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Science Journal

 

Researcher
 
Volume 4 - Issue 1 (Cumulated No. 31), January 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-9865
 
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0401
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: researcher@sciencepub.net 

CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Effect of Heat Treatment on Phosphate Sorption by Soils from Different Ecologies

 

1*Aghedo, J.E., 2Ukpebor, E. and 3Oviasogie, P.O., 4Omorogbe, S.O.

 

1. Department of Chemistry, College of Education, Ekiadolor, Benin City

2. Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City

3. Department of Chemistry, Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR)

4. End-Use Department, Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Iyanomo

gbstano@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This research project investigated the effect of heat treatment on phosphate sorption by soil collected from different ecologies in Nigeria. Selected physicochemical properties of the soil were analysed while the soils were heat to 400C and 1000C respectively in the oven. Known phosphorus concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25mg/kg using Sokoto Rock minerals were prepared and used for the sorption experiment including the soils at ambient temperature of 250C. The results of the physicochemical analysis showed that the soils were generally acidic (pH = 4.3 – 6.5) while organic carbon varied between 0.74 and 1.93%. The soils had clay content of 5.30 – 16.68%, while the cat ion exchange capacity was between 5.07 and 6.26cmol/kg. The sorption result shows that at 250C soil from Kaduna 1 in Kaduna State had the lowest Langmuir sorption maximum(Xm), at 400C, the lowest Xm value was obtained from Ubiaja in Edo State and also at 1000C, soils from Kaduna 1 in Kaduna State had the lowest Xm value. This implies that the lower the Xm value and increase in temperature, the higher the concentration of phosphorus adsorbed. The result from this study can be used in planning for the application of phosphorus to soils from the different locations especially for improved soil fertility.

[Aghedo, J.E., Ukpebor, E. and Oviasogie, P.O., Omorogbe, S.O. Effect of Heat Treatment on Phosphate Sorption by Soils from Different Ecologies. Researcher. 2012;4(1):1-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 1

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040112.01

 

 Key Word: Sokoto Rock Phosphate, Phosphate Sorption, CEC and Langmuir sorption maximum

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2

An Assessment of the impact of sewer drains on the main canal of River Ganga, within Haridwar city, Uttarakhand, India

 

*Sushil Bhadula & B.D. Joshi

 

Department of Zoology & Environmental Sciences, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar- 249404, Uttarakhand (India). sushil86.ntl@gmail.com, bhadula@ymail.com

 

Abstract: This report presents results on some selected physico-chemical (Temperature, pH, Turbidity, Velocity, Total Solids, Dissolved Oxygen, Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand and Chlorides) characteristics of three selected sewer drains at Govind Puri, Jatwada Pul-I and Jatwada Pul -II within Haridwar city, analyzed during 2010-11 and their immediate influence on the Ganga river canal. It was found that the Jatwada pul-II drain is the most polluting one than other two drains. The relative difference between Jatwada Pul-II and reference site was, DO 760% lower, BOD 2422.08% higher, Turbidity 534.78% higher, TS 371% higher and Chlorides 217% higher in the Jatwada pul sewage drain-II than the reference site (Prem Nagar Ghat) of the study. BOD (2422.08%) showed maximum difference while the pH (6.57%) value showed minimum difference in the Jatwada pul-II sewer drain in comparison to reference site. It was also found that rural community is responsible for the water quality degradation in Ganga river canal.

[Sushil Bhadula & B.D. Joshi. An Assessment of the impact of sewer drains on the main canal of River Ganga, within Haridwar city, Uttarakhand, India. Researcher. 2012;4(1):7-14]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 2

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040112.02

 

Key words: Sewer drains, dilution, confluence zone, Ganga River canal, water quality degradation

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3

Study of the Manufacturing Parameters Affect the Fabrication of Nano and Micro Composites

 

Hebatalrahman, A

 Consultant in materials sciences and materials applications, Egypt

hebatalrahman11@yahoo.com, hebatalrahman@naseej.com

 

Abstract: In this research the fabrication quality parameters of micro and nano composites will be mentioned. The manufacturing parameter such as temperature, pressure, and cooling rate were studied. Poly methyl metha acrylate reinforced by fiber glass was considered as case study in the current work. The effect of fiber size (length to diameter ratio) and fiber volume fraction were evaluated. The fabrication temperature of the composite was evaluated. The factors affecting the heating rate such as power, volt and furnace efficiency were studied. At the end of research, the results and discussions explain the main parameters affecting fabrication of nano and micro composites.

