Science Journal

 

Researcher
 
Volume 3 - Issue 4 (Cumulated No. 22), April 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-9865
 
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Research 0304
 
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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

page

No.

1

Comparative Fuel Characterisation of Briquettes produced from Two Species of Corncob

 

Oladeji, J. T.

 Mechanical Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

oladeji2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Corncobs residue are usually dumped and flared on the farms, where they constitute health risk to both human and ecology. Densification of corncobs would improve their bulk handling, transportation and storage properties. This work investigated densification characteristics of corncobs using an experimental briquetting machine. Corncobs from white and yellow maize were milled into particles by a hammer mill. The blends of ground corncob and cassava starch gel were compacted in a briquetting machine with a dwell time of 120 seconds. The ASAE standard methods were used to determine the moisture contents (dry basis) and densities of the milled residues and briquettes, while ASTM standard methods were used to determine the proximate and ultimate analyses of the residues. The compaction, density and relaxation ratios of the briquettes were also determined. The mechanical properties were determined using universal testing machine, while the heating value was determined with the aid of Ballistic Bomb calorimeter. The mean moisture contents of the corncob from white and yellow maize were 9.64 % and 9.98 % respectively, while those of relaxed briquettes were 7.46 % and 8.18 % respectively. The corresponding values of bulk densities of the residue materials were 95.33 and 98.00 kg/m3. The initial, maximum and relaxed densities ranged from 151-235 kg/m3; 533-981 kg/m3 and 307-417 kg/m3 respectively for briquettes produced from corncob from white maize, while the corresponding values for briquettes produced from corncob from yellow maize were 145-225 kg/m3; 502-871 kg/m3 and 314-464 kg/m3 respectively. The compaction ratio ranged from 2.27 to 6.50 giving an average value of 3.39 and 2.23 to 6.01giving an average value of 3.76 for briquettes produced from corncobs from white and yellow maize respectively. The compressive strength of briquette produced from corncob from white maize was 2.30kN/m2, while that of yellow maize was 2.34kN/m2. The lower and higher heating values of briquettes from corncob from white maize were found to be 16,945 J/kg and 19,356 kJ/kg respectively, while the corresponding values for yellow maize were 17,438 kJ/kg and 20,890 kJ/kg respectively.

[Oladeji, J. T. Comparative Fuel Characterisation of Briquettes produced from Two Species of Corncob. Researcher. 2011;3(4):1-4]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.01

Key words: - Corncob, briquette, agricultural wastes, processing parameters, briquetting machine

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2

Taxonomic and Economic Classification of Riparian Floral Diversity along River Ganga in Garhwal Himalayan Region of India

 

Gangwar RS1., Gangwar KK2.

1. Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Life Sciences, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar- 249 404, India

2. Punjab State Council for Science & Technology, Chandigarh-160 019, India

 radheyshyam82@rediffmail.com, kamalgangwar.phd@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Ganga is the most widely worshipped of all the renowned rivers due to great antiquity and religious sanctity for millions of Hindus in India. The Indian civilization and culture nurtured along with Ganga. This study elucidates economic classification of riparian floral diversity along Ganga River. A total of 276 riparian plant species belonging to 82 families and 225 genera have been documented and identified, of which 56.16% species were found for medicinal values, which are being used to cure various ailments in human beings while rest species for timber, fuel wood, fodder, ecological/ environmental specific and miscellaneous values. In terms of taxonomic diversity, Poaceae was the dominant family among all the study sites.

[Gangwar RS, Gangwar KK. Taxonomic and Economic Classification of Riparian floral Diversity along River Ganga in Garhwal Himalayan Region of India. Researcher. 2011;3(4):5-14]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.02

Keywords: riparian floral diversity; medicinal value; taxonomic classification; economic classification; Ganga River

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3

EFFECT OF SOME PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS ON ABUNDANCE OF INTERMEDIATE SNAILS OF ANIMAL TREMATODES IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA

 

NJOKU- TONY, R. F

 Department of Environmental Technology, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, P.M.B 1

