Science Journal

 

Researcher
 
Volume 3 - Issue 5 (Cumulated No. 23), May 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-9865
 
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Research 0305
 
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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

page

No.

1

Effect of Types of Manure on Growth and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz)

 

Odedina1, Joy Nwakaego; Odedina2, Samson Adeola and Ojeniyi3, Stephen Olusola

 

1University of Agriculture, Department of Plant Physiology and Crop Production, Abeokuta. Email: jodedina@yahoo.co.uk

2.Federal College of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, Akure. Email adeolaodedina@yahoo.co.uk

3.Federal University of Technology, Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Akure.

 

Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted in Akure, South Western Nigeria to compare the effect of types of livestock manure on growth, yield and plant nutrient contents of cassava. Four types of manure (Poultry, Goat, Pig and Cattle at 10 t/ha) a control treatment (0 t/ha) and 30:30:30 kg/ha NPK were compared in a randomized block design with three replications. The test soils were low in organic matter (OM), N, and available P. Analysis of manures showed that Poultry manure (PM) was highest in N, K, Ca and Na. Pig manure (PG) was highest in P, Cattle manure (CM) was highest in Mg, while Goat manure (GM) had least Na, Ca, Mg and P. Plants fertilized with different manure types and fertilizer showed similar growth pattern. The PG, GM, CM, PM and NPK increased tuber yield by 32, 22, 44, 24 and 40% respectively. Highest fresh root weight (t/ha) given by PM was 13.07 t/ha and 27.7 t/ha at 9 and 12 MAP respectively. Manures and NPK significantly increased leaf N, Zn and Fe; GM and NPK increased stem N; CM, PM and NPK increased leaf K; PG, CM, and NPK increased Ca in plant and PM increased leaf Mg. Livestock manure enhanced availability of nutrients for increased yield in cassava production.

[Odedina, Joy Nwakaego; Odedina, Samson Adeola and Ojeniyi, Stephen Olusola. Effect of Types of Manure on Growth and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz). Researcher. 2011;3(5):1-8]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.01

 

Key words: Cassava, manure, nutrient contents, yield, fertilizer

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Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity Of Passiflora edulis

 

Bolaji Oluwatosin Akanbi 1, Opeyemi Dorcas Bodunrin 1 and Segun Olayanju 1

 

1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, PMB 117, Abuja. Nigeria.

tosinakanbi2@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: This study examined the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of Passiflora edulis (Sims) (leaf, stem and fruits). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, flavonoids, resins and balsams, alkaloids, and phenolic compounds in all the plant parts investigated. Tannins were present in the leaf and fruit extracts but absent in the stem whereas saponins were present in the leaf and stem but not detected in the fruit sample. Terpenes were not detected in any part of the plant. The antimicrobial activities of the leaf, stem and fruit (hexane, water, ethyl- acetate and methanolic) extracts were screened against two gram positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and four gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, using the well- in- agar method. All the extracts (hexane, water, ethyl- acetate and methanolic extract) showed antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic bacteria tested. Amongst the extracts examined, hexane extracts exhibited the best antimicrobial activity against all the bacteria used in this study and the effect was significant (p< 0.05). Statistical analysis also showed that the antimicrobial activity was dependent on the type of solvent used for extraction as well as the part of the plant used (p < 0.05). This preliminary study indicated potential broad spectrum activity of the plant extracts and the presence of bioactive substances that can be of value in combating infections.

[Bolaji Oluwatosin Akanbi, Opeyemi Dorcas Bodunrin and Segun Olayanju. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity Of Passiflora edulis. Researcher. 2011;3(5):9-12]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.02

 

Key words: Antimicrobial, Passiflora edulis, Phytochemical analysis

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Bioaccumulation of Heavy metals and Nutrient content Supplementation by two White rot fungi in Crude oil polluted soils.

 

*Adenipekun C. O., Olanrewaju, O.O and Ogunjobi, A.A.

 

Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: Adenipekun, C.O.: oyinpek@yahoo.com +234-8055265186.

