Volume 3 - Issue 3 (Cumulated No. 21), March 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-9865
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Research 0303
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Titles / Authors
Improving Effect of
Dietary Oat Bran Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Induced By
Ola S Mohameda,
Mostafa M Saidb, Zeinab Y Alib*, Hanan A
Atiaa and Heba S Mostafab
Department of Biochemistry,
Faculty of Pharmacy (girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
Department of Biochemistry, National Organization for Drug
Control and Research (NODCAR), Giza, Egypt.
author. Zeinab Yousef Ali (Ph D)
department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research
(NODCAR), 6-Abu Hazem Street, Pyramids Ave. P.O. Box 29, 35521
002-02-35851278, 002-02-35850005; Mobile: 002-012-8079870
Many epidemiological studies support the involvement of
oxidative stress in pathogenesis and progression of many
diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Oats (Avena
sativa, Linn.) are rich in antioxidants and have
cholesterol-reducing effect. This study aimed to evaluate the
total phenolic and antioxidant activity as well as the
prophylactic and curative effects of oat bran (2.70 g. kg-1
b.w. day-1) on oxidative stress induced by
hyperlipideamic diet comparing with simvastatin (3.6 g. kg-1
b.w.day-1) as reference agent. Rats fed on
hyperlipidemic diet supplemented with cholesterol, cholic acid
and thiouracil (CCT, 3:1:0.5) exhibited significant elevation in
hepatic antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST) activities
and lipid peroxide (MDA), and a significant depletion in reduced
glutathione (GSH) content. Oat bran was able to maintain or
ameliorate these changes to nearly normal levels and reveals its
prophylactic and curative effects on oxidative stress associated
with hyperlipidemia. Oat bran has nearly similar potent
antioxidant effect as simvastatin. These beneficial effects
could be attributed to the antioxidant activities of bioactive
ingredients in oat bran. In conclusion, oat bran supplementation
exhibited a powerful antioxidant potential and, thus, reduce
incidence and prevent atherosclerosis through a reduction in
oxidative stress induced by hyperlipidemia in rats.
[Ola S Mohamed,
Mostafa M Said, Zeinab Y Ali, Hanan A Atia and Heba S
Mostafa. Improving Effect of Dietary Oat Bran Supplementation on
Oxidative Stress Induced By Hyperlipidemic Diet. Researcher.
2011;3(3):1-10]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
oat bran; total phenolics; antioxidant activity; hyperlipidemia;
atherosclerosis; oxidative stress; hepatic
Antagonistic Effect of
Indigenous Bacillus subtilis on Root-/Soil-borne Fungal
Pathogens of Cowpea
A.S. 1, 2*,
Akintokun, A.K.2 and Abiala, M. A.3
1. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture PMB. 5320,
Ibadan,Oyo State, Nigeria
2. Department of
Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, University of
Agriculture, PMB 2240,
Abeokuta, Ogun State,
Department of Botany
and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan,
PMB 128 Ibadan,
biopesticide ability of indigenous Bacillus subtilis as a
biocontrol agent against cowpea fungal pathogens Fusarium
verticilloides, F. equiseti, F. solani, F. oxysporum,
and Rhizoctonia solani isolated from diseased cowpea in
the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria was evaluated in the
laboratory. Primary in-vitro screening for antagonism
against these phytopathogenic
fungi revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05) inhibitory effects
on mycelial radial growth of the pathogens. Generally, the
antibiosis exhibited by B. subtilis against F.
verticilloides, F. equiseti, and R. solani was highly
significant. However, there were little or no inhibition effects
on F. solani, and F. oxysporum. Differences in
times of inoculation between the antagonist and the pathogens
were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different in aiding
effective and efficient inhibition of the pathogens by B.
subtilis. The B. subtilis strain isolated,
identified, and used in this present study is a promising
natural biopesticide agent which can be considered as an
alternative to chemical pesticides in cowpea disease management
strategies and should be further studied and tested for control
of other phytopathogenic fungi causing diseases and yield loss
in susceptible cowpea germplasm.