Corresponding author: Njoku - Tony , R.F, Email tonyrosefeech@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Physico-chemical parameters of water bodies could act to reduce or otherwise increase the prevalence, abundance and distribution of snail intermediate host. This current study investigated the effects of some Physico-chemical parameters on abundance of intermediate snails of animal trematodes in Imo State, Nigeria. The study was carried out between April 2005 and April 2006. Mapping of snail intermediate hosts in the three geographical zones of Imo-State was determined by surveys of selected community water contact sites such as swamps, pond fast and slow flowing water bodies. With the assistance of an attendant, two scoop nets were used to harvest snail species from water bodies. Snail species collected namely,Pila ovata, Lymnea natalensis and Anisus stagnicola were taken to the Laboratory for analysis. Temperature was determined right there at the site, water samples were collected from the same site where snail species were collected , taken to the laboratory and analyzed for dissolved oxygen, conductivity and p.H. Pond produced the highest density of 1,380 (58.2%) snail species. While fast flowing water produced no snail species. Over all numbers of snail species were 1,559 (14.0%), 330 (12.1 %) and 441 (7.9%) for L. natatesis, A. Stagnicola and P. ovata respectively. snail abundance varied significantly from one site to the other. Physico-chemical parameters vary significantly as months ran from April to December. Snail population expansion was recorded in the dry season and contraction during the rainy season. This study therefore calls for adequate Molluscan control programme and Environmental sanitation awareness in the study area.

[Njoku-Tony, R.F. Effects of some physico- chemical parameters on the abundance of intermediate snails in some parts of Imo State, Nigeria. Researcher. 2011;3(4):15-21]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.03

Keywords: Physico-chemical, parameters, Intermediate snail, Abundance, Animal trematode, Imo State, Nigeria

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4

Rural women empowerment and its effect on improving other employment 

 

Mohammad Abedi1 and Sharareh Khodamoradi2

 

1Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding author: skhodamoradi2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One of the raised strategy, in order to accelerate investment process and reinforcing financial foundations, and saving, at deprived and rural areas, has been empowering and eradicating poverty of rural societies through efficiency with emphasize on applying micro-credits. Micro-loans as useful tool to fight against poverty and starvation, has proven its capabilities and values to develop these areas. These tools have ability to change and improve human’s life, especially poor peoples. Supplying credits and analyzing credits approaches cause opportunity to activate poor men’s working power, establishing field for sustainable production and income, prevent usurers and pre shoppers of agriculture productions to plunder poor rural men and finally empowering poor people especially women who can work but were deprived to have capital and work tools, and extension accordance to their activities such as needs assessment, identifying target group, organizing poor people, giving needed specialized and public training and have important role on effectiveness and make effective activities of these credits.

[Mohammad Abedi and Sharareh Khodamoradi. Rural women empowerment and its effect on improving other employment. Researcher. 2011;3(4):22-27]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.04

Keywords: Employment, rural women, empowerment

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5

Management of Stress in Fish for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

 

, Ugwemorubong Ujagwung Gabriel, Ojo Andrew Akinrotimi

 

1 Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Environment, Rivers State Univ. of Sc. and Tech, PMB 5080 Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2. African Regional Aquaculture Centre/Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, P.M.B. 5122. Port Harcourt Nigeria.

ojoakinrotimi@yahoo.com, ugwemg@yahoo.com

 

Abstract :The estimated contribution of aquaculture to global supplies of fish has risen tremendously over the years. This is due to the fact that aquacultural practice, all over the world is becoming more and more intensive; utilizing available resources thereby enhancing maximum productivity. An inevitable part of intensive aquaculture is manipulation of fish, which include handling, stocking, sorting, confinement, transportation and other farm operations right from hatchery to the final commercial stage. However, these procedures produce disturbances which elicit stress responses, leading to decreased performance, altered peripheral leucocytes distribution such as heterophillia and lymphocytopenia, as well as increased susceptibility of fish to diseases, and in extreme cases leads, to mortality. A sound and working knowledge of the importance of stress in aquaculture management and its consequence in causing decline in yield, which will ultimately lead to loss in profit. This aspect of fishery management must be adequately looks into. Hence, this paper review critically the causes, mechanisms of stress, consequences and various ways of effectively alleviating it in aquacultural practice, so as to enhance the sustainability of aquaculture as a major source of fish supply for the growing population in the world.

[Ugwemorubong Ujagwung Gabriel, Ojo Andrew Akinrotimi. Management of Stress in Fish for Sustainable Aquaculture Development. Researcher. 2011;3(4):28-38]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.05

 

Key words: stress, fish, management, aquaculture, sustainable yield

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A Retrospective Study On Bovine And Human Tuberculosis Cases In Maiduguri, Borno State.

