Volume 3 - Issue 10 (Cumulated No. 28), October 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-9865
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Research 0310
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Titles / Authors
Kinetic Study of the Adsorption of Pb2+ and Cr3+
ions on Palm Kernel Shell Activated Carbon
Chemistry, Niger State College of Education, Minna, Nigeria
Abstract: The production of
activated carbon from palm kernel shells using H3PO4
and KOH as activating agents by means of a two step activation
process was studied. Results of analysis indicate 30.22±0.15%
yield, 69.78±0.15% burn off and 0.61±0.01g/cm3 bulk
density for activated carbon prepared using H3PO4
as activating agent (Ps/H3PO4). Those
prepared using KOH as activating agent (Ps/KOH) gave slightly
different results on analysis: yield, burn off and bulk density
were 32.71±0.31%, 67.29±0.31% and 0.58±0.02g/cm3
respectively. Natarajan and Khalaf first order,
pseudo first-order, pseudo
second-order and elovich models were used to study adsorption
kinetics. Pseudo second order kinetics was found to be better
fit for adsorption of Pb2+ and Cr3+ ions
with good correlation and low SSE when Ps/H3PO4
or Ps/KOH was used. These results reveal that activated carbon
made from palm kernel shell good properties required for
adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.
[Musah, M. Kinetic Study of the
Adsorption of Pb2+ and Cr3+ ions on Palm
Kernel Shell Activated Carbon. Researcher,
2011;3(10):1-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Activated carbon, adsorption, palm kernel shell, kinetics, heavy
Comparison of Heavy Metals
levels in Wholefish samples of Mud Fishes
C.U. Erhabor*, E.E. Obasohan1,
*Polymer Technology Department,
Auchi polytechnic,P.M.B. 13, Auchi,Nigeria
Department, Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma, Nigeria
Research Institute of Nigeria, Iyanomon,Benin City, Nigeria
Two mud fishes common in the stream are Claries gariepinus and
Parachanna obscura. The concentrations of Lead(Pb), Zinc(Zn),
Nickel(Ni) iron, Manganese(Mn) and Copper (Cu) in the whole fish
samples of the two mud fishes – Claries gariepins and Parachanna
obscura from Ibiekuma stream Ekpoma, Nigria were studied. The
fish samples were collected from the three established stations
on the stream using variety of fishing gears. The samples were
stored, identified, digested and analyzed by atomic absorption
spectrometry 969 solar unicam. The whole fish mean
concentrations in mg/kg for claries gariepinus ranged from
228.75± 0.1 – 268.00±0.20 (Fe),
(Zn) Parachanna obscura whole fish bioaccumulation level ranged
from 386.30±0.30 – 447.00± 0.50 (Fe), 6.10±0.10 – 11.64± 0.04
(Cr) 26.80± 0.08 – 38.40± 0.03 (Mn) and 34.40± 0.05 – 39.40±
0.02 (Zn) the results showed that both fishes Bioaccumulated
heavy metals (except Ni and Pb) to varying levels. Results also
showed that Parachanna Obscura Bioaccumulated higher heavy
metals more than Claries Gariepinus. The different mean
concentrations might be as a result of different ecological
needs, metabolism, feeding pattern and different sizes of
fishes. Metal concentration also varied from station to station.
Some heavy metal concentrations in both fishes in the stream
exceeded WHO recommended levels in food fish. Therefore
consumption of fishes from Ibielcuma stream could induce metal
health hazard in man.
Erhabor, E.E. Obasohan, I.O Eguavoen.
Comparison of Heavy Metals levels in Wholefish samples of Mud
Keywords: Wholefish, mud fish, Heavy Metals
Evaluation of Plasma D-dimer
Level in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease
Wesam A. Ibrahim a ,*,
Sara Abdelhakam b,
Ameer Helmy a,
Hatem Abd El Lateef a, Khalid A. El Wahaab a,
Mahmoud O. Abdelmageed a, Doaa G. Eissa c,
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams
University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.
Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams
University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.