 

Abstract: Crude oil polluted soils of different concentrations (0%,1%,5%,10%,20%,30% and 40%) were inoculated and incubated with P.pulmonarius and P.ostreatus for 0,1 and 2 months to study and compare their effect in the bioremediation of crude oil and bioaccumulation of heavy metals from polluted soils. Nutrient content of the soil were determined on monthly basis. Also, the heavy metals accumulation by the fungi from the polluted soil was monitored. Results showed that both white rot fungi were able to biodegrade and ameliorate the soils by increasing the nutrient contents as the concentration of the crude oil in the soils increases with increase in incubation period. Highest increase in concentration of these nutrient contents were obtained at 40% crude oil contaminated soils after 2 months incubation period. Organic matter was the highest nutrient content recorded followed by organic carbon, potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus in decreasing order. P.pulmonarius had the highest nutrient content than P.ostreatus having 32.60% and 30.46% organic matter; 18.91% and 17.67% organic carbon, 1.96% and 1.85% nitrogen; 13.50mg/kg and 12.60mg/kg phosphorus and 1.91cmol/kg and 1.70cmol/kg potassium respectively. The pH values reduced for both white rot fungi after inoculation into crude oil contaminated soils. P.pulmonarius had the highest pH values of 6.50 and 6.40 at 0% crude oil polluted soil for 1 and 2 months and lowest pH values of 4.70 and 4.80 at 40% and 10% crude oil contaminated soils. While P.ostreatus had the highest value of 5.97 and 6.17 at 0% and lowest pH of 4.63 and 5.27 at 30% and 40% crude oil contaminated soils. Heavy metal accumulation increases as the concentration of crude oil increased and decreased as the incubation period increased from 1 to 2 months for both fungi. Iron (1.26mgkg-1 at 40% crude oil concentration) was the highest heavy metal accumulated by P.pulmonarius after one month while copper (2.28mgkg-1 at 40% crude oil concentration) was the highest heavy metal accumulated by P.ostreatus for the same period. Nickel was the least heavy metal accumulated. The result obtained showed the ability of P.pulmonarius and P.ostreatus to bioremediate a hydrocarbon and heavy metal polluted soil.

[Adenipekun C. O., Olanrewaju, O.O and Ogunjobi, A.A. Bioaccumulation of Heavy metals and Nutrient content Supplementation by two White rot fungi in Crude oil polluted soils. Researcher. 2011;3(5):13-20]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.03

 

Key words: Bioremediation, Bioaccumulation, Nutrient content, Heavy metals, Crude oil

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Nutritional evaluation of berseem

1- Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality response of berseem

 

Mohsen MK1, El-Santiel GS1, Gaafar HMA3, El-Gendy HM2, El-Beltagi EA3

 

1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt

2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Egypt

3- Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

hamedgaafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The experimental work was conducted during the two successive seasons to study the effect of the N fertilization rate of 0, 23.8 and 47.6 kg ha-1 during implantation on forage yield, composition, protein and energy yield, nitrogen recovery and output green forage per hectare. Results revealed that the yield of green and dry whole plant, leaves and stems of berseem forage during both the 1st and 2nd seasons increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing the level of N fertilization. The percentage of leaves increased significantly (P<0.05), but the percentage of stems decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing the level of N fertilization. The contents of CP, EE and ash increased, but DM, OM, CF and NFE contents decreased in whole plant, leaves and stems with increasing the level of N fertilizer. Protein and energy yield, nitrogen recovery and output of forage yield increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing the level of N fertilizer in both the 1st and 2nd seasons.

[Mohsen MK, El-Santiel GS, Gaafar HMA, El-Gendy HM, El-Beltagi EA. Nutritional evaluation of berseem. 1- Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality response of berseem Researcher. 2011;3(5):21-24]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.04

 

Key words: berseem, nitrogen fertilizer, yield, composition and output.