 

Ayi Vandi Kwaghe1*, James Agbo Ameh2, Abdul-Ganiyu Ambali 1, Joy Thliza Gararawa 3, Goni Bukar4 and Usman Jauro 5

1. Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P. M. B. 1069, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

2. Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P. M. B. 1069, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

3. National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

4.Senator Ali Modu Sherrif State Veterinary Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

5. State Specialist Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Hyelni_vandi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Data on bovine and human tuberculosis in Maiduguri for five years (2005-2009) were collated and analyzed. The results did show that more cases of bovine tuberculosis occurred in 2005 (P<0.001) compared with 2007, 2008 and 2009. There was no significant difference in the number of cases (P>0.05) between 2005 and 2006. The number of cases of bovine tuberculosis was significantly different (P<0.001) between 2008 and 2009. For human tuberculosis, the number of cases for the five years (2005-2009) did not differ significantly (P>0.05). On the bases of sex for humans, there was significant number of cases in males compared to females and the difference was significant (P<0.05). Data on age of persons showed significant difference (P<0.05) between the age brackets 15-30 and 31-45 years. Our data revealed that pulmonary tuberculosis occurred significantly higher (P<0.001) when compared with cases of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. In conclusion, our data has shown that both human and bovine tuberculosis still pose a threat to the health management in Maiduguri. We therefore recommend that appropriate preventive and control measures be instituted as an intervention programme.

[Ayi Vandi Kwaghe, James Agbo Ameh, Abdul-Ganiyu Ambali, Joy Thliza Gararawa, Goni Bukar and Usman Jauro. A Retrospective Study On Bovine And Human Tuberculosis Cases In Maiduguri, Borno State. Researcher. 2011;3(4):39-43]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.06

 

Key words: retrospective, bovine and human tuberculosis, Maiduguri

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7

Evaluation of the potential antimutagenic effect of Trigonella foenum graeum (fenugreek) in Drosophila melanogoster

 

Ekram, S. Ahmed1. Nada, H. Al-Twaty2., Salwa, M. Kassem1., Areej, A.Bahamdein2

 

1- Department of Cell Biology, National Research Centre. Egypt.

2- Department of Biology, King Abdulaziz University Saudia Arabia.

Corresponding author: ekrams@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the mutagenic potentiality of the two drugs. anti-epileptic(tegretol) and anti-inflammatory(sapofen) singly or combined with fenugreek extract in Drosophila melanogaster using two test systems , the sex linked recessive lethal (SLRL) and estimating the activity of cholinesterase enzyme (ChE) in -F1 and F2 bar eye females and F2 wild type males. A wild type Strain Oregon-R (or-R) male flies of D.melanogaster were reared on a medium containing one concentration of each of the two drugs, singly and combined with fenugreek extract and screened for sex linked recessive lethal and the activity of ChE was estimated. The results of sex linked recessive lethal test showed that the Single treatment of fenugreek, did not appear any significant effect in the different stages .Meanwhile, the single treatment of tegretol and sapofen gave significant effect in alt broods. Also, the combined treatment by fenugreek and tegretol gave significant genotoxic effect in the first stage (spermatozoa) and the combined treatment by fenugreek and sapofen did not appear any significant effect in the four stages of the D. melanogaster (SLRL). The Estimation of the cholinesterase activity showed that, the individual treatment by fenugreek gave a significant increased in the F1 females and F2 bar eye females but it gave a significant decreased in the F2 wild type males and the individual treatment by tegretol gave a significant decreased in all stages. On the other hand, the individual treatment by sapofen gave a significant increased in all stages except the first stage in the F1 females and the second stage in the F2 wild type males at which the effect is non significant. The combined treatment by fenugreek with tegretol gave a significant increased in the F1 females and a significant decreased in the F2 bar eye females and F2 wild type males, but the combined treatment by fenugreek with sapofen gave a significant increased in the F1 females and the F2 bar eye females but it gave a significant decreased in and F2 wild type males. In conclusion, the results of the study suggested that fenugreek showed some antimutagenic activity against the two drugs in Drosophila melanogaster. This could be attributed to the active principles. Also, these results suggest that fenugreek aught to be accepted as a useful anti-obesity food. More experiments, are required.

[Ekram, S. Ahmed. Nada, H. Al-Twaty, Salwa, M. Kassem., Areej, A.Bahamdein. Evaluation of the potential antimutagenic effect of Trigonella foenum graeum (fenugreek) in Drosophila melanogoster. Researcher. 2011;3(4):44-50]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.07

 

Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster , fenugreek, tegretol, sapofen,antimutagenic.