Department of Clinical
Pathology, Faculty of
Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt
Background & Study Aim:
To evaluate the relationship
between the presence of ascites and hyperfibrinolytic state in
cirrhotic patients by measuring the circulating levels of
D-dimer in those with and without ascites and to assess the
effect of ascitic fluid paracentesis on the concentration of
D-dimer Patients and Methods:This study was performed on
100 chronic liver disease patients: Group(A):50 patients with
ascites and Group(B):50 patients without ascites.Both groups had
laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasonography.Results:
In Group A,D-dimer mean
level(3.3 ± 2 mg/L) in
Group B, D-dimer mean level(1.5 ± 1 mg/L).In
Group A after ascitic fluid paracentesis,
the mean D-dimer values returned to normal range in 30 patients,
decreased to the high normal level in 10 patients and
decreased but remained high above normal level in 10 patients.In
Group A, the D-dimer values after ascitic fluid
paracentesis were not
significantly different from those found in patients without
ascites; Group B. The plasma D-dimer levels were highly
significantly elevated in patients with HCC.Plasma D-dimer was
highly significantly positively correlated with AFP.The cutoff
value of plasma D-dimer for detection of HCC was 3.2,
sensitivity was 80%
specificity was 82.9%
Plasma D-dimer was found to
be a better negative than positive test with higher specificity
than sensitivity Conclucion:High D-dimer is
associated either with presence of ascites or HCC.In patients
with liver cirrhosis, high D-dimer levels in absence of ascites
require more careful monitoring for HCC with a cutoff value of
3.2 mg/L for detection of HCC.
A. Ibrahim, Sara Abdelhakam,
Hatem Abd El Lateef, Khalid A. El Wahaab, Mahmoud O.
Abdelmageed, Doaa G. Eissa.
Plasma D-dimer Level in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease.
Plasma D-Dimer; Chronic Liver Disease; Ascites; Hepatocellular
Addressing the Needs of Rural
Women Farmers to Achieve Food Security in Rivers State, Nigeria.
*Nnadi, F.N., **Nnadi C.D. and *Anyoha , N.O.
Agricultural Extension, Federal University of Technology Owerri.
** Department of
Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Niger Delta
University, Bayelsa State.
The concept of
household food security (HFS) refers to the ability of a
household to assure all its members sustained access to
sufficient quantity and quality of food to live active healthy
lives. Such access is likely to be most threatened in times of
economic deterioration. The reasons for linking women and
household food security are by now well known, but it is worth
quickly looking at some regional/cultural dimensions to the
links before moving on to discuss the relevance of current
debates on structural adjustment policies. There appears to be a
general consensus that the persisting food crisis in sub-Saharan
Africa (SSA) is the consequence of a long-run neglect of women’s
food farming roles in a sub continent where women perform 70% of
labour in food production. Badly informed agricultural policies
have undermined women’s ability to fulfill their food
obligations to their families and have also undermined the
achievement of national food security objectives. This study
examined the roles and problems of women farmers in the study
area and proffered solutions to the problems identified. It was
observed that women participate actively in almost all
agricultural activities to give their families food and
biological hindrance also make most households food insecure. To
empower women farmers, balanced and well-thought-out
programmes/policies should be put in place.
Rural women, food security, land tenure, hunger, Nigeria
Renewable Energy Resources for Women Empowerment in Nigeria
J., *Nwakwasi, R.N.,** Osuagwu,C.O., and **Oparaojiaku, J.
Department of Agricultural Extension Technology,
University of Technology, Owerri. ** Department of Agricultural
Management and Extension, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo
Energy is a basic necessity for human activity, and economic and
social development. Yet global strategies on how to meet this
basic needs for world’s rapidly growing population are solely
lacking. Lack of energy services is directly correlated with key
elements of poverty, including low education levels, restriction
of opportunity to subsistence activity, and conflict. Women are
the specific focus here, since they generally have the
responsibility for providing household energy and use for almost
all economic activities. Secure access to energy services is a
key component of alleviating poverty, and an indispensable
element of sustainable human development and contribute to
reducing vulnerability and empowering women. Modern forms of
energy are considered a necessary input for economic development
and the elimination inequalities which prevent them from
influencing policies and interventions which affect their lives
and which also impede overall growth and development. Thus, this
paper, focusing on women discusses the energy-poverty situation
and the various areas of energy poverty manifestations. It
discusses why women need renewable energy and how to move them
out of energy-poverty situation. It concludes with the way
J., Nwakwasi, R.N. Osuagwu, C.O.,and Oparaojiaku, J.
Renewable Energy Resources for Women Empowerment in Nigeria.