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Nutritional evaluation of berseem

2- Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on berseem fed as silage to goats

 

Mohsen MK1, El-Santiel GS1, Gaafar HMA3, El-Gendy HM2, El-Beltagi EA3

 

1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt

2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Egypt

3- Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

hamedgaafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Eighteen male goats were used to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 23.8 and 47.6 kg N ha-1) on intake, nutritive values, nitrogen balance and blood hematology of silages made from berseem of the 1st and 2nd cuts with sugar can bagasse (70:30 on DM basis). The contents of DM, OM, CF and NFE decreased, but CP, EE and ash contents of fresh berseem increased with increasing the rate of N fertilizer. The pH value decreased, however TVFA's and NH3-N concentrations increased with increasing the rate of N fertilizer for both the 1st and 2nd cuts of berseem silages. The contents of DM, OM, CF and NFE decreased, but CP, EE and ash contents of silages increased with increasing the rate of N fertilizer. The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE and NFE and TDN and DCP values of berseem silages by goats increased significantly (P<0.05), but CF digestibility decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing the rate of N fertilizer. Average daily DM, TDN and DCP intake by goats increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing the rate of N fertilizer. The pH value decreased significantly (P<0.05), however the concentrations of TVFA's and NH3-N increased significantly (P<0.05) in rumen liquor with increasing the rate of N fertilizer. The nitrogen (N) intake, digested excretion in urine and retained by goats increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing the rate of N fertilizer. While, N excretion in feces did not significantly affected by the rate of N fertilizer (P>0.05). The counts of red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC) and hemoglobin concentration in blood of goats fed the different silages increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing the rate of N fertilizer. The DM intake and nitrogen excretion in feces were higher, however, ruminal NH3-N, nitrogen excretion in urine and red blood cells were lower when goats fed silages of the 2nd cut compared with feeding 1st cut silage.

[Mohsen MK, El-Santiel GS, Gaafar HMA, El-Gendy HM, El-Beltagi EA. Nutritional evaluation of berseem. 2- Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on berseem fed as silage to goats. Researcher. 2011;3(5):25-30]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.05

 

Key words: feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, rumen activity, blood hematology.

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Nutritional evaluation of berseem

3- Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on berseem fed as hay to goats

 

Mohsen MK1, El-Santiel GS1, Gaafar HMA3, El-Gendy HM2, El-Beltagi EA3

 

1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt

2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Egypt

3- Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

hamedgaafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Eighteen male goats were used to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 23.8 and 47.6 kg N ha-1) on intake, nutritive values, nitrogen balance, blood hematology, calcium and phosphorus balance of 3rd and 4th cuts berseem hay. The contents of DM, OM, CF and NFE decreased, but CP, EE, ash Ca and P contents increased with increasing the rate of N fertilizer. There were little differences in the mean composition of hay among the 3rd and 4th cuts, which CP and ash contents tended to decrease, but CF content tended to increase from 3rd to 4th cut. The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE and NFE and TDN and DCP values and the intake of DM, TDN and DCP by goats increased significantly (P<0.05), but CF digestibility decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing the rate of N fertilizer. Moreover, the digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE and NFE and DCP value and the intake of DM, TDN and DCP were significantly higher (P<0.05), but CF digestibility was significantly lower (P<0.05) for 3rd cut compared to 4th cut berseem hay. While, TDN value tended to higher in 3rd cut than 4th cut berseem hay. The pH value decreased significantly (P<0.05), however the concentrations of TVFA's and NH3-N and nitrogen intake, digested, excretion in urine and retained increased significantly (P<0.05) in rumen liquor with increasing the rate of N fertilizer. The mean pH value and NH3-N concentration in rumen liquor and N excretion in feces were nearly similar for hay of both 3rd and 4th berseem cuts, while the mean of TVFA's concentration and N intake, excretion in feces and urine, digested and retained were significantly higher (P<0.05) with feeding the 3rd cut hay compared with feeding 4th cut berseem hay. The counts of red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC) and hemoglobin concentration in blood of goats and the intake, excretion in feces, absorption, excretion in urine and retention of calcium and phosphorus increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing the rate of N fertilizer. Moreover, RBC count was significantly higher (P<0.05), but phosphorus balance was significantly lower (P<0.05) with feeding the 4th cut than that with feeding 3rd cut berseem hay. While, WBC count and hemoglobin concentration and calcium balance were nearly similar for feeding both 3rd and 4th cuts berseem hay.