2011;3(3):11-18]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Biopesticide, Bacillus subtilis, biocontrol,
phytopathogenic, antibiosis, fungal pathogens
(Il6) In Patients With Compensated Cirrhosis And
Symptomatic Gall Stones After Laparoscopic
Ragab Abd El Samee1, Mosaad Morshed2,
Saleh El-Awadi2, Wael Khafagi2, Ahmad
Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt
Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt
of laparoscopic cholecystcytomy (LC) for most patients have been
extensively published. However its benefits and successful use
in patients with cirrhosis are less documented. The study
compromised fifty patients with symptomatic gallstone
cholecystectomy disease and undergone either open cholecytectomy
(OC) or laparoscopic. These patients were randomized into two
groups: Group I included 24 patients who underwent OC, and group
II included 26 patients who underwent LC. Patient age, sex,
clinical presentation and child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class were
documented. No patients in this study had CTP class cirrhosis.
IL-6 measurement by ELISA post operative, operative time,
postoperative pain, hospital stay, blood loss, morbidity,
recovery time, and liver function test abnormalities. There was
no operative mortality. Conversion to OC was necessary in 3
patients. Mean surgical time was significantly longer in OC
group (group I) than LC group (group II), (mean + SD,
96.6 + 32, minutes Vs 58.7 + 23.8 minutes,
P=0.037). No patients in group II required any blood replacement
in contrast to 9 patients (37.5%) in group I. Intraoperative
bleeding remained significantly higher in group I (P=0.043). No
patients in group II had wound complications compared with 5
patients (29.14%) in group I. The group I had significantly
longer hospital stay than group II, mean 9.0 + 1.3 days
(median 7) Vs 2.3 days +1.9 (median 2.5); P=0.001,
lowered level of IL-6 at 6th hour and 12th
hour post operative. Our results demonstrate that
laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely in patients
with CTP class A and B cirrhosis. It offers several advantages
over open cholecystectomy, including lower morbidity, shorter
operative time, and reduced hospital stay with less need for
blood transfusions. IL-6 more significantly, increase post
operatively more in open cholecystectomy than laparoscopic one
as it cooperates with intensity of operative trauma.
[Elham Ragab Abd El
Samee, Mosaad Morshed, Saleh El-Awadi, Wael Khafagi, Ahmad
Moatamed : Study of IL-6 after Laparascopic and open
cholecystectomy. Researcher. 2011;3(3):19-26]. (ISSN:
Liver cirrhosis, cholecystectomy, Laparoscopy
Microarray and Proteomics Analysis on Neurotransmitter
(Nicotinic Acetylcholine Cys Loop Receptor) By using
Gayatri Nahak2 and Rajani Kanta Sahu2*
Department of Bioinformatics, O.U.A.T.,
Pin-751014, Orissa, India
Department of Botany, B.J.B. Autonomous College,
Bhubaneswar, Pin-751014, Orissa, India
Excessive inflammation and
tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) synthesis causes morbidity and
mortality in diverse human diseases including endotoxaemia,
sepisis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases.
Highly conserved, endogenous mechanisms normally regulate the
magnitude of innate responses and prevent excessive
inflammation. The release of system, through the vagus nerve,
can inhibit significantly and rapidly the release of macrophage
TNF, and attenuate systemic inflammatory responses. This
physiological mechanism, termed the ‘cholinergic
anti-inflammatory pathway’ has major implications in immunology
and in therapeutics; however, the identity of the essential
macrophage acetylcholine mediated (cholinergic) receptor that
responds to vagus nerve signals was previously unknown.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are ionotropic
receptors that form ligand-gated ion channels in cells' plasma
membranes. Like the other type of acetylcholine receptors,
muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), their opening is
triggered by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), but they
are also opened by nicotine. Also in contrast to muscarinic ACh
receptors, nicotinic acetylcholine cys loop receptors do not
operate with a second messenger, but open themselves forming an
ion channel. Their action is inhibited by curare. Nicotinic
acetylcholine receptors are present in many tissues in the body.