[Hebatalrahman, A. Study of the Manufacturing Parameters Affect the Fabrication of Nano and Micro Composites. Researcher. 2012;4(1):15-23]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 3

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040112.03

 

Key words: Nano, Composite, thermoplastics, temperature, pressure, cooling rate, manufacturing, techniques

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4

Various Behavior Performed By Rhesus Monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1758)

 

1Ajay Kumar, 2Tarsem Kumar, 3Girish Chopra and 4Anita Kadian

 

1,2,3Department of Zoology (Wild life and animal behavior laboratory), Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India)

4Foreinsic Science Laboratory (Biology division), Madhuban-132001, Haryana (India)

1e-mail - ajayindorakuk@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out from February, 2008 to July, 2008 to record various types of behavior among rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1758) in Bir Sonty Reserve Forest, Haryana (India). Rhesus monkey is present in dominant number in Bir Sonty Reserve Forest. To study, behavioral among rhesus monkey direct contact method (Barwer, 1971) was followed. During periodic fortnightly visits (February, 2008 to July, 2008), rhesus macaques troops was monitored for performing different behavioral activity. During periodic visits seven number of behavior such as self-oriented active behavior (self manipulation, self grooming, auto eroctisum), self-oriented passive behavior (passive sitting, lateral lying, dorsal lying, supine, standing), environmental oriented behavior (locomotion, environmental manipulation, self play), associated behavior (visual oriented, approach, withdraw, follow, proximity, grooming, manipulation, non specific contact, gross body contact), aggressive behavior (threat, chase, clasp, bite), sexual behavior (present, mount, thrust) and mother-infant behavior (embrace, cradle, restrain, retrieve, retrieve, cremace, reject, punish, ventral contact, nipple contact, venual contact, dorsal contact) were observed.

[Ajay Kumar, Tarsem Kumar, Girish Chopra and Anita Kadian. Various Behavior Performed By Rhesus Monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1758). Researcher. 2012;4(1):24-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 4

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040112.04

 

Keywords: Rhesus monkey, Bir Sonty Reserve Forest, Behavioral study, Haryana, Mouse-deping

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5

Dynamic Distributed Web Caching With Knowledge based Clustering

 

Namit Gupta, Rajeev Kumar and Gulista Khan

 

Computer Sc. & Engg. Department, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

namit.k.gupta.coe@tmu.ac.in, rajeev2009mca@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The Distributed Web Caching System suffers from scalability and less robustness problem due to overloaded and congested proxy servers. Load Balancing and Clustering of proxy servers helps in fast retrieval of pages, but cannot ensure robustness of system. In this paper we have given solution for scalability and robustness of Distributed web caching System and for load balancing Clustering and metadata manageability. We have also refined our technique using proxy server clusters with knowledge based Clustering and dynamic allocation of requests. We devised an algorithm for Distributed Web Cache concepts with knowledge based clusters of proxy server based on geographical regions. It increases the scalability by maintaining metadata of neighbors. We are making clusters based on knowledge proxy serves having similar data are collectively make a cluster. Based on which hit ration will be high. It increases the scalability by maintaining metadata of neighbors collectively and balances load of proxy servers dynamically to other less congested proxy servers, so system doesn’t get down unless all proxy servers are fully loaded so higher robustness of system is achieved. This algorithm also guarantees data consistency between the original server object and the proxy cache objects using semaphore.

[Namit Gupta, Rajeev Kumar, Gulista Khan. Dynamic Distributed Web Caching with Knowlwdge Based Clustering. Researcher. 2012;4(1):30-36]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 5

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040112.05

 

Keywords: Distributed Web Caching; Knowledge based Clustering; Proxy Server; Latency; Hit Ratio; Metadata; Robustness.

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6

Current Status of Mycorrhizal Spore Numbers and Root Colonization of Hevea Saplings as Affected By Seasonal Variations in Plantations of Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Iyanomo.

 

Omorusi, V.I1., Igeleke. C.L2., Ogbebor, N.O1., Evueh, G.A1., Omo-Ikerodah, E.E1,*

 

1. Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Iyanomo, Benin City, Nigeria.

2. Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Nigeria.