[Mohsen MK, El-Santiel GS, Gaafar HMA, El-Gendy HM, El-Beltagi EA. Nutritional evaluation of berseem. 3- Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on berseem fed as hay to goats. Researcher. 2011;3(5):31-36]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.06

 

Key words: feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, rumen activity, blood hematology, calcium and phosphorus balance.

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Nutritional evaluation of berseem

4- Effect of phosphorus fertilizer on berseem fed as hay to goats

 

Mohsen MK1, El-Santiel GS1, Gaafar HMA3, El-Gendy HM2, El-Beltagi EA3

 

1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt

2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Egypt

3- Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

hamedgaafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Twelve buck goats were used to determine the effect of phosphorus fertilizer (47.6 kg P ha-1) on intake, nutritive values, nitrogen balance, blood haematology, calcium and phosphorus balance of 3rd and 4th cuts berseem hay. The contents of DM, OM and NFE tended to decrease, however CP, CF, EE, ash, Ca and P tended to increase with phosphorus fertilizer. Moreover, the contents of DM, OM, CF, NFE, Ca and P tended to be lower, but CP, EE and ash tended to be higher in 3rd cut compared with 4th cut berseem hay. All nutrients digestibility and nutritive values for 3rd and 4th cuts berseem hay increased significantly (P<0.05) with phosphorus fertilizer. Moreover, the digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, EE and NFE and TDN and DCP values were significantly higher (P<0.05), however, CF digestibility was significantly lower (P<0.05) for 3rd cut compared to 4th cut berseem hay. The average daily DM, TDN and DCP intake increased significantly (P<0.05) with phosphorus fertilizer and were significantly higher (P<0.05) for 3rd cut than those of 4th cut berseem hay. The ruminal pH value and NH3-N concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05), but TVFA's concentration increased significantly (P<0.05) in rumen liquor with phosphorus fertilizer. The pH value and TVFA's concentration were nearly similar for both hay cuts, while, NH3-N concentration was significantly higher (P<0.05) with feeding 3rd cut than that with feeding 4th cut berseem hay. The nitrogen intake, excretion in feces, digested and retained by goats fed both 3rd and 4th cuts berseem hay did not significantly (P>0.05) affected by phosphorus fertilizer. While, the nitrogen excretion in urine increased significantly (P<0.05) with phosphorus fertilizer. Moreover, nitrogen intake, excretion in feces and urine, digested and retained were significantly higher (P<0.05) for 3rd cut compared with 4th cut berseem hay. The count of white blood cells (WBC) and hemoglobin concentration in blood of goats fed 3rd cut berseem hay and the counts of red blood cells (RBC) and WBC in blood of goats fed 4th cut berseem hay increased significantly (P<0.05) with phosphorus fertilizer. All blood haematology were nearly similar with feeding 3rd and 4th cuts berseem hay. Calcium intake, excretion in feces and urine increased significantly (P<0.05), however, Ca absorption and retention decreased significantly (P<0.05) with phosphorus fertilizer for 3rd and 4th cuts berseem hay. While, phosphorus intake, excretion in feces and urine, absorption and retention increased significantly (P<0.05) with phosphorus fertilizer for 3rd and 4th cuts berseem hay. Moreover, only Ca intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) and P excretion in feces was significantly lower (P<0.05) for 4th cut compared with 3rd cut berseem hay.

[Mohsen MK, El-Santiel GS, Gaafar HMA, El-Gendy HM, El-Beltagi EA. Nutritional evaluation of berseem. 4- Effect of phosphorus fertilizer on berseem fed as hay to goats Researcher. 2011;3(5):37-42]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.07

 

Keywords: feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, rumen activity, blood haematology, calcium and phosphorus balance.

