Science Journal

 

Researcher
 
Volume 3 - Issue 10 (Cumulated No. 28), October 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-9865
             
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Research 0310
 
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CONTENTS  

  No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Kinetic Study of the Adsorption of Pb2+ and Cr3+ ions on Palm Kernel Shell Activated Carbon

 

Musah, M.

 

Department of Chemistry, Niger State College of Education, Minna, Nigeria

mkwagana@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The production of activated carbon from palm kernel shells using H3PO4 and KOH as activating agents by means of a two step activation process was studied. Results of analysis indicate 30.220.15% yield, 69.780.15% burn off and 0.610.01g/cm3 bulk density for activated carbon prepared using H3PO4 as activating agent (Ps/H3PO4). Those prepared using KOH as activating agent (Ps/KOH) gave slightly different results on analysis: yield, burn off and bulk density were 32.710.31%, 67.290.31% and 0.580.02g/cm3 respectively. Natarajan and Khalaf first order, pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and elovich models were used to study adsorption kinetics. Pseudo second order kinetics was found to be better fit for adsorption of Pb2+ and Cr3+ ions with good correlation and low SSE when Ps/H3PO4 or Ps/KOH was used. These results reveal that activated carbon made from palm kernel shell good properties required for adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.

[Musah, M. Kinetic Study of the Adsorption of Pb2+ and Cr3+ ions on Palm Kernel Shell Activated Carbon. Researcher, 2011;3(10):1-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.01

 

Key words: Activated carbon, adsorption, palm kernel shell, kinetics, heavy metals

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2

Comparison of Heavy Metals levels in Wholefish samples of Mud Fishes

 

C.U. Erhabor*, E.E. Obasohan1, I.O Eguavoen2

 

*Polymer Technology Department,  Auchi polytechnic,P.M.B. 13, Auchi,Nigeria

1Chemistry Department, Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma, Nigeria

2Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Iyanomon,Benin City, Nigeria

lawekebafe@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Two mud fishes common in the stream are Claries gariepinus and Parachanna obscura. The concentrations of Lead(Pb), Zinc(Zn), Nickel(Ni) iron, Manganese(Mn) and Copper (Cu) in the whole fish samples of the two mud fishes – Claries gariepins and Parachanna obscura from Ibiekuma stream Ekpoma, Nigria  were studied. The fish samples were collected from the three established stations on the stream using variety of fishing gears. The samples were stored, identified, digested and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry 969 solar unicam. The whole fish mean concentrations in mg/kg for claries gariepinus ranged from  228.75 0.1 – 268.000.20 (Fe), 5.180.02-8.400.05(Cu),15.130.04-19.030.03(Mn), and 18.150.03-21.680.04 (Zn) Parachanna obscura whole fish bioaccumulation level ranged from 386.300.30 – 447.00 0.50 (Fe), 6.100.10 – 11.64 0.04 (Cr) 26.80 0.08 – 38.40 0.03 (Mn) and 34.40 0.05 – 39.40 0.02 (Zn) the results showed that both fishes Bioaccumulated heavy metals (except Ni and Pb) to varying levels. Results also showed that Parachanna Obscura Bioaccumulated higher heavy metals more than Claries Gariepinus. The different mean concentrations might be as a result of different ecological needs, metabolism, feeding pattern and different sizes of fishes. Metal concentration also varied from station to station. Some heavy metal concentrations in both fishes in the stream exceeded WHO recommended levels in food fish. Therefore consumption of fishes from Ibielcuma stream could induce metal health hazard in man.

[C.U. Erhabor, E.E. Obasohan, I.O Eguavoen. Comparison of Heavy Metals levels in Wholefish samples of Mud Fishes. Researcher, 2011;3(10):7-12]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.02

 

Keywords: Wholefish, mud fish, Heavy Metals

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3

Evaluation of Plasma D-dimer Level in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

 

Wesam A. Ibrahim a ,*, Sara Abdelhakam b, Ameer Helmy a, Hatem Abd El Lateef a, Khalid A. El Wahaab a, Mahmoud O. Abdelmageed a, Doaa G. Eissa c,

 

a Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341,  Egypt.

b Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.

c Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt

 

