ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulphide, chromium, iron, copper, zinc and total water hardness content of five farms aquaculture ponds each for plastic, concrete and earthen ponds types on the first days of water change/just after toping of pond with water for earthen pond types and on the last days of water change /just before toping of pond with water for earthen pond types was analysed for assessment. The studies were undertaken from the month of January to March, 2009 during which the physico-chemical parameters were analysed and compared with the aquaculture water quality standard of Kumar (2004). The temperature values remained within the standard values in the all the aquaculture pond types. PH values of the aquaculture ponds ranges from 4.7-6.8 as against the standard water quality i.e 6.5-8.0. Turbidity, suspended solids, dissolved carbondioxide, nitrites, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, alkalinity contents increased on the last days of water change/just before toping with water for earthen pond types in the aquaculture ponds while dissolved oxygen, heavy metals and total water hardness contents shows a decreased in their values for all the aquaculture pond types on the last days of water change/just before toping pond with water for earthen pond types. The stocking density, rate of feeding, frequency of water changes had effect on the water quality parameter and consequently growth rate of the fishes. The variation in the physic-chemical parameters of the aquaculture ponds above or below standard values has potential effects on the health and productivity of aquaculture. The study indicates that the pond water quality of the plastic and to a lesser extent concrete pond pose lesser threat to the livelihood of the fish as compared to the earthen pond types due to the management practices on the farms although the constant change of water in the plastic and concrete pond types increases the chances of heavy metals being absorbed in the tissues of fishes causing health threat to both the fish and consumers of fish.

[Thilza I.B., And Muhammad T. The Effects Of Management Practices On The Physical And Chemical Water Qualities And Its Possible Implications On Fish Health In Maiduguri Metropolis. Researcher. 2010;2(11):15-23]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsrsj021110.03

KEY WORDS: management practices, physico-chemical water qualities,fish, health

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4

The replacement value of unripe plantain peels on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and cost implications of rabbit production in the tropical region

 

1Ogunsipe M.H., 2Agbede J.O.

1Animal Production Unit, Department of Agricultural Science, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

2Division of Nutritional Biochemistry,Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: A total of thirty two weaned rabbits of 5 to 6 weeks of age were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments at 0, 25, 50 or 75% in a completely randomized design experiment to evaluate the effect of unripe plantain peels on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, muscle development and cost benefit of weaned rabbits. A feeding trial lasting for 63 days was carried out, at the end of which twenty rabbits were slaughtered to determine the carcass characteristics, muscle development and organ weights. Results on performance showed that the dietary treatments influenced (P<0.05) the average feed consumed, average body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the rabbits with the highest average body weight gain (12.80.15) recorded for rabbits placed on 50%-based unripe plantain peel diet. On the carcass traits, the limbs and the tail weights were significantly lower (29.880.47) and 3.940.03, respectively) at 75%-based unripe plantain peel diet. Other parameters showed no significant difference (P>0.05) with the reference diet. Dietary treatments had no positive influence on the lung, kidney and heart weights at 75%-based plantain peel inclusion level as the lowest values were recorded at this level. Replacing maize at 50% with unripe plantain peel resulted in reduced cost of feed as well as cost/kg weight gain of rabbit production. Consequently, net return was raised by 26.99%, 43.77% and 51.68% at 25, 50, and 75%, respectively with unripe plantain peel substitution. The increase in net return was most encouraging at 50%-based plantain peel substitution, being the diet with the least cost per kilogram weight gain that did not compromise the performance of the rabbits.

[Ogunsipe M.H., Agbede J.O. The replacement value of unripe plantain peels on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and cost implications of rabbit production in the tropical region. Researcher. 2010;2(11):24-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj021110.04

 

Key words: unripe plantain peels, growth performance, carcass characteristics, cost benefit, rabbit production.

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5

A Mathematical Model for Operating Cost of an Industrial Air Conditioning Plant

 

Sangotayo, Emmanuel Olayimika, Ajayeoba, Abiola Olufemi and Awofolajin, Adewale Oluseyi

Mechanical Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P. M. B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

olemsangotayo@yahoo.com, ajayeobabiola@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The creation of cold environment has relevance in a significant number of areas of human life, for instance the food processing field, the air-conditioning sector, the preservation of pharmaceutical products, the preservation of blood and storage of vaccines and drug in hospital. This paper presents a mathematical model for predicting the operating cost of an industrial air conditioning plant. Mathematical equations were developed from experimental data collected from Air Conditioning Servicing Company in Lagos. The empirical equation between operating cost and period was governed by polynomial function of order 4 in nature. The coefficient of determination, R2 for operating cost empirical equation is 0.9552. The empirical equation was used to predict operating cost and the graphical comparison of experimental and predicted cost showed negligible difference with average percentage error of 2%. The predicted costs were subjected to further investigation by performing t-test analysis at 5% and 1% significant level. The t-test analysis obtained from the different models and experimental results revealed that there is no significant difference experimental and simulated result at 95% and 99% confidence limit; hence the models are reliable. The result from this paper is expected to assist in developing models that can be used in adequate preparation for an operating cost for industrial air conditioning plant for a period of time. The mathematical models for predicting cost at any time save time, money and reliable, for easy maintenance, reliability and accuracy.