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Analysis of Adult Learning Principles

 

Mohammad Abedi

 

Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adults learn most effectively when they have an inner motivation to develop a new skill or gain new knowledge. They resist learning material if it is forced on them, or if the only reason given is that the material will, in some vague way, be "good for them to know." Adults need to know why they are being asked to learn something; and they definitely will want to know what the benefits will be before they begin learning. This means the best motivators for adult learners are explicit interest and self benefit. If they can be shown that the program will benefit them pragmatically and practically, they will learn better, and the benefits will be much longer lasting. Typical motivations include a desire for better handling of personal money matters, say in retirement, wanting a new or first job, promotion, job enrichment, a need to reinforce old skills in say, handling credit or learn new ones, a need to adapt to community changes such as on-line banking and so on. Remember the tone of the program should be motivating.

[Mohammad Abedi. Analysis of Adult Learning Principles. Researcher. 2011;3(5):43-49]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.08

 

Keywords: adult education, Adult Learning

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Developing lesson plan in adults education

 

Mohammad Abedi

 

Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Lesson plans for adult education don't have to be difficult. Follow these easy steps and see how effective you can be. Every good course design begins with a needs assessment. For our purposes here, we’re going to assume you’ve completed this assessment and you understand what your students need and what your objectives are for the course you’re designing. If you don’t know your objectives, you’re not ready to design your course. With your objectives in hand, course design can be easy. Like any gathering of people for any reason, it’s good to begin at the beginning and address who is there, why they’ve gathered, what they hope to accomplish, and how they’ll accomplish it.

[Mohammad Abedi. Developing lesson plan in adults education. Researcher. 2011;3(5):50-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.09

 

Keywords: adult learning, lesson plan

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Adult education methods and techniques for better learning

 

1 Kobra Lashgari , 2 Mehran Bozorgmanesh and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

 

Abstract: Most adult students are in your classroom because they want to be. Some of them are there because they have Continuing Education requirements to keep a certificate current, but most are there because they’ve chosen to learn something new. This principle is not about why your students are in your classroom, but about why each thing you teach them is an important part of the learning. I’ll use my own pickle-making lesson as an example. Any activity that gets your students involved makes the learning experiential. This includes small group discussions, experiments, role playing, skits, building something at their table or desk, writing or drawing something specific – activity of any kind. Activities also keep people energized, especially activities that involve getting up and moving about.

 [Kobra Lashgari , Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Mehdi Nazarpour. Adult education methods and techniques for better learning. Researcher. 2011;3(5):55-59]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.10

 

Keywords: adult education, adult education

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The role of educators in adult education

 

Mohammad Abedi

 

Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A well trained teacher who is fluent in adult education as a change agent responsibility is beyond routing plans and activities, In recent years the practice has changed and the role of educator as a "change agent" and reform as a donor and an "auxiliary roles" or "facilitators" were raised as his understanding of adult personal and community among people. In addition, a person well trained teacher who is fluent in adult education as a change agent responsibility is beyond routing plans and activities. His role in the educational process as a facilitative (helpful), leader (leading), incentives, consultant and source of information (not move), regular (planned), judge poster and ..... Is. The ultimate goal of people helping him to his ability to help raise up to be adult. Fact that the adult educator role of a marginal position in society has changed to a central location for this position change the natural outcome of many social problems such as wars, crime, illiteracy and disease can easily be resolved through processes of adult education.

[Mohammad Abedi. The role of educators in adult education. Researcher. 2011;3(5):60-63]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.11

 

Keywords: educator; adult; education; adult

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How to effectively use learning styles in adult classes

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

Abstract: there are three major types of learners: visual, auditory, and tactile/kinesthetic. While most individuals without disabilities can learn using any one of these styles, most people have one for which they show a stronger affinity. There are many tests available to help you and your students discover your best learning style. Generally speaking, however, if you are someone who is more likely to think in pictures, prefer to meet with someone in person, and are more likely to want visual diagrams when completing a project you have tendencies towards visual learning. Similarly, if you are more likely to think in terms of sounds, prefer to speak on the phone with someone, and want verbal instructions then you tend towards auditory learning. Finally, if you are more likely to think in terms of moving images like mini-movies in your mind, prefer to participate in an activity when you meet to speak with someone, and tend to jump right into a project without reading directions you tend towards tactile/kinesthetic learning.