Background & Study Aim: To evaluate the relationship between the presence of ascites and hyperfibrinolytic state in cirrhotic patients by measuring the circulating levels of D-dimer in those with and without ascites and to assess the effect of ascitic fluid paracentesis on the concentration of D-dimer Patients and Methods:This study was performed on 100 chronic liver disease patients: Group(A):50 patients with ascites and Group(B):50 patients without ascites.Both groups had laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasonography.Results: In Group A,D-dimer mean level(3.3 2 mg/L) in Group B, D-dimer mean level(1.5 1 mg/L).In Group A after ascitic fluid paracentesis, the mean D-dimer values returned to normal range in 30 patients, decreased to the high normal level in 10 patients and decreased but remained high above normal level in 10 patients.In Group A, the D-dimer values after ascitic fluid paracentesis were not significantly different from those found in patients without ascites; Group B. The plasma D-dimer levels were highly significantly elevated in patients with HCC.Plasma D-dimer was highly significantly positively correlated with AFP.The cutoff value of plasma D-dimer for detection of HCC was 3.2, sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 82.9% Plasma D-dimer was found to be a better negative than positive test with higher specificity than sensitivity Conclucion:High D-dimer is associated either with presence of ascites or HCC.In patients with liver cirrhosis, high D-dimer levels in absence of ascites require more careful monitoring for HCC with a cutoff value of 3.2 mg/L for detection of HCC.

[Wesam A. Ibrahim, Sara Abdelhakam, Ameer Helmy, Hatem Abd El Lateef, Khalid A. El Wahaab, Mahmoud O. Abdelmageed, Doaa G. Eissa. Evaluation of Plasma D-dimer Level in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease. Researcher, 2011;3(10):13-18]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.03

 

Key words: Plasma D-Dimer; Chronic Liver Disease; Ascites; Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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Addressing the Needs of Rural Women Farmers to Achieve Food Security in Rivers State, Nigeria.

 

*Chikaire, J., *Nnadi, F.N., **Nnadi C.D. and *Anyoha , N.O.

 

*Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of Technology Owerri.

** Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.  

e-mail: bankausta@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The concept of household food security (HFS) refers to the ability of a household to assure all its members sustained access to sufficient quantity and quality of food to live active healthy lives. Such access is likely to be most threatened in times of economic deterioration. The reasons for linking women and household food security are by now well known, but it is worth quickly looking at some regional/cultural dimensions to the links before moving on to discuss the relevance of current debates on structural adjustment policies. There appears to be a general consensus that the persisting food crisis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the consequence of a long-run neglect of women’s food farming roles in a sub continent where women perform 70% of labour in food production. Badly informed agricultural policies have undermined women’s ability to fulfill their food obligations to their families and have also undermined the achievement of national food security objectives. This study examined the roles and problems of women farmers in the study area and proffered solutions to the problems identified. It was observed that women participate actively in almost all agricultural activities to give their families food and biological hindrance also make most households food insecure. To empower women farmers, balanced and well-thought-out programmes/policies should be put in place.

[Chikaire, J., Nnadi, F.N., Nnadi C.D. and Anyoha , N.O. Addressing the Needs of Rural Women Farmers to Achieve Food Security in Rivers State, Nigeria. Researcher, 2011;3(10):19-25]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher.  

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.04

 

Keyword: Rural women, food security, land tenure, hunger, Nigeria

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5

Renewable Energy Resources for Women Empowerment in Nigeria

 

*Chikaire, J., *Nwakwasi, R.N.,** Osuagwu,C.O., and **Oparaojiaku, J.

 

Department of Agricultural Extension Technology,

Federal University of Technology, Owerri. ** Department of Agricultural Management and Extension, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo

e-mail bankausta@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Energy is a basic necessity for human activity, and economic and social development. Yet global strategies on how to meet this basic needs for world’s rapidly growing population are solely lacking. Lack of energy services is directly correlated with key elements of poverty, including low education levels, restriction of opportunity to subsistence activity, and conflict. Women are the specific focus here, since they generally have the responsibility for providing household energy and use for almost all economic activities. Secure access to energy services is a key component of alleviating poverty, and an indispensable element of sustainable human development and contribute to reducing vulnerability and empowering women. Modern forms of energy are considered a necessary input for economic development and the elimination inequalities which prevent them from influencing policies and interventions which affect their lives and which also impede overall growth and development. Thus, this paper, focusing on women discusses the energy-poverty situation and the various areas of energy poverty manifestations. It discusses why women need renewable energy and how to move them out of energy-poverty situation. It concludes with the way forward.

[Chikaire, J., Nwakwasi, R.N. Osuagwu, C.O.,and Oparaojiaku, J. Renewable Energy Resources for Women Empowerment in Nigeria. Researcher. 2011: 3 (10): 2635] (ISSN:1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher.  

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.05

 

Keywords: Renewable energy, women, poverty, vulnerability, empowerment.  