The neuronal receptors are found in the central nervous system
and the peripheral nervous system. The neuromuscular receptors
are found in the neuromuscular junctions of somatic muscles;
stimulation of these receptors causes muscular contraction. Here
we report that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-7
subunit is required for acetylcholine inhibition of macrophage
TNF release. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve inhibits
TNF synthesis in wide- type mice, but fails to inhibit TNF
synthesis in 7 deficient cytokine syntheses by the cholinergic
anti-inflammation pathway. Modeller 9v2 was used to design the
receptor nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-7 subunit.
Genemaths XT was used for microarray analysis of the receptor.
Molecular docking of nicotinic acetylcholine cys loop receptor
(alpha-7 subunit) with the ligand 1sq3 by Autodock 4.0 to obtain
biomolecules for the control of neural diseases.
Gayatri Nahak and Rajani Kanta Sahu.
Microarray and Proteomics Analysis on Neurotransmitter
(Nicotinic Acetylcholine Cys Loop Receptor) by using
Bioinformatics Tools. Researcher. 2011;3(3):27-33]. (ISSN:
nAChR (alpha-7subunit), Molecular modeling, Neurotransmitter,
Microarray, Docking, 1sq3, Ligand
validation of reserpine in Rauwolfia serpentina
– A High Value medicinal Plant
Hema Lohani, Harish
Ujjwal Bhandari, Nirpendra Chauhan
Aromatic Plants, Industrial Estate, Selaqui-248197
Author* - firstname.lastname@example.org
medicinal value well
known in various system of medicine all over the world.
Reserpine is an indole alkaloid and is important constituent of
Rauwolfia which is reported to posses anti hypertensive
and tranquilizing activity. In the present study High
Performance Thin Layer Chromatography has been developed for
quantification of Reserpine in Rauwolfia and its allied
preparations, which was found to be rapid and accurate. The
method proposed was highly precise, sensitive, specific and
reproducible with an average recovery of 78%. The limit of
quantification was observed to be 112 ng.
Harish Chandra Andola*
Ujjwal Bhandari, Nirpendra Chauhan. HPTLC method validation
of reserpine in Rauwolfia serpentina – A High
Value medicinal Plant. Researcher. 2011;3(3):34-37]. (ISSN:
Rauwolfia serpentina, reserpine, HPTLC, Validations,
Pesticide Residues in water, sediments, Fin and Shell-fish
samples from Lagos Lagoon Complex, Nigeria.
Adeboyejo, O. A.,
and Olarinmoye, M.O.
Fisheries, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Lagos,
organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues were measured in Fin
fish (Oreochromis niloticus), shell fish (Callinectes
pallidus), sediments and water samples. These were collected
from Ologe lagoon, Kuramo lagoon and Lagos Lagoon.
The analysis was done using Gas
Chromatograph with Electron Capture Detector. The overall range
OCPs in ng/l (with their mean and standard deviation) in
water samples were: Aldrin ND-658.0(242.5±361.5), Chlordane
218.0-702.0(393.7±267.9), Endrin ND-2551.0(959±1388.3),
DDT ND-115.0(41.3±63.9), DDD
α-HCH ND-230.0(117±115.1), γ-HCH
ND-783.0(273.6±441.5), β-HCH 28.9-518.0(245.9±249.1), δ-HCH
0-498.0(211.0±257.5), HCB ND-7.9(2.6±4.5), Dieldrin
14.2-175.0(102.4±81.5), Endosulfan ND-3726.0(1549.7±1940.4),
and Heptachlor ND-1405.0 (525.7±766.4). While the concentrations
in sediment ranged between 0.4 – 43.5μg/kg. The highest levels
of OCPs were detected in shellfish and sediment of Ologe lagoon
which is bordered by heavy industrial. These concentrations were
found to exceed in several folds the recommended limit/guideline
(10ng/l) for freshwater aquatic life in
and 0.01ppm by Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA)
now Federal Ministry of Environment in Nigeria.