 [Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. How to effectively use learning styles in adult classes. Researcher. 2011;3(5):64-69]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.12

 

Keywords: learning styles, adult learning

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Reproductive Performance and Economic Efficiency oF Rahmani and Finn and Their Crossbred Ewes

 

Gaafar, HMA1, Bassiouni MI2, El-Gendy ME1, Shehab El-Din MT3

 

1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.

3- Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Agricultural Research Center, Abbassa, Egypt

hamedgaafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: One hundred and fifty Finn (F) and Rahmani (R) ewes and their crosses including 10 F, 60 R, 50 1/4F 3/4R, 20 1/2F 1/2R and 10 3/4F 1/4R were allotted to fed concentrate mixture, wheat straw plus fresh berseem or green sugar beet tops (winter diet) or plus berseem hay or green sorghum or dried sugar beet tops or green reed plants (summer diet). Results showed that 81% of ewes were mating during the period from April to August reaching the maximum in July. However, 83% of ewes were lambing from October to April reaching maximum in December. The fertility expressed as ewe lambing per ewe exposed (EL/EE) was higher in crossbred that pure Finn and Rahmani ewes and increased with increasing Rahmani blood. The number of lamb born and weaned per ewe exposed (LB/EE and LW/EE) was higher in the first ewes crossbred of 1/2F 1/2R than the pure breeds and other crosses. Pure Finn recorded the highest number of lamb born and weaned per ewe lambing (LB/EL and LW/EL), lambing ewe per year (EL/Y) and lamb born and weaned per lambing ewe per year (LB/EL/Y and LW/EL/Y), but Rahmani had the lowest values and increased in crossbred ewes with increasing Finn blood. Pure Rahmani breed showed the lowest FC/E/Y and 1/4 F 3/4 R had the higher OLW/E/Y and NR/E/Y, however Finn breed had the highest FC/E/Y and the lowest OLW/E/Y and NR/E/Y. Moreover, the FC/E/Y increased (P<0.05) and OLW/E/Y and NR/E/Y decreased (P<0.05) with increasing the percent of Finn blood in crossbred.

[Gaafar, HMA, Bassiouni MI, El-Gendy ME, Shehab El-Din MT. Reproductive Performance and Economic Efficiency oF Rahmani and Finn and Their Crossbred Ewes. Researcher. 2011;3(5):70-74]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.13

 

Key words: ewes, Finn, Rahmani, crossbred, feeding, reproductive, economic efficiency.

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Pre- and Post-Weaning Growth Performance and Economic Efficiency of Rahmani and Finn Lambs and Their Crosses

 

Gaafar, HMA1, El-Gendy ME1, Bassiouni MI2, Shehab El-Din MT3

 

1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.

3- Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Agricultural Research Center, Abbassa, Egypt

hamedgaafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Total of 214 born lambs included 78 Rahmani (R), 67 1/4F 3/4R, 32 1/2F 1/2R, 17 3/4F 1/4R and 20 Finn (F) were suckled their dams only until three weeks of age. From three weeks of age up to weaning at four months of age, lambs suckled their mothers freely and given green berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) or berseem hay plus 100 g/day/head of ground grain mixture. From 4 to 8 months of age lambs were fed concentrate mixture, wheat straw plus fresh berseem or green sugar beet tops (winter diet) or plus berseem hay or green sorghum or dried sugar beet tops or green reed plants (summer diet). Mortality rate was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Finn sheep compared with Rahmani and increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing Finn blood in crossbred. Average body weight at birth, weaning and 8 month of age and average daily gain (ADG), DM intake, feed conversion, average daily feed cost, price of ADG and net revenue during pre, post-weaning and whole periods were significantly higher (P<0.05) for Rahmani than Finn lambs and decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing Finn blood in crossbred.