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8

Ecology and Medicinal Uses of Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook. “An endangered flora of India” reported at Foothills of Kumaun Himalaya (Kashipur), Uttarakhand

 

Bhasker Joshi

 

Department of Botany, R. H. Govt. P. G. College Kashipur, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand-244713

E-mail- bhaskerjoshiphd@in.com, bhaskerjoshiphd@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Helminthostachys zeylanica Linn commonly called “kamraj”. This is a pteridophyte and have high medicinal value and used in various parts of the world. The whole plant parts like roots and leaves use as medicine. It is an endangered flora of India therefore; less information is available about to this plant. The present article provides various information like distribution, description, cultivation, uses and conservation of this species.

[Bhasker Joshi. Ecology and Medicinal Uses of Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook. “An endangered flora of India” reported at Foothills of Kumaun Himalaya (Kashipur), Uttarakhand. Researcher. 2011;3(4):51-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.08

 

Key Words: Ethnomedicinal uses, Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook., Kumaun Himalaya and Traditional medicine.

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Chronic malachite green toxicity in Nile tilapia: Pathological and hematological studies with special reference to quantitative histopathological assessment

 

M. S. El-Neweshy1*and M. A. Abou Srag

 

1 Department of Pathology and parasitology. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Alexandria University. Egypt

* m_neweshy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Although it is not approved in many countries, malachite green is considered one of the most effective treatments for some fish diseases. This study aimed to investigate the pathological and hematological effects of chronic malachite green (MG) toxicity in Nile tilapia and determination of the corresponding residue in fish muscle which correlated to public health. Sixty fish used to determine 96hrs LC50 of MG, the obtained result was 0.76 mg/L. Forty fish were used to induce chronic toxicity, twenty fish were exposed to 0.076 mg/L for 6 weeks and other fish as control. Gills, hepatopancreas, posterior kidney and spleen were the most affected organs during chronic MG exposure. Proliferative interlamellar hyperplasia with fusion in gills, hydropic degeneration of the hepatic cells, renal tubular and hemopoietic tissue necrosis and splenic lymphocytic necrosis and depletion were recorded as histopathological changes. Modified quantitative microscopic assessment was used in this study to monitor tissue damage. Long term MG exposure induced deleterious effect on blood parameters including anemia and leukopenia.

[M. S. El-Neweshy and M. A. Abou Srag. Chronic malachite green toxicity in Nile tilapia: Pathological and hematological studies with special reference to quantitative histopathological assessment. Researcher. 2011;3(4):55-64]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.09

 

Keywords: Malachite green, Nile tilapia, quantitative, pathological, residue, hematological

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Rural women as an effective force in rural development

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Access opportunities to different sources and needed inputs at agriculture activities for them should be prepared. thus , women at village have activity by help farming and other rural affairs such as ranching , nurturing poultry , gardening and … and recently by participating at related programs to rural development including organizing cooperative associations related to women , establishing handicraft factory at village and even marketplace for it , organizing occupation plan for inhibited girls and women , related activities to filling rural women’s leisure , participating at rural affaires which previously managed by men and etc . Now, women alongside men attend at all rural affaires and even at some case it has be seen that programming related to provide different services, were done by women at villages. All we can say that women in current villages enjoy better freedom and they do rural affairs by managing not as their duties and obligation like in the past. Now, women are not seen as passive receiver of help to improve their welfare, but as active social propagators who can change women and men’s life condition (Farghdan, 2001).

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Rural women as an effective force in rural development. Researcher. 2011;3(4):65-69]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.10

 

Keywords: rural women, rural development

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Effects Of Replacing Maize With Sun-Dried Yam Peel Meal On Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Economics Of Production Of Meat Type Rabbit

 

 Matthew Ajani AYOOLA (PhD) and Akin Stephen AKINBANI (PhD).

 Department of Agricultural Science, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Nigeria.

mayoola1@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Twenty rabbits of mixed sexes with an average initial weight of 0.39kg were used to determine the effects of replacing maize with sun-dried yam peel meal on growth performance, carcass characteristics and economics of production of meat type rabbits. The rabbits were randomly allotted to five diets formulated with sun-dried yam peel replacing maize at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% level. The results shows that rabbits fed with 100% maize replaced with yam peel had significantly higher (P< 0.05) feed intake. Weight gain was observed to increase with increased yam peel inclusion. Growth rate was significantly higher (P<0.05) in rabbits fed as much as 50% percent replacement levels compared with the control. Replacing maize with yam peel showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in the weight of rabbit’s primal parts except the shoulder weight, which was significantly higher in 100% maize replacement diet. The cost of producing a unit weight of rabbits was greatly reduced by replacing maize with yam peel meal. Yam peel may therefore be used instead of maize in rabbit’s diets to reduce cost of feeding and the heavy dependence on maize in animal feeding.

