Science Journal

 

Researcher
 
Volume 3 - Issue 1 (Cumulated No. 19), January 1, 2011, ISSN 1553-9865
 
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Research 0301
 
The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from November 17, 2010. 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to:
researcher@sciencepub.net

CONTENTS

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Titles / Authors

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1

The Kinetic Modeling and Computer Simulation of Catalytic Hydrogenation of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene over Platinum Nanoparticles

 

* Mohammad Reza Saboktakin1,2, Roya M.Tabatabaie1, Abel Maharramov2, Mohammad Ali Ramazanov2

1 Nanostructured Materials Synthesis Lab., International Research Institute of Arian Chemie Gostar, Tabriz, Iran

2 Nanotechnology Research Center , Baku State University , Baku , Azerbaijan

saboktakin123@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Kinetic models are an essential part of modern computer simulation (HYSYS) based on process design.The goal of the work presented here was to develop model for heterogeneous hydrogenation reaction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene using platinium nanoparticles (100 nm) as catalyst .The studied reaction is important in the production of new, environmentally friendly fuels. The hydrogenation was assumed to proceed by a mechanism of stepwise addition of dissociatively adsorbed hydrogen.Langmuir-Hinshelwood type rate equations were able to describe the reaction kinetics successfully, including the inhibition effect.The kinetic equations developed in this work are applicable as such in reactor design because mass transfer, hydrogen solubility were taken into account in the parameter optimization.

[Mohammad Reza Saboktakin, Roya M.Tabatabaie, Abel Maharramov, Mohammad Ali Ramazanov. The Kinetic Modeling and Computer Simulation of Catalytic Hydrogenation of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene over Platinum Nanoparticles. Researcher. 2011;3(1):1-8]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030111.01

 

Keywords: kinetic modeling, computer simulation, hydrogenation ,2,4-dinitrotoluene, platinium , nanoparticles

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[Researcher. 2011;3(1):9-14]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 6

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[Researcher. 2011;3(1):15-21]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

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Evaluation of the Possible Protective and Therapeutic Influence of Coriander (Coriandum sativum L.) Seed Aqueous Extract on Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells Against Alzheimer's Disease Induced by Aluminum Chloride in Adult Male Albino Rats

Enas, A. Khalil

Histology Department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, 12553 Cairo Egypt.

enasamk@hotmail.com

Abstract: Alzheimer's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease. The first and most severely affected brain area is hippocampus. Several studies have used aluminum chloride (Alcl3) to produce an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. Coriander is a plant which has potent antioxidant ability. As well as it has a memory improving property. This investigation aims to clarify the role of coriander seed aqueous extract on hippocampus pyramidal cells against Alzheimer's disease induced by aluminum chloride in adult male albino rats. 24 Adult male albino rats were divided into 4 groups 6 for each. Control , AlCl3 (300mg/kg p. o.), AlCl3(300mg/kg p. o.) plus (0.5gm/kg p. o) coriander aqueous seed extract treated group for a month and (0.5gm/kg p. o.) coriander extract treated group after stopping aluminum chloride treatment each for a month. Specimens from hippocampus were processed for haematoxylin and eosin, toluidine blue and Nauta stains. Aluminum chloride treatment showed that most of the pyramidal cells were shrunken, the cells were pale and the fibers appeared detached. Aluminum chloride and coriander treated group restore the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus to normal. The coriander treatment after stopping AlCl3 treatment restores the hippocampus pyramidal cells to normal. In conclusion coriander seed aqueous extract showing protection and therapeutic action on pyramidal cells in hippocampus against Alzheimer's disease induced by aluminum chloride treatment.

[Enas, A. Khalil. Evaluation of the Possible Protective and Therapeutic Influence of Coriander (Coriandum sativum L.) Seed Aqueous Extract on Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells Against Alzheimer's Disease Induced by Aluminum Chloride in Adult Male Albino Rats. Researcher. 2011;3(1):22-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030111.04

Key words: coriander, Alzheimer's disease, hippocampus, aluminum chloride, rat

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Potentially Toxic Metals Exposure From Body Creams Sold In Lagos, Nigeria

 

Onwordi C. Theresa1*, Orizu C. Onebunne1, Wusu A. Dorcas2, Ogunwande I. Ajani1

1. Department of Chemistry, Lagos State University, P.M.B. 001, LASU Post Office, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria

2. Department of Biochemistry, Lagos State University, P.M.B. 001, LASU Post Office, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria

* Address for Correspondence: teresachinedu@yahoo.co.uk; chiedu.onwordi@lasunigeria.org

 