[Sangotayo, Emmanuel Olayimika, Ajayeoba, Abiola Olufemi and Awofolajin, Adewale Oluseyi. A Mathematical Model for Operating Cost of an Industrial Air Conditioning Plant. Researcher. 2010;2(11):30-37]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj021110.05

Keywords: Operating cost, industrial air conditioning plant, empirical equation

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6

A Study on Inhibitory Effects of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as Probiotics on Some Clinical Pathogens.

 

Dilli, Zainab Hassan1.; De, Nandita1.; Sudi, Ismaila Yada2, 3, *, and Ali-Dunkrah, Umaru4.

1. Department of Microbiology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal

University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

2. Dept. of Animal Health and Production Technology, Adamawa State

College of Agriculture, P. M. B. 1010, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

3. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of science, Adamawa State University, ADSU,

P.M.B. 25 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

4. Dept. of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

dipak61@yahoo.com yada280@yahoo.co.uk drali13358@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A study was carried out on inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus on growth of some pathogens isolated from clinical specimens of pathogens selected for this study were E. coli, some species of Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Salmonella and Shigella isolated from stool and urine samples of patients attending State Specialist hospital, Yola. Results of agar spot revealed that Lactobacillus bulgaricus produced highest antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella spp. (3.5 mm) followed by E. coli (2.4 mm), Proteus spp. (1.9 mm) Pseudomonas sp. (1.5 mm) and Shigella sp. (1.0 mm) while Streptococcus thermophilus produced highest antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella spp. (4.2 mm) followed by E. coli (4.0 mm), Proteus spp. (2.3 mm) Pseudomonas sp. (1.8 mm) and Shigella sp. (1.6 mm). Both organisms (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) may be used as probiotics when preceded by further studies.

[Dilli, Zainab Hassan; De, Nandita; Sudi, Ismaila Yada and Ali-Dunkrah, Umaru. A Study on Inhibitory Effects of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as Probiotics on Some Clinical Pathogens. Researcher. 2010;2(11):38-41]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj021110.06

 

Key words: Pathogens, Probiotcs, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus

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7

In vitro and In vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of Aqueous Extract of Andrographis paniculata Leaves

 

Oyewo Bukoye 1, +, Akanji Musbau 2, Onifade Adenike 1

1. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P. M. B. 4000, Ogbomoso. Nigeria

2. University of Ilorin, P. M. B. 1515 Ilorin, Kwara State. Nigeria

askafterbukoye@yahoo.com, akanjima@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant property of the aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculata leaf was investigated. The aqueous extract was lysophilized and the phytochemicals and minerals present were quantified. In vitro antioxidant capabilities were estimated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The calculated IC50 and FRAP of ascorbic acid and A. paniculata were not significantly different (p<0.05). The ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capability of the extract was determined to be (112.752 + 206.737) 103mgAA/100g. Twenty eight male albino rats were used for the in vivo antioxidant capability studies and were randomly picked into four groups. 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg BW doses were administered daily for 56 days to three groups, while the fourth group received distilled water. After 41 days of administration, five rats in the 1000mg/kg BW dose group had the fur falling off, had increased thirst for water with watery clay coloured feaces and were less active. The effects of the aqueous extracts on the liver malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were estimated. Liver GSH levels were increased significantly (p< 0.05) with the 250mg/kg and 1000mg/kg been statistically equal. The MDA concentrations were not significantly reduced (p< 0.05) for the 1000mg/kg BW. Serum SOD activities increased significantly (p< 0.05) dose dependently, while the CAT activities also increased significantly with the 250mg/kg and 1000mg/kg BW been statistically equal. The histopathological studies of the liver revealed that the aqueous extract of A. paniculata conferred protection on the liver at 250mg/kg BW and 500mg/kg BW doses. From the foregoing, it was suggested that the aqueous extract of A. paniculata leave possessed high antioxidant property, but toxicity studies will be necessary to determine the safety of the chronic consumption.

[Oyewo Bukoye, Akanji Musbau, Onifade Adenike. In vitro and In vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of Aqueous Extract of Andrographis paniculata Leaves. Researcher. 2010;2(11):42-51]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsrsj021110.07

 

Key words: Andrographis paniculata; Antioxidant property; Chronic consumption; Toxicity

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Solution of Volterra Integral Equation of Second Kind

 

Vijendra S Rawat & Mayank Pawar

Department of Mathematics, Teerthankar Mahaveer university, Moradabad. UP India.

E-mail: vijendraprof@gmail.com

 

Abstract:-In this research paper we are examine the solution of volterra integral equation of second kind.

[Vijendra S Rawat & Mayank Pawar. Solution of Volterra Integral Equation of Second Kind. Researcher. 2010;2(11):52-55]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj021110.08

 

Key Words: Numerical Integration, Gaussian Integration, optimization theory, Non linear VIE

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9

Economics Of Organic Manure Use By Food Crop Farmers In Ecologically Vulnerable Areas Of Imo State,Nigeria.