[Matthew Ajani AYOOLA and Akin Stephen AKINBANI. Effects Of Replacing Maize With Sun-Dried Yam Peel Meal On Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Economics Of Production Of Meat Type Rabbit. Researcher. 2011;3(4):70-73]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.11

 

Key words: Yam peel, growth performance, carcass characteristics

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 Online Education: definitions and advantages in adult education

 

1 Mehran Bozorgmanesh, 2 Mojtaba Sadighi and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance education delivers classes (live or pre-taped) to students in their home, office, or classroom. It is used by K-12, higher education, continuing education and business. Historically, its predominant medium of instruction has been printed materials, although non-print media is becoming more and more popular. It may also incorporate or make use of videotapes, CD or DVD ROM’s, audio recordings, facsimiles, telephone communications, and the Internet through e-mail and Web-based delivery systems. As the cost of delivering quality education increases, institutions find that limited resources prevent them from building facilities, hiring faculty, or expanding curricula. They are using distance education to maximize resources and are combining their assets with others to produce programming. Distance education is offered internationally, nationally, regionally, and locally over all forms of conferencing technology. Distance learning is expanding and examples of it are increasing dramatically. Fewer than 10 states were using distance learning in 1987; today, virtually all states have an interest or effort in distance education. Distance learning systems connect the teacher with the students when physical face-to-face interaction is not possible. Telecommunications systems carry instruction, moving information instead of people.

[Mehran Bozorgmanesh, Mojtaba Sadighi and Mehdi Nazarpour ].Online Education: definitions and advantages in adult education. Researcher. 2011;3(4):74-78]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.12

 

Keywords: Online Education, distance education, adult education

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The importance of using of E-learning in agricultural education

 

1 Mehran Bozorgmanesh, 2 Mojtaba Sadighi and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance education is a method of education in which the learner is physically separated from the teacher and the institution sponsoring the instruction. As the cost of delivering quality education increases, institutions find that limited resources prevent them from building facilities, hiring faculty, or expanding curricula. They are using distance education to maximize resources and are combining their assets with others to produce programming. Distance education is offered internationally, nationally, regionally, and locally over all forms of conferencing technology. It may be used on its own, or in conjunction with other forms of education, including face-to-face instruction. In any distance education process there must be a teacher, one or more students, and a course or curriculum that the teacher is capable of teaching and the student is trying to learn.

[Mehran Bozorgmanesh, Mojtaba Sadighi and Mehdi Nazarpour.The importance of using of E-learning in agricultural education. Researcher. 2011;3(4):79-83]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.13

 

Keywords: E-learning, distance education

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Using information and communication technologies (ICT) in distance learning

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

Abstract: Challenges which faced the early users of distance education are still with us today. Distance education is a method of education in which the learner is physically separated from the teacher and the institution sponsoring the instruction. It may be used on its own, or in conjunction with other forms of education, including face-to-face instruction. If distance education is to play a greater role in improving the quality of education, it will require expanded technology; more linkages between schools, higher education, and the private sector; and more teachers who use technology well. Teachers must be involved in planning the systems, trained to use the tools they provide, and given the flexibility to revise their teaching. Federal and state regulations will need revision to ensure a more flexible and effective use of technology. Connections have been established across geographic, instructional, and institutional boundaries which provide opportunities for collaboration and resource sharing among many groups In the pooling of students and teachers, distance learning reconfigures the classroom which no longer is bounded by the physical space of the school, district, state or nation.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Using information and communication technologies (ICT) in distance learning. Researcher. 2011;3(4):84-88]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.14

 

Keywords: ICT, distance education

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Decentralization in agricultural extension in developing countries