2011;3(3):38-45]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
organochlorine pesticides, fin-fish, shell-fish, Lagos lagoon
between Viable Bacterial Counts and Physicochemical Properties
of Cocoa Powders and Powdered Cocoa Beverages purchased in
I. Olasehinde2, Pauline McLoone2, Afolabi
of Chemistry, 2Department of Biological Sciences,
College of Science and Technology,
Canaanland, P.M.B 1023, Ota, Nigeria. 3Department of
Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health
Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, P.O. Box 657, Sagamu,
Ogun State, Nigeria.
powders (CPs) and powdered cocoa beverages (PCBs) are largely
consumed as health and vitality drinks in Nigeria. In view of
the recent reports that these food products supported bacterial
growth, this study determined whether there could be definite
relationship between viable bacterial counts and physicochemical
properties of five brands of CPs and PCBs purchased from
supermarkets in Ibadan and Lagos in South West,
Nigeria. The pH and titratable acidity of the products were measured by using pH meter and
colorimetric acidity titration respectively. The moisture
contents were determined by drying method at 105șC in oven and
ash by mineralization at 550șC using furnace. No definite type
of relationship was established between viable bacterial counts
and pH, titratable acidity (lactic acid, acetic acid), moisture
and ash contents vis-à-vis powdery and granular natures of the
cocoa food products. Only the two PCBs tightly packed in the
polythene sachets had acceptable mean viable bacterial counts,
which did not exceed 5.0 x 103 cfu/ml specified for
cocoa powders in food industries. Also, only two of the five
brands had acceptable moisture contents, which did not exceed
the national specification of 3.10% for cocoa powders. Furthermore, the ash contents of all the brands exceeded the
acceptable national specification of 2.60%. Significant
variations (P<0.05) were obtained in the mean pH, titratable
acidity, viable bacterial counts, moisture and ash contents
within and between products containing only cocoa powders and
those containing additives. In conclusion, the results from
this study showed that the physicochemical properties of cocoa
powders and powdered cocoa beverages could not be used to
predict the viable bacterial counts of these food products.
[Joseph A. O.Olugbuyiro, Grace
I. Olasehinde, Pauline McLoone, Afolabi Oluwadun.
Relationship between Viable Bacterial Counts and Physicochemical
Cocoa Powders and Powdered Cocoa Beverages purchased in Nigerian
Researcher. 2011;3(3):46-52]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Technological and biological effects of sodium meta-bisulfite
and ascorbic acid on solar dried sheeted tomato
Gamil F. Bareh1, A. A. Shouk1 and Salwa M
Food Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki,
Cell Biology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo,
Sodium meta-bisulphite (SMBS) and
ascorbic acid (AA) were added during the processing of solar
dried sheeted tomato. SMBS and AA were added to concentrated
juice before drying in concentrations 0.67, 0.167and 0.335 g/L
for SMBS while it was 0.110, 0.220 and 0.330g/L for AA. Colour
attributes, sensory evaluation and biological evaluation were
studied. The obtained results showed that both SMBS and AA
improved the final product quality regarding colour and general
appearance. The biological studies revealed that SMBS induced
chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow and spermatocytes cells
especially the concentrations of 0.335g/L. Also, ascorbic acid
(0.330 g/L) induced chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow and
spermatocytes more than control sample. The effect of SMBS was
higher than that of ascorbic acid. Finally, it could be
concluded that SMBS had adverse and undesirable effect
regardless of its technological advantages.
F. Bareh, A. A. Shouk1 and Salwa M Kassem.
Technological and biological effects of sodium meta-bisulfite
and ascorbic acid on solar dried sheeted tomato.