[Gaafar, HMA, El-Gendy ME, Bassiouni MI, Shehab El-Din MT. Pre- and Post-Weaning Growth Performance and Economic Efficiency of Rahmani and Finn Lambs and Their Crosses. Researcher. 2011;3(5):75-79]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.14

 

Key words: Rahmani, Finn, cross lambs, body weight gain, feed conversion and economic efficiency

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Empowerment of rural women in Iran

 

Khatereh siyar

 

Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: khaterehsiyar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Women as an effective member of society, can crystalline their lead roles in various responsibilities formations. These responsibilities include promoting the concept of participation and employment in life and building the suitable areas for freely activity and introduce the right of economic management, ownership and.... This requires that all fees and necessary training for women to be considered. Due to the fact that the concept of women's participation, is not necessarily the female employment, although certainly part of the participation of women will be crystallized in their employment, but in this context, home and family affairs by women and their role in nutrition and child growth and Their education are also many responsibilities that women often are responsible for them. Throughout history we have always been seen that women have always been active but in culture and tradition, this mentality largely exists that if the job exists, it would be for men. Because they are responsible for their families Economic or wherever there is a good opportunity for participation, men have a prior right.

[Khatereh siyar. Empowerment of Rural women in Iran. Researcher. 2011;3(5):80-84]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.15

 

Keywords: Rural women, Empowerment

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 Eefect Of Heat Stress On Perfprmance Of Dairy Friesian Cows

1- Milk Production And Composition

 

Gaafar, HMA1, El-Gendy ME1, Bassiouni MI2, Shamiah ShM1, Halawa AA1, Abu El-Hamd MA1

 

1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.

hamedgaafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A total of 1243 available records were collected for 581 Friesian cows during 8 year period from 1997 to 2004 were used to study heat stress on milk production and composition. Average temperature humidity index (THI) values confirm the presence of heat stress during the period from June to September (summer season). Heat stress during summer season led to significant decrease (P<0.05) in lactation period by 35 day and reduced total, 305 and daily milk yield by 39.00, 31.40 and 29.84% and the percentages of fat, protein, lactose, solids not fat, total solids and ash by 7.92, 4.06, 3.97, 4.03, 5.21 and 5.63% compared with winter season, respectively.

[Gaafar, HMA, El-Gendy ME, Bassiouni MI, Shamiah ShM, Halawa AA, Abu El-Hamd MA. Eefect Of Heat Stress On Perfprmance Of Dairy Friesian Cows 1- Milk Production And Composition Researcher. 2011;3(5):85-93]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.16

 

Key words: Friesian cows, heat stress, milk yield and composition.

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Eefect Of Heat Stress On Perfprmance Of Dairy Friesian Cows 2- Reproductive Performance

 

Gaafar, HMA1, Abu El-Hamd MA1, El-Gendy ME1, Bassiouni MI2, Halawa AA1, Shamiah ShM1

 

1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.

hamedgaafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A total of 1243 available records collected for 581 Friesian cows during 8-year period from 1997 to 2004 were used to study heat stress on postpartum reproductive performance. Average temperature humidity index (THI) values confirm the presence of heat stress during the period from June to September (summer season). Heat stress during summer season resulted in significant (P<0.05) longer first estrus (FE), interval service (IS), days open (DO) and calving interval (CI), higher number of service per conception (NSC) and lower conception rate (CR). The most important long of FE, IS, DO and CI were going from 21.55, 63.39, 111.37 and 388.47 day in January to 24.62, 92.31, 146.93 and 425.03 day in July. The NSC increased from 2.44 to 3.02 and CR decreased from 78.69 to 63.29% with increasing THI from 57.98 in January to 80.40 in July.

[Gaafar, HMA, Abu El-Hamd MA, El-Gendy ME, Bassiouni MI, Halawa AA, Shamiah ShM. Eefect Of Heat Stress On Perfprmance Of Dairy Friesian Cows: 2- Reproductive Performance Researcher. 2011;3(5):94-100]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj030511.17

 

Key words: Friesian cows, heat stress, reproductive performance

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from , 2011. 
 
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