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agricultural extension increasingly has become defined as one or other of (apparently) differentiated activities of technology transfer or rural development. In many situations, the transfer of technology, heretofore considered the purview of public sector systems, has been reconceived. Such changes suggest a refocussing of paradigms for the delivery of public sector extension. In developed industrialized countries, which often provide models for extension service delivery elsewhere, the declining relative importance of agriculture for economic growth, the increasing education and affluence of smaller populations of rural producers, and the increasing use of externally purchased inputs have changed the nature of publicly funded extension services and led to a questioning of the means of delivery of extension services by governments Agricultural extension is a non-formal type of education that provides advisory services by the use of educational approach in acquiring knowledge and skills to deal with the growing needs of global world. Diverse agricultural extension funding and delivery arrangements have been undertaken since the mid-1980s by governments worldwide in the name of "privatization." When agricultural extension is discussed, privatization is used in the broadest sense – of introducing or increasing private sector participation, which does not necessarily imply a transfer of designated state-owned assets to the private sector.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Decentralization in agricultural extension in developing countries. Researcher. 2011;3(4):89-93]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.15

 

Keywords: Decentralization, Agricultural extension

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Risk of low birth weight in relation to advanced maternal age at an Egyptian tertiary center

 

El-Sokkary M.

 

* Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology – Ain Shams University

dr.m.elsokkary@live.com

 

Abstract: Background and objective: Low birth weight is defined as the live births with less than 2.5 kg weight. Birth weight is the key factor of infant survival and development. Low birth weight infants are at an increased risk of having a disability and for diseases as cerebral palsy, visual, learning and respiratory problems. To reduce the low birth weight deliveries, the effect of advanced maternal age on birth weight and its impact on fetus was studied. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective cross sectional study that was done at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. The study included 50.000 women who were admitted to Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital for delivery, over a 7-year period, between January 2003 and December 2009. Data was collected from patient records available at "Patient Records Department" at Ain-Shams University Maternity Hospital. Missing data was collected through phone calls or direct contact with the patients or their relatives. Results: A total of 50.000 deliveries were studied. Prevalence of LBW in those below and above 35 years was 7.2% and 10.1% respectively. There was a highly significant association between advanced age of mother with LBW was noted. Conclusion & recommendations: advanced maternal age contribute substantially to LBW. There is a need of ensuring proper antenatal care and also highlighting the need both for basic supportive care facilities and improved disease prevention strategies.

[El-Sokkary M. Risk of low birth weight in relation to advanced maternal age at an Egyptian tertiary center. Researcher. 2011;3(4):94-98]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.16

 

Key words: Low birth weight – advanced maternal age.

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The Internationalization of Thailand’s Automotive Industry: A Political Economic Analysis of The Late Developing State

 

1Tai, Wan-Ping; 2Hung, Po-Chih; 3*Lin, Chun – Tsai

 

1Department of International Business, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

2Institute of China and Asia-Pacific Studies, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

3General Education Center, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

*capital789@yahoo.com.tw

 

Abstract: With the rise of globalization, most countries depend heavily on increasing their competitiveness and building competitive advantages to sustain their economic development. In this context, one question is whether the late development states still follow the same patterns used in East Asia to build their industrial competitiveness. Moreover, how can the late development states create better investment environments to attract international capital and facilitate industrial development in today's free trade global market? The automotive industry is ranked as the fifth largest export industry in Thailand. In addition, as a car exporter, Thailand ranks the first among ASEAN countries and the third in Asia overall, and has the biggest automobile assembly base in the region. Thailand is thus the regional center of the East Asian automotive industry, and has earned a reputation as the “Asian Detroit.” Consequently, it acts as an important example of industrial development for olate developing states. The purpose of this research is to discuss industrial growth in late developing states by looking at a single industry in a single country, namely the automobile industry in Thailand. The results show that unlike other East-Asian countries mode, Thailand lacks a powerful state and stable political economic situation, and thus cannot control its domestic industrial development. The internationalization of the automotive industry in Thailand has been a dynamic process. It began in the 1960s with the “dependence mode” in which foreign investments took the lead. In the early 2000s, “neoliberalism” became dominant, the country's industrial policy remained free and open, and the cooperation with multinational industries continued. During this stage, Thailand tried to integrate itself into the global industry by employing internationalization of production and marketing. Although Thailand has not been able to build up its own automotive brands in this process or change the original structure of the world’s production system, it has still achieved a later-entrants advantage and the goal of industrial advancement by positioning itself appropriately in the international political and economic structure, and by taking advantage of the prevailing market mechanisms.

[Tai, Wan-Ping Lin, Chun-Tsai. The Internationalization of Thailand’s Automotive Industry: A Political economic analysis of the Late Developing State. Researcher. 2011;3(4):99-116]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030411.17

 

Keywords: Thai’s Automotive Industry, the Post Developmental States, Internationalization, Dependent Development, and Liberalism.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from March 13, 2011. 
 
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