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6

Qualitative and quantitative study of the microfacies of the Asmari Formation Bavan Section in northwest Shiraz

 

Mohammad Sadegh Dehghanian1, Khosro Khosrotehrani1, Massih Afghah2, Farideh Keshani3

1 Departement of Geology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Departement of Geology, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

3 Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Msadeghdehghanian@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study a stratigraphy section of Asmari Formation is selected from Bavan Mountain-in Fars province,Iran- and 401.5 meter of this Formation’s sediment is studied in total. Its index microfacies are carefully determined through studying of 152 thinsection. This research shows that the index microfacies in the studied sections are Mudstone, Wackestone, Packstone, Grainstone and the amount of microfacies elements such as bioclast,pellet,extraclast and intraclast are varied in different parts of the studied section and totally  the amount of bioclast in the section is more than other elements.

[Mohammad Sadegh Dehghanian1, Khosro Khosrotehrani, Massih Afghah, Farideh Keshani. Qualitative and quantitative study of the microfacies of the Asmari Formation Bavan Section in northwest Shiraz. Researcher. 2011: 3 (10): 3640] (ISSN:1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.06

 

Keywords: Qualitative and quantitative study, Asmari Formation, Bavan section, Shiraz, Fars, Iran.

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7

The Changing Roles of Agricultural Extension to Achieve Food Security and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Imo State, Nigeria

 

Chikaire, J., Nnadi, F.N.,  Nwakwasi, R.N. and Ejiogu-Okereke, N.

 

*Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of Technology Owerri. Department of Agricultural Management and Extension, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo.

e-mail:baukausta@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research work, the changing roles of agricultural extension to achieve food security and improve rural livelihoods presents an overview of current opportunities and challenges facing efforts to increase the impact of rural and agricultural extension on the lives of rural dwellers who depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. The traditional role of technology transfer to farmers is gone since it has not met the changing nature of agriculture and even the farmers. The approaches and roles utilized have changed dramatically to reach and impact on people. This study discusses the traditional roles of extension which could not meet the needs, demands and aspirations of local farmers who produce the food we eat. We also studied the general problems preventing extension from achieving its set goals. The paper critically studied the changing and or current roles of extension-designed to help farmers and also the programmes and strategies for achieving sustainable food security.

[Chikaire, J., Nnadi, F.N., Nwakwasi, R.N., Ejiogu-Okereke,N. The Changing Roles of Agricultural Extension to Achieve Food Security and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Imo State, Nigeria. Researcher, 2011; 3 (10): 41-48] (ISSN:1553-9865), http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.07

 

Keywords: Extension, food security, livelihood, sustainability, Nigeria.

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8

A Baseline Investigation and Safety Assessment of Dump Sites in Ibadan and Environs, Nigeria.

 

1 Farai I.P,2 Amodu F.Roseline,3 Adewole O.Olukorede.

 

1 ,3Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

2Department of Physics and Electronics, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.

Koredeadewole@Yahoo.Com

Abstract: The activity concentrations and radiation dose contributions due to three naturally occurring primordial radionuclides: K-40, U-238 and Th-232 in soil samples from selected dump sites in Ibadan and environs, Nigeria has been deduced.  A baseline data has been obtained due to forensic investigation of selected dump sites and the average radiation dose contributions to the environment has been estimated. Activity concentration of K-40 was found in soil soil samples from dump sites in use ranged from 153.6+_ 17.4Bq/Kg to 315.0+_ 16.7Bq/Kg, with the highest found in location 2 (Lapite). The activity concentrations of U-238 ranged from 0.10+_17.1Bq/Kg to 48.1+_ 64.0Bq/Kg with the highest found in location 26 (Ajakanga). The activity concentration ranged fro 1.8+_17.8Bq/Kg to 252.7+_ 17.5Bq/Kg. The highest concentration of Th-232 was found in location 19 (Awotan) while the lowest was found in location 40 (Aba – eku).  The average value of the total absorbed dose ratse for the use and abandoned dump sites are 31.0 +_ 44.0nGyh-1 and 32.0+_ 36.3nGyh-1  respectively. Fifty nine (59) sampled locations were within the safety limit with recommended world mean value of 13.5-69.8nGyh-1 by UNSCEAR while one location was above it.

[Farai I.P, Amodu F.Roseline, Adewole O.Olukorede. A Baseline Investigation and Safety Assessment of Dump Sites in Ibadan and Environs, Nigeria. Researcher, 2011; 3 (10): 49-54 ] (ISSN:1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.08

 

.Keywords: Ionizing radiation, natural radionuclides, cosmic rays, activity concentration, radiation dose, UNSCEAR.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from August 5, 2011. 
 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.01

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.02

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.03

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.04

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.05

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.06

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.07

doi:10.7537/marsrsj031011.08

 

 

 

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