Nwaiwu I.U; Ohajianya D.O.; Lemchi J.I.; Ibekwe U.C.; Nwosu F.O.; N.G Ben-chendo; Henri-Ukoha A. and Kadiri F.A.

Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria.

Abstract: This paper views the cost and returns of organic manure use among food crop farmers in ecologically vulnerable areas of Imo State, Nigeria. Empirical results of experiments conducted to evaluate the benefits or otherwise of organic manure use in different food crop production were reviewed, collated and appraised. Besides, organic manure used in combination with inorganic manure (fertilizer varieties) were also collated and analysed. The result showed that organic manure when used alone or in combination with inorganic fertilizer ensures increment in growth and yield of food crops, weed control, 50% reduction in expenditure on fertilizer, 40% topsoil retention capacity, mitigation of crude oil pollution on soils, control of soil erosion and salinity, and reduction of contamination from pesticide use. Sequel to the obvious numerous benefits of organic manure, its use should be encouraged by government and other relevant non- governmental organizations.

[Nwaiwu I.U; Ohajianya D.O.; Lemchi J.I.; Ibekwe U.C.; Nwosu F.O.; N.G Ben-chendo; Henri-Ukoha A. and Kadiri F.A. Economics Of Organic Manure Use By Food Crop Farmers In Ecologically Vulnerable Areas Of Imo State,Nigeria. Researcher. 2010;2(11):56-61]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsrsj021110.09

 

KEY WORDS: Organic manure, Ecological, Vulnerable, Economics, Mitigation

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Design And Analysis Of Heavy Load Pavement For Cost Effective Port Operation Of The Nigerian West-East Coastal Shelf

 

Ibrahim Tunde Yusuf

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515,

Ilorin, Kwara State of Nigeria (zip code: 234).

Email: ityusuf@yahoo.com; tunde_aroes@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: The intensity of traffic and container loads in operation of ports necessitates the provision of zero or low maintenance heavy load pavements which can be in any of four main forms of pavement construction:- asphalt, concrete block, rigid concrete and reinforced concrete pavements. This paper, therefore, presents a construction/maintenance life cycle cost based pavement structure that reflects on construction materials, methods, port operational techniques and environment for the selection of the most appropriate for Nigerian coastal shelf. Primary data on cargo handling and container traffic statistics (for both export and import) were deduced from the operational and data sourced from the management of Nigerian Ports Authority and the Federal Office of Statistics in Lagos. Further, the length of the Nigerian west-east territorial costal shelf (between Lagos and Calabar), types of handling equipment available at the ports, available materials and construction technology prevailing at the ports environment were also extracted from other relevant sources. The British Ports Federation (BPF) Manual (1989) and the Nigeria Highway Design Manual (1972) were used for the design purposes. Design by Charts were employed with the aid of a Microsoft Excel software while the construction cost analysis was carried out for each pavement type at varying California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values of 1%, 3%, 5%, 10% and 30% for the possible native (subgrade) soils or as modified in bounded forms. The results of the design indicated that the rigid concrete and reinforced concrete pavements are better in technical terms since they can both be placed on soils with very low CBR values. However, the reinforced concrete pavement stands as the best choice economically with reasonably satisfactory technical capability because for all the subgrade CBR values and subbase thicknesses its construction cost is least. The cost of constructing the base course of reinforced concrete pavement on a soil of 10% CBR and 300mm thick subbase, for instance, is N5,950.00/m2 of pavement as compared to costs of asphalt, and rigid concrete pavements which are N6,800.00/m2 and N7,761.25/m2 respectively.

[Ibrahim Tunde Yusuf. Design And Analysis Of Heavy Load Pavement For Cost Effective Port Operation Of The Nigerian West-East Coastal Shelf. Researcher. 2010;2(11):62-81]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj021110.10

 

Key words: Ports, Container terminal, Heavy load pavement, Cargo handling operation, California Bearing Ratio, Design charts

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Numerical Analysis of Magnetic Field with the Hemodynamics Of Large Blood Vessel

 

Babadipe, E.S

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Redeemer’s University, Mowe Ogun state. Nigeria.

babadipe@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The function of blood is to deliver necessary substances to the body cells such as nutrients and oxygen through the blood vessels. In earlier works on hemodynamics of blood, the effect of the uniform magnetic field applied to the flow channel was investigated. In this current work, the problem was modelled and the non-dimensionalised equation is then solved numerically involving asymptotic expansion for fixed injection Reynolds Number and Maxwell Visco-elastic analysis. The effect of visco-elastic K and the viscosity variation parameters on the velocity field are advanced.

[Babadipe, E.S. Numerical Analysis of Magnetic Field with the Hemodynamics Of Large Blood Vessel. Researcher. 2010;2(11):82-94]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj021110.11

 

Keywords: Hemodynamics, Flow Channel, Visco Elastic, Asymptotic Expansion, Reynolds Number

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from August 1, 2010. 
 
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