*eomoikerodah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Monoclonal Hevea seedlings, RRIM 600, Tjir1, and GT1, at 17 months old, were evaluated for varying levels of mycorrhizal spore soil content and root colonization at three months interval for one year in 2001, under influence of season from March and December. Results showed that significant differences in spore numbers existed and were evidently higher in the dry season from December to March, but were reduced during the rainy season compared to lack of marked differences in the root colonization occurring through out the year and ranged from 40-64% among the test clones. Tjir1 exhibited greater degree of root colonization than RRIM 600 and GT1. Seedlings harvested in June had large crop of fresh internal roots with numerous ultimate rootlets. The present study was aimed at elucidating factors implicated in the results presented.

[Omorusi, V.I., Igeleke. C.L., Ogbebor, N.O., Evueh, G.A., Omo-Ikerodah, E.E. Current Status of Mycorrhizal Spore Numbers and Root Colonization of Hevea Saplings as Affected By Seasonal Variations in Plantations of Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Iyanomo. Researcher. 2012;4(1):37-41]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 6

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040112.06

 

Key words: Hevea clones, mycorrhizal spores, root colonization seasonal variation.

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7

Reproductive Behavior in Rhesus Monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1758) in Bir Sonty Reserve Forest, Haryana (India)

 

1Ajay Kumar, 2Girish Chopra and 3Manoj Kumar Malik

 

1,2Department of Zoology (Wild Life and Animal Behavior Laboratory), Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, India

3Forensic Science laboratory (Biology division), Madhuban, Karnal-132001, Haryana (India).

1e-mail - ajayindorakuk@yahoo.com; indoraajay@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out from February, 2008 to July, 2008 to record reproductive behavior of Rhesus monkey in Bir Sonty Reserve forest (BSRF), Haryana (India). Study of reproductive behavior among rhesus monkey Direct contact method (Barwer, 1971) was followed. Three troops of Macaca mulatta in Bir Sonti Reserve forest (T-I, T-II, T-III) were selected. In present study, it was observed that rhesus macaques show reproductive activity when female attain average age of 3 years and male attain average age of 5 years. During breeding period female spent more time with male and starts activity likes, proximity, reciprocal grooming, copulation, restlessness and excitement. Three types of reproductive activity i.e., present, mount and thrust performed by rhesus monkey was observed. During periodic visits it is observed that breeding among rhesus macaques occurred in all the year and female give to born new infants with an average mass 480 g. These infants seen in mostly in the month of February to next month of the year. During the present study, it was observed that number of infants in troop-I varied from 4 (February, 2008) to 8 (July, 2008), in troop-II varied from 7 (February, 2008) to 11 (July, 2008) and in troop-III varied from 6 (February, 2008) to 9 (July, 2008). It is estimated that addition of infants maximum 2 (May, 2008) in troop-I, 2 (June, 2008) of troop-II and 2 in (May, 2008) of troop-III.

[Ajay Kumar, Girish Chopra and Manoj Kumar Malik. Reproductive Behavior in Rhesus Monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1758) in Bir Sonty Reserve Forest, Haryana (India). Researcher. 2012;4(1):42-47]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 7

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040112.07

 

Keywords- Rhesus monkey, Reproductive Behavior, Bir Sonty Reserve Forest, Haryana

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8

Production of alkaline β-mannosidase by Bacillus sp. 3A in Solid State Fermentation using different Agro Wastes

 

Onilude AA1, Fadahunsi IF1, Garuba EO2, Anita U1

 

1 Microbial Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2 Department of Biological Sciences, Bowen University Iwo, Iwo, Nigeria

oluwaseungaruba@live.com

 

Abstract: Production of alkaline β-mannosidase by Bacillus sp. 3A in solid state fermentation using five different agro waste materials was investigated. All the substrates investigated supported the growth of Bacillus sp. 3A and enzyme production at different levels. Orange peels supported the highest production of 20.740.62 nkat/ml followed by plantain peels (15.571.56 nkat/ml). Sugar cane pulp and potato peels stimulated β-mannosidase production of 7.680.15 nkat/ml and 11.670.09 nkat/ml respectively while the lowest β-mannosidase titre of 5.742.09 nkat/ml was recorded in mango peels. Further optimization studies using the best three substrates (Orange, plantain and potato peels) revealed that a % moisture content of 110% stimulated highest enzyme titre in all the three substrates. An inoculum density of 6% and incubation period of 120 h were found to be optimum for highest β-mannosidase by the organism in the substrates while an incubation temperature of 35 C supported maximum β-mannosidase production all the three substrates investigated. The addition of different nitrogen sources to the complex carbon sources revealed that ammonium nitrate at 6% (w/v) supported the maximum enzyme accumulation of 21.110.01 nkat/ml in plantain peels while 6% (w/v) soy bean meal stimulated 24.080.2 nkat/ml and 25.880.3 nkat/ml in potato and orange peels respectively.