Researcher. 2011;3(3):53-60]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
tomato, sheets bone marrow, aberrations, sodium meta-bisulphite,
Evaluation of Some Manure Types for the Growth and Yield of
Okunlola, A. I.1, Adejoro, S. A.1* and
of Crop, Soil and
Management, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704 Akure,
ABSTRACT: Extensive use of inorganic fertilizes has been discovered to
have depressing yield effects on watermelon. This study was
carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal
University of Technology, Akure (7016’E, 5012’E)
located in the rain forest vegetation zone of Nigeria to
evaluate the performance of watermelon grown under sub-optimal
rates of application of three different types of manure. The
treatment imposed were poultry manure at the rates of 4 t/ha, 6
t/ha, 8 t/ha and 10 t/ha; organic manure at the rates of 4 t/ha,
6 t/ha, 8 t/ha and 10 t/ha; organomineral fertilizer at the
rates of 2.5 t/ha, 3.0 t/ha, 3.5 t/ha and 4.0 t/ha; and a
control plot where no fertilizer was applied. Crops
establishment was in October 2008 to ‘catch’ remaining moisture
before the exit of rains on the heavy soils of southwestern
Nigeria. This was a deviation from the conventional growing of
the crop in Nigeria, as its cultivation has been confined to the
drier savanna region of the country where, it is believed that
the crop will do best in terms of growth and yield. Excellent
yields were obtained with all the manures at the varying rates
with even the control plots, which recorded the lowest yield
having as high as 22.7 t ha-1. This is an indication
that the crop will do well in this region even with no
fertilizer application. All the manure types used increased the
growth and yield of watermelon with increasing application
rates. This also proposes that higher yields could be expected
from the soils of southwestern Nigeria if the rates of
application of these manures are increased.
[Okunlola, A. I., Adejoro, S. A. and Fakanlu, G. Evaluation of
Different Manures on the Growth and Yield of Watermelon in
Southwest Nigeria. Researcher. 2011;3(3):61-66]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
watermelon; poultry manure; mineral fertilizer; organomineral
E-Governance for Good Governance in Uttarakhand: A case study
Rajeev Kumar1 and Dr. M.K.Sharma2
Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science, Teerthanker
Mahaveer University Moradabad
Professor & Head MCA Program, Department of Computer Science,
Amrapali Institute -Haldwani (Uttarakhand); E-mail ID:
In this paper study to all benefits and loses like advantages
and disadvantages of e-Governance to define and illustrate the
scope, applications and advantages of e-Governance. E-Governance
is electronic governance which has provided the information of
It aims to deliver more interactive
services to citizens and businesses through E-Governance.
It changes naturally should reflect the way government functions
in terms of the organization of the government, its relationship
with its citizens, institutions and businesses and
cooperation with other governments.
[Rajeev Kumar and Dr. M.K. Sharma. E-Governance for Good
Governance in Uttarakhand: A case study.
2011;3(3):67-69]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Keywords: e-Governance, Applications.
[Researcher. 2011;3(3):70-75]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Trends And Mechanisms Of Land
Subsidence Of A Coastal Plain In The Delta Of Yangtze
Waheed Oyelola Balogun1, M.A. Anifowose 2,
M.A. Shogo 3, F.A Salaudeen 2
1. School of Environmental Studies,
China University of Geoscience (CUG), Wuhan, China, 430074
2. Civil Engineering Department, The
Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 420, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria.
Surveying Department, The Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 420, Offa,
Kwara State, Nigeria.
The deltas of Yangtze River have been characterized with incessant occurrence
of land subsidence due to over-exploitation of groundwater
resources. Being the major source of water supply for
industrial, agricultural and municipal development; groundwater have been ceaselessly over drafted in an area which is
highly susceptible to land subsidence. Thus, this menace has
wreck serious environ-geological and economical hazards in the
Yangtze River. 24 years data have been obtained and analyzed,
using excel multivariable analysis functions to establish the trends and causes of land deformation in this area. Our results have shown that groundwater abstractions
have direct correlations with land deformation except when
adequate precaution and control measures were employed to
ameliorate this environ-geologic hazard. However, The trends of land deformation kept increasing; showing that other causes such as construction loads due to rapid economic growth and urbanization is another vital reason for the
occurrence of land subsidence in this area.