ABSTRACT: The present study analysed various level of cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel and lead in 15 samples of commercial body cream classified into moisturizer and skin-lightening in Nigeria. The selected body cream were digested with Nitric /Perchloric acid (5:1) and the level of the metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Pb, Cr, and Co was not detected in the body creams. The level of Ni was found to be higher in the skin-lightening with value 5.09 2.02 g/g and lower in moisturizer at 3.611.74 g/g level. Copper ranged from 2.27-17.85 g/g with moisturizer having the higher value 17.85 3.46 g/g and skin-lightening with lowest mean value of 2.27 0.06 g/g. It is generally observed that the skin-lightening creams have the lower value of Cu compared to the moisturizer. The level of Cu in the various body cream analysed is lower when compared with results earlier obtained from personal care products’ manufactured in Nigeria whereas the content of Ni is higher. It is worthy to note that the levels of the metals are higher compared with reports from other parts of the world.. Statically at 95% confidence level there is a significant difference between the Cu metal in the moisturizers and skin-lightening creams while there is no significant difference between Ni in classes of cream studied. This study has revealed that continuous use of these body creams could result in an increase in the Potentially toxic metal levels in human body beyond acceptable limits.

[Onwordi C. Theresa, Orizu C. Onebunne, Wusu A. Dorcas, Ogunwande I. Ajani. Potentially Toxic Metals Exposure From Body Creams Sold In Lagos, Nigeria. Researcher. 2011;3(1):30-37]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030111.05

Keywords: Potentially toxic metals; Moisturisers; Skin lightening; Health effects; Dermal contact

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Effect of Aqueous Extract of Andrographis paniculata on Blood Glucose, and Lipid and Protein Profiles in Male Rat

 

Oyewo Bukoye 1, + and Akanji Musbau 2

1. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P. M. B. 4000, Ogbomoso. Nigeria

2. University of Ilorin, P. M. B. 1515 Ilorin, Kwara State. Nigeria

askafterbukoye@yahoo.com, akanjima@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The chronic administration of aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculata leaves on body and organ weight, blood glucose, lipid and protein profiles, liver and heart lipid profiles was investigated. Forty male albino rats were picked into four groups. The first group received distilled water, while 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg BW doses were administered once daily for 84 days to other groups. After 32 days, four rats in the 1000mg/kg BW dose were less active with watery pale coloured feaces, had the fur falling off and drank more water. Dose dependent significant reductions (p<0.05) in the body weight and blood glucose were observed. Organ-body weights ratio of the hearts and livers were not changed significantly (p<0.05), while prostate increased significantly (p<0.05) dose dependently. Significant reduction and increase (p<0.05) were observed in the kidneys and spleen in group 4. Serum total cholesterol (TC), VLDL-C, TAG, LDL-C and atherogenic index (AI) were reduced significantly (p<0.05) dose dependent with the TAG, LDL- C and AI been statistically the same for group 3 and 4, while groups 2 and 3 were also the same for VLDL-C. HDL-C concentration increased significantly (p<0.05) in group 2 and 3. Total protein and globulins were significantly increased (p<0.05) in group 4, while albumin reduced significantly (p<0.05) in group 4. A/G was reduced significantly (p<0.05) with the group 2 and 3 been statistically the same. Liver TC and VLDL-C were reduced significantly dose dependently with TC in group 2 and 3 been statistically the same (p<0.05), while LDL-C were not significantly reduced in group 2 (p<0.05). Liver TAG increased significantly (p<0.05) with group 2 and 3 been statistically the same, while HDL-C increased significantly (p< 0.05) in group 2 and 3. Heart TC was reduced significantly with no significant difference (p<0.05) between group 3 and 4 and dose dependent significant decrease (p<0.05) in TAG were observed. From the findings, it was logical to make the submission that the chronic administration of the aqueous extract of A. paniculata exhibited hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and weight reducing properties.

[Oyewo Bukoye and Akanji Musbau. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Andrographis paniculata on Blood Glucose, and Lipid and Protein Profiles in Male Rat. Researcher. 2011;3(1):38-47]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030111.06

 

Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, Chronic administration, Atherogenic index, Hypoglycemic, Hypolipidaemic, Weight reducing

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Immune Modulation Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Andrographis paniculata Leaves in Male Rat

 

Oyewo Bukoye 1, + and Akanji Musbau 2

 

3. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P. M. B. 4000, Ogbomoso. Nigeria