[Onilude AA, Fadahunsi IF, Garuba EO, Anita U. Production of alkaline β-mannosidase by Bacillus sp 3A in solid state fermentation using different agro wastes. Researcher. 2012;4(1):48-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 8

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040112.08

 

Key words: Bacillus sp. 3A, agro waste, solid state fermentation

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9

Exacerbating effect of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection on sub clinical caecal coccidiosis in broilers vaccinated against NDV

 

Shaban, Kh.S.

 

Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

khalid_vetr @yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study reports the effect of experimental infection with NDV on the sub clinical caecal coccidiosis in broiler birds vaccinated against NDV. For this purpose 300 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (G1, G2, and G3) of 100. The birds were placed on floor pens in separated rooms. At 15 days of age G3 was infected intra crop with a dose of 12500 sporulated oocysts of a field strain of caecal E. species, which suspected to be E. tenella isolated from clinically affected broiler flock with cecal coccidiosis. G1 and G2 were not challenged and remained as control negative for coccidia. Management and nutrition were the same in all groups. All groups of birds were vaccinated at 4th day of age with Infectious Bronchitis (IB) virus vaccine (H120 strain) by eye drop method. At 7th day of age NDV vaccines (Inactivated and Hitchener B1) were given by subcutaneous (SC) and eye drop routes respectively for G2 and G3. The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine and Inactivated H5N2 Avian Influenza (AI) virus vaccine were given at 13th day of age for all groups by eye drop and SC routes respectively. At 17th day of age G2 and G3 were also vaccinated against NDV with Lasota strain vaccine by eye drop while G1 was not vaccinated with any one of NDV vaccines and remained as a blank. The challenging NDV was given for all groups at 25th day of age by intramuscular (IM) injection. The birds of G1 exhibited 100% mortality with obvious PM lesion of NDV infection. The birds of G2 showed torticollis in one bird only. The birds of the G3 started dying with bloody diarrhea a day post challenging with NDV and the clinical signs, postmortem (PM) findings and response to treatment were used to confirm coccidiosis. The rapid onset of the clinical disease and the high mortality rate (36% over a period of 5 days) was considered to have been induced by the challenging NDV administration. The diagnosis of sub clinical coccidiosis and institution of prophylactic anticoccidial therapy would have obviated the clinical disease in the field.

[Shaban, Kh.S. Exacerbating effect of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection on sub clinical caecal coccidiosis in broilers vaccinated against NDV] Researcher, 2012; 4(1):55-59]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040112.09

 

Keyword: Chicken, Coccidiosis, NDV, Subc;inical Coccidiosis, Coccidiosis

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10

Bioremediation the toxic effect of mercury on liver histopathology, some hematological parameters and enzymatic activity in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

 

Hussein A. Kaoud1, Khaled M.A. Mahran2, Ahmed Rezk1 and Mahmoud A. Khalf1

 

1Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

2 Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

 ka-oud@link.net

 

Abstract: The effect of mercury (Hg) toxicity, its impact on liver histopathology, hematological and biochemical changes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromius niloticus) were studied. The bioremediation effects of Spirulina platensis were investigated through semi-static acute toxicity test developed with mercury chloride (HgCl2). Fingerlings (4.450.31 cm and 2.35 0.18g) were kept during 96 hours in 5-liter glass aquaria, according to the following mercury concentrations, set up in three replicates: 0.00 (control 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40 mg Hg L-1. The value of LC50-96h was estimated in 0.300 mg Hg L-1. Fish exposed to Hg resulted in significant reduction (P< 0.05) of the erythrocyte count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb) and haematocrit value (Hct). Significant changes in plasma aspartate aminotranseferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) were observed in fish exposed to Hg. Results also, indicated that Spirulina platensis was effective in removing Hg from water. Hg concentration in water was 69.8800.156 g L-1 and it decreased significantly (P< 0.05). The addition of dried Spirulina platensis improves the haematological parameters (RBCs, Hb and Hct) and ameliorates the toxic effect of Hg which indicating the capability of Spirulina platensis to chelate Hg from the media.