Oyelola Balogun, M.A. Anifowose, M.A. Shogo, F.A Salaudeen.
Trends And Mechanisms Of Land Subsidence Of A Coastal Plain In
The Delta Of Yangtze River-China.
Researcher. 2011;3(3):76-81]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Groundwater; Over-exploitation; Land deformation; Trends
studies on diseased freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii
infected with vibriosis
Research Institute,Dokki, Giza, Egypt
During the last
decade many improvements have taken place in aquaculture,
especially in prawn and shrimp farming. The shift from extensive
to intensive and semi-intensive farming has brought about an
increase in disease outbreaks, especially by bacteria. To
control these diseases, antibiotics have been used
indiscriminately. To avoid the use of antibiotics and the
development of resistant strains of bacteria, we studied the
efficacy of levamisol Hcl, as an antibacterial and
immunostimulant in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man). Efficacy
was evaluated in vitro by minimum lethal concentration levamisol
Hcl and found to be 1.0 ppm for P. fluorescens and 1.5 ppm for
E. tarda, V. alginolyticus, S. aureus and A. salmonicida. The 24
hr LD50 of levamisole Hcl for two month old M. rosenbergii was
10.0 ppm. Its immunostimulant effect was evaluated by
challenging levamisole Hcl treated M rosenbergii (1.5 ppm
levamisole Hcl bath for 15 days) with P. fluorescens and V.
alginolyticus. The NBT (nitroblue tetrazolium) assay showed that
levamisole Hcl treatment stimulated nonspecific immune response
by the activation of granular cells. It also protected M.
rosenbergii from disease when compared to untreated controls. A
single treatment of levamisole Hcl was effective for P. 46 hours
for V. alginolyticus. Bath treatment at 2.0 ppm for one hour
showed successful control of bacterial infection in M.
rosenbergii previously infected with the bacteria. The results
showed that levamisol Hcl could be used as an effective
antibacterial and immunostimulant in M. rosenbergii.
Bacteriological studies on diseased freshwater prawn
Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with vibriosis. Researcher.
2011;3(3):82-85]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Macrobrachium rosenbergii- V. alginolyticus- levamisole Hcl-
immune response- immunostimulant.
Case Management Of Adverse Drug
Reaction In Patients: Resident Doctors In
Nigeria As Case Study.
O.I, 2Agbaje E.O.
of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Ambrose
Alli University, Ekpoma and 2Department of
Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos.
This cross sectional survey was designed to assess the quality
and pattern of case management of observed adverse drug reaction
by resident doctors in Nigeria. To this end, 350 structured
questionnaires were distributed to resident doctors between June
and September 2007, in 4 tertiary health centers in Nigeria
involved in residency training programme (Lagos University
Teaching Hospital, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital,
University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Irrua Specialist
Teaching Hospital respectively). Result revealed that 47% of
observed adverse drug reactions were managed by immediate
withdrawal of the implicated drug while 12.6% were managed using
alternative drugs. 231 (70.0%) of the observed cases recovered
fully after the withdrawal of the implicated drugs,
administration of intravenous fluids (0.9% normal saline) and
intravenous corticosteroid (hydrocortisone). 40 (12.1%) of the
observed cases had a fatal outcome despite appropriate
interventions. Conclusively, appropriate and timely case
management of observed adverse drug reaction in patients
improves the clinical outcome of adverse drug reactions.
[Iribhogbe O.I, Agbaje E.O. Case Management Of Adverse Drug
Reaction In Patients: Resident Doctors In
Nigeria As Case Study.
Researcher. 2011;3(3):86-90]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Adverse Drug Reaction, Case Management, Clinical Outcome,
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