4. University of Ilorin, P. M. B. 1515 Ilorin, Kwara State. Nigeria

askafterbukoye@yahoo.com, akanjima@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The immune modulation potentials of the aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculata leaves was investigated. The dry pulverized leaves were extracted with water and lysophilized. Forty male albino rats were randomly picked into four groups. The first group received distilled water, while the other groups were administered daily 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg BW doses for 84 days. Effect of the chronic administration of the extracts on haematological parameters, IL-6, TNF-α, serum levels of bilirubin and uric acid were estimated. The packed cell volume was not significantly changed (p<0.05), while haemoglobin and red blood cell were increased significantly (p<0.05) only in group four. Dose dependent significant increases (p<0.05) were observed in platelet count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Mean cell volume was reduced significantly (p<0.05), but with no significant differences (p <0.05) among the test groups. Mean cell haemoglobin and mean cell haemoglobin concentration showed significant reductions (p<0.05) in the group 4 only. The white blood cell and lymphocytes were increased significantly (p< 0.05) with group 2 and 3 been statistically equal. Significant reductions (p< 0.05) were observed in neutrophil and eosinophils in the group 4 rats only. Monocyte was increased significantly (p<0.05) in group 4 only. Dose dependent significant increases (p<0.05) were observed in the serum IL – 6 and TNF-α. Total and direct bilirubin decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 2 and 3, while significant increases (p<0.05) was shown in group 4. Indirect bilirubin was increased significantly (p< 0.05) in group 3 and 4 only. Uric acid was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in group 2 and 3, while group 4 showed significant increase (p<0.05). The overall result suggested that the chronic consumption of the aqueous extract of A. paniculata boosted the immune functions, but the 1000 mg/kg BW dose predisposed to anaemia, possibly multiple myeloma and autoimmunity.

[Oyewo Bukoye and Akanji Musbau. Immune Modulation Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Andrographis paniculata Leaves in Male Rat. [. Researcher. 2011;3(1):48-57]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030111.07

 

Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, Immune functions, Chronic consumption, Predisposed, Multiple myeloma

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New limited series (function) and using it as an efficient new numerical method for integration, differentiation, calculating curves length and solving equations

Sameh Abdelwahab Nasr Eisa, graduated from Alexandria university
Alexandria city, 21311, Egypt
3 shawkat street in front of the 5th Egyptian channel the fourth floor (gleem)
sameheisa235@hotmail.com , 002-0124795880

Abstract: Any mathematical function or curve or any shape used in any kind of sciences could now be replaced with easy series and this series could be limited if we take the interval that we care and interested in it. This limitation reaches to three simple terms that easily could get involved in any mathematical or complex operations and solved easily. This opens the door for hundreds of applications. In this research I used it to find new numerical integration method, numerical differentiation for any order and also finding any curve length. And here the surprise that operations take 1000 or 10000 or 100000 subintervals in the numerical method become 5 or 3 and 1 in some times and with higher accuracy sometimes!!!!!!!. In the research I use the generated function to solve accurately any variable equations and no matter how hard is it and this is become very easy. A lot of examples and programs code in this research prove and simulate these applications.

[Sameh Abdelwahab Nasr Eisa, New limited series (function) and using it as an efficient new numerical method for integration, differentiation, calculating curves length and solving equations. Researcher. 2011;3(1):58-107]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030111.08

 

Key words: numerical methods, new numerical, new series, replacement series, numerical integration, numerical differentiation, curves length numerically, solving equations

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Study of the Characteristics of Nanocrystal CdS , CdSe , CuO and Nanocomposite CdS-PTh ,CdSe-PTh by XRD-Analysis

Aurobinda Acharya1 , Bairagicharan Panda2, Mamun Mohanty3 ,Gourisankar Roy4*

1Tata Consultancy Service,Kalingapark, Bhubaneswar,Orissa, India

2Dept of Physics, R.I.H.S Bhograi, Balasore, Orissa, India

3124/126, Satyanagar, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India

4Govt (Auto) College, Bhawanipatna ,Orissa, India

gsroy2004@gmail.com

Abstract: In this piece of work we have synthsized the nanocrystaline CdS by Microemulsion Mediated Sonochemical Route, CdSe by Wet Chemical Synthesis and CuO by Combined Precipitation-Pyrolysis Method then by Oxidative Polymerization of Thiophene we have synthesized polythiophene and nanocomposite CdS-PTh and CdSe-PTh and studied their phase identification by X-ray Diffractometer.

[Aurobinda Acharya, Bairagicharan Panda, Mamun Mohanty ,Gourisankar Roy. Study of the Characteristics of Nanocrystal CdS, CdSe, CuO and Nanocomposite CdS-PTh, CdSe-PTh by XRD-Analysis. Researcher. 2011;3(1):108-112]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030111.09

Keywords: X-ray Diffraction(XRD), Nanocrystal, Nanocomposite

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Transformation of Added Lead and Nickel in Different Soil Conditions: A Comparative Study

Geeta Tewari1*, P.C. Srivastava2, Bali Ram3 and Neeta Joshi4
Department of Chemistry, D.S.B.Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, India
Department of Soil Science, G. B. P. U. A. & T., Pantnagar-263145, India
Department of Chemistry, B. H. U., Banaras, India
Department of Chemistry, M.B.G.P.G. College, Haldwani, India
geeta_k@rediffmail.com