[Hussein A. Kaoud, Khaled M.A. Mahran, Ahmed Rezk and Mahmoud A. Khalf. Bioremediation the toxic effect of mercury on liver histopathology, some hematological parameters and enzymatic activity in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Researcher. 2012;4(1):60-69]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 10

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040112.10

 

Key words: Mercury; hematological, and biochemical changes; Spirulina platensis; Oreochromis niloticus.

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11

Using Shanchol Oral Vaccines To Prevent Cholera In children Under Five Years Of Age: A Deterministic Modeling Approach

 

 M. A. Liman 1, M. O. Ibrahim 2 and A. I. Enagi 3

 

1. Department Of Mathematics, Niger State College Of Education, Minna

2. Department Of Mathematics, Usman Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.

 3. Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal University of Technology, Minna

limanma@yahoo.com, moibraheem@yahoo.co, aienagi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cholera epidemic remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of social development in most part of third world countries. Cases tend to be clustered by location as well as season, with most infections occurring in children ages 1-5 years. This research provides new mathematical deterministic compartmental models for preventive cholera transmission dynamics, using Shanchol Oral Vaccines for under five years age. These models were built on SIR and vibrio cholera (B) models.The transmission means; global impact and preventive mechanism of disease are discussed. We establish the Disease free and the endemic equilibrium states, and carried out the stability analysis of the Disease free equilibrium. It is shown that the model disease free equilibrium is locally and globally stable in as much we keep value of T < 0 and D > 0 (the state of complete eradication of cholera from entire population).

[M. A. Liman, M. O. Ibrahim and A. I. Enagi. Using Shanchol Oral Vaccines To Prevent Cholera In children Under Five Years Of Age: A Deterministic Modeling Approach. Researcher. 2012;4(1):70-74]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 11

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040112.11

 

 Key worlds: Shanchol oral vaccines, disease free equilibrium, stability and immunity

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12

Effect of Amino Acids on the Growth and Production of Steroids in Date Palm Using Tissue Culture Technique

 

Sherif El-Sharabasy1, Mai Ahmed Farag2, Gehan A.E.El-Emery3, Gehan Safwat2,4 and Ayman Diab1,5

 

1 The Central Laboratory for Date Palm Research and Development

2 Faculty of Biotechnology, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA).

3 Institute of Efficient Productivity, Zigzag University, Egypt

4 Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre, Egypt

5Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Egypt

gigi@msa.eun.eg

 

Abstract: The present investigation studied the effect of amino acids (Glutamine, Spermidine and Asparagine) with different concentration (50, 250.500 mg/l) used as precursors to produce secondary metabolites (steroids) and growth development during different stages (callus, embryoids and shooting) of date palm (Malakaby cv.). In Embryogenic callus stage, callus volume was the highest (4.00) when treated with any of the three amino acids, 50 mg/l of Glutamine or Asparagine showed no effect compared to the control giving the lowest callus volume (3.00). Total steroids in callus tissues clearly showed that using Glutamine 250 mg/l in medium gave the highest steroid content 0.662 mg/g and percentage (336% of control), while the lowest (0.111mg/g) was found with Asparagine (500mg/l) and 56.35% of control. Glutamine at 250 mg/l resulted in the highest weight of embryos (2.100 gm). As well as, 500 mg/l Spermidine seemed to be the best amino acid used in order to stimulate steroid biosynthesis resulting in 202.1% of control (0.782 mg/g). In shooting stage, according to the number of shoots, the highest number of shoots (2.33) was achieved with Glutamine and Spermidine at 500 mg/l. In shoot weight, the highest weight (7.267 gm) was achieved by using 500mg/l Glutamine, as to steroid biosynthesis in shooting stage, the best result obtained, were by using Glutamine at 500 mg/l which gave highest steroid biosynthesis (0.534mg/g), 206.0% of control.

[Sherif El-Sharabasy, Mai Ahmed Farag, Gehan A.E.El-Emery, Gehan Safwat and Ayman DiabEffect of Amino Acids on the Growth and Production of Steroids in Date Palm Using Tissue Culture Technique. Researcher. 2012;4(1):75-84]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 12

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040112.12

 

Keyword Glutamine, Spermidine, Asparagine

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from 12/12/2012. 

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