Science Journal


Volume 4 - Issue 4 (Cumulated No. 34), April 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-9865
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0404

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Titles / Authors




Organizational Climate of Special Schools of Jammu Division


Dr. Tasleema Jan1, Tahseena Bashir Tarfarosh 2, Muddasir Hamid Malik 2


1 Assistant professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir

2 Research scholar, Department of Education, University of Kashmir

Email: malikjavaid321@gmail.com; Malikrashida6@gmail.com


Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to study and compare the organizational climate of government versus private and urban versus rural special schools of jammu division. The sample taken for this study consisted of 12 special schools operative in jammu division and all the teachers working in these special schools. The data was collected with the help of organizational climate scale developed by Sanjyot Pethi, Dhar. The analysis of the data revealed that government special schools have high organizational climate as compared to private special schools. It further revealed that there was no significant difference between urban and rural special schools in the light of organizational climate.

[Tasleema Jan, Tahseena Bashir Tarfarosh, Muddasir Hamid Malik. Organizational Climate of Special Schools of Jammu Division. Researcher. 2012;4(4):1-3]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1



Key words: Organisational climate, special schools

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Study of Proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient composition of Punica granatum seeds from North-Western Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia


Dangoggo,S.M.1 ; Bunu, M.I*.2; Uba, A.1 and Saidu,Y.3


1 Department of pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto.

2 Department of chemistry, Federal College of Education, Kontagora, Niger State.

3Department of Biochemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto


ABSTRACT: The seeds of Punica granatum fruit from Nigeria and Saudi Arabia were analyzed for nutritional and anti-nutritional composition using standard analytical methods. The results obtained were studied. The results obtained show that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in percentage ash, moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, crude fiber, available carbohydrate and the energy value .Elemental analyses show that magnesium is the most abundant elements in the seeds of both countries Nigeria and Saudi Arabia (5650mg/100g) and (1140.1mg/100g) respectively, this may be due to its availability soil where it was grown, while copper and zinc are the least abundant. The result of anti-nutritional analyses indicate significance difference (p<0.05) in hydrocyanic acid, nitrate, soluble oxalate, phytate and tannin. The anti-nutrients to nutrients ratio indicate the availability of some minerals. The study show that differences and similarities in nutritive contents with respect to Protein, Fiber, Fat / Lipids, Calcium, Iron magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, etc in the two samples may be due to climatic condition, genetic factor, mode of cultivation, topography and other factors. Considering the nutritional and anti-nutritional profile of the two samples, it can be conclude that the seed is a very good source of some nutrients which if utilized properly would assist in providing some of these nutrients to the people in the society; this may assist in combating the problem of malnutrition in Nigeria and Africa in general.

[Dangoggo, S.M.; Bunu, M.I.; Uba, A. and Saidu, Y. Study of Proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient composition of Punica granatum seeds from North-Western Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Researcher. 2012;4(4):4-9]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2



Keywords: Proximate; mineral; anti-nutrient composition; Punica granatum; seed; Saudi Arabia

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Assessment of the Groundwater Potential of a Typical “Fadama” in Kaduna State, Nigeria


Isaac Oladejo Olaniyan1 and Olusola Timothy Olabode2


1. Department of Agricultural Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria

2. Department of Hydrogeology, National Water Resources Institute, Kaduna, Nigeria

dejoolaniyan@yahoo.com, oolusolatimothy@yahoo.com


Abstract: River courses on the Basement Complex are often characterized by a narrow strip of alluvium called “fadama”. Several fadamas abound all over Kaduna State, and they have become a source of livelihood for many farmers who depend on the swampy conditions for both wet season and dry season crop production. In order to assess the groundwater potential of a fadama in Kaduna State for irrigation, 20 Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were made and the existing borehole data were obtained. Geophysical investigation results