Abstract: Contamination of soils with heavy metals is widespread and poses a long-term risk to ground water quality and ecosystem health. A laboratory incubation experiment was done to study the effect of moisture regime on the transformation of lead and nickel in three soils (acidic, neutral and alkaline) polluted by inorganic salt and sludge incubated for a period of 16 months. DTPA extractable-Pb content was the highest in neutral soil followed by alkaline and acidic soils while DTPA extractable-Ni content was highest in acidic soil followed by neutral and alkaline soils. In comparison to field capacity, flooding moisture regime maintained higher DTPA extractable-Pb content in all soils while DTPA extractable-Ni content in alkaline soils. In acidic and neutral soils, field capacity moisture regime maintained higher DTPA extractable-Ni content as compared to flooding moisture regime. The DTPA extractable-Pb content increased whereas the DTPA extractable-Ni content decreased with the time of incubation in all soils. The extractability of the transformed metals depends on the nature of soil and moisture regime. Lead bioavailability increased with time indicating higher pollution danger due to this metal especially under flooding moisture regime.
[Geeta Tewari, P.C. Srivastava, Bali Ram and Neeta Joshi. Transformation of Added Lead and Nickel in Different Soil Conditions: A Comparative Study. Researcher. 2011;3(1):113-118]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030111.10

Key words: Incubation, DTPA extractable lead, sludge, transformation, moisture regime, nickel

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Microhabitat Selection by Small Mammals

 

Mohammadi, S1,2 *, Farahi, M1

 

1. Agricultural & Natural Resources Research Center of Sistan, Iran

2. Department of Environmental Sciences, Sciences & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. saeed.mohammadi3@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Habitat selection is the process by which individuals choose among available habitat patches. Habitat availability” as how accessible and procurable physical and biological components of a habitat are to animals. Research on small mammal habitat use helps to broaden their knowledge. Small mammals are often used as an indicator species group to reflect some aspects of “integrity. Small mammal abundances are affected by both macro- and micro- habitat structures. Studies on patterns of habitat use by mammals are important for understanding the mechanisms involved in their distribution and abundance. This paper provides a brief critical review on the microhabitat selection by Rodents. Reviewing literature, it is found that approximately most of researchers have been mentioned that microhabitat features such as food availability, predation risk, temperature, status of moonlight… are important in determining the variety and abundance of small mammals.

 

[Mohammadi, S and Farahi. [Microhabitat Selection by Small Mammals. Researcher. 2011;3(1):119-123]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030111.11

 

Key words: Habitat use, Habitat selection, Moon light, Predation risk

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Gastro-Intestinal Helminthe Fauna Of Native Domestic Fowl (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) In Owerri Area Of Imo State, Nigeria

 

J.N.N. Onyirioha Ph.D

 

Dept. of Biology, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State

 

ABSTRACT: Studies of some authors all over the world show that the intestinal tract of domestic fowl is subject of infestation by large number of helminth parasites. The present study has shown that our native domestic chicken habour nearly the same range of worms already found in other domestic fowls, notably cestodes and nematodes and a few trematodes. The affected chickens show emaciation with heavy intensities but ordinarily look healthy with light infections. The domestic chickens are usually kept by the rural people as free range animals where they forage freely in the surroundings picking up insects that habour most of these worms. Improved method of poultry keeping is necessary in order to advance in the industry.

[J.N.N. Onyirioha. Gastro-Intestinal Helminthe Fauna Of Native Domestic Fowl (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) In Owerri Area Of Imo State, Nigeria. Researcher. 2011;3(1):124-126]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030111.12

 

Keywords: Gastro-Intestinal Helminthe Fauna; Domestic Fowl; Gallus Gallus Domesticus

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Impact Assessment of Vesicular Schistomiasis on Educational Performance of Primary School Pupils in Niger Delta

 

J. N. N. Onyirioha Ph.D

Dept. of Biology, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT: Sign of gross haematuria, no doubt imposes great psychological stress on affected persons. Infected persons were more depressed and would like to shy away from the public. Uninfected pupils showed slightly but definite better scholastic performance, assessed by their school attendances and grades scored in the previous school year. The infected pupils, contrary to previous studies Ejezie and Ade- Serruno (1981) and Ekanem et al (1994) were thought hampered by the disease, necessitating more studies in the endemic areas.

[J. N. N. Onyirioha. Impact Assessment of Vesicular Schistomiasis on Educational Performance of Primary School Pupils in Niger Delta. Researcher. 2011;3(1):127-128]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030111.13

 

Keywords: Impact Assessment; Vesicular Schistomiasis; Educational Performance; Primary School Pupil

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from November 17, 2010. 
 
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