Keywords: Renewable energy, women, poverty, vulnerability,
quantitative study of the microfacies of the Asmari Formation
Bavan Section in northwest Shiraz
Dehghanian1, Khosro Khosrotehrani1, Massih
Afghah2, Farideh Keshani3
1 Departement of
Geology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University,
2 Departement of
Geology, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
3 Geological Survey
of Iran, Tehran, Iran.
In this study a
stratigraphy section of Asmari Formation is selected from Bavan
Mountain-in Fars province,Iran- and 401.5 meter of this
Formation’s sediment is studied in total. Its index microfacies
are carefully determined through studying of 152 thinsection.
This research shows that the index microfacies in the studied
sections are Mudstone, Wackestone, Packstone, Grainstone and the
amount of microfacies elements such as
bioclast,pellet,extraclast and intraclast are varied in
different parts of the studied section and totally the amount
of bioclast in the section is more than other elements.
Dehghanian1, Khosro Khosrotehrani, Massih
Afghah, Farideh Keshani.
Qualitative and quantitative study of the microfacies of the
Asmari Formation Bavan Section in northwest Shiraz.
Keywords: Qualitative and quantitative study, Asmari Formation, Bavan section,
Shiraz, Fars, Iran.
The Changing Roles of Agricultural Extension to Achieve Food
Security and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Imo State, Nigeria
Chikaire, J., Nnadi, F.N., Nwakwasi, R.N. and
*Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of
Technology Owerri. Department of Agricultural Management and
Extension, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo.
This research work, the changing roles of agricultural extension to
achieve food security and improve rural livelihoods presents
an overview of current opportunities and challenges facing
efforts to increase the impact of rural and agricultural
extension on the lives of rural dwellers who depend on
agriculture for their livelihoods. The traditional role of
technology transfer to farmers is gone since it has not met
the changing nature of agriculture and even the farmers. The
approaches and roles utilized have changed dramatically to
reach and impact on people. This study discusses the
traditional roles of extension which could not meet the
needs, demands and aspirations of local farmers who produce
the food we eat. We also studied the general problems
preventing extension from achieving its set goals. The paper
critically studied the changing and or current roles of
extension-designed to help farmers and also the programmes
and strategies for achieving sustainable food security.
J., Nnadi, F.N., Nwakwasi, R.N., Ejiogu-Okereke,N. The
Changing Roles of Agricultural Extension to Achieve Food
Security and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Imo State,
Nigeria. Researcher, 2011;
Extension, food security, livelihood, sustainability,
Investigation and Safety Assessment of Dump Sites in
Farai I.P,2 Amodu F.Roseline,3 Adewole
of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
of Physics and Electronics, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun
The activity concentrations and radiation dose contributions due to
three naturally occurring primordial radionuclides: K-40, U-238
and Th-232 in soil samples from selected dump sites in Ibadan
and environs, Nigeria has been deduced.
baseline data has been obtained due to forensic investigation of
selected dump sites and the average radiation dose contributions
to the environment has been estimated.
concentration of K-40 was found in soil soil samples from dump
sites in use ranged from 153.6+_ 17.4Bq/Kg to 315.0+_ 16.7Bq/Kg,
with the highest found in location 2 (Lapite). The activity
concentrations of U-238 ranged from 0.10+_17.1Bq/Kg to 48.1+_
64.0Bq/Kg with the highest found in location 26 (Ajakanga). The
activity concentration ranged fro
1.8+_17.8Bq/Kg to 252.7+_ 17.5Bq/Kg. The highest concentration
of Th-232 was found in location 19 (Awotan) while the lowest was
found in location 40 (Aba – eku).
average value of the total absorbed dose ratse for the use and
abandoned dump sites are 31.0 +_ 44.0nGyh-1 and
32.0+_ 36.3nGyh-1 respectively. Fifty nine (59)
sampled locations were within the safety limit with recommended
world mean value of 13.5-69.8nGyh-1 by UNSCEAR while
one location was above it.
I.P, Amodu F.Roseline, Adewole
O.Olukorede. A Baseline Investigation and Safety Assessment
of Dump Sites in Ibadan and Environs, Nigeria. Researcher,
radiation, natural radionuclides, cosmic rays, activity
concentration, radiation dose, UNSCEAR.
The manuscripts in this
issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting
from August 5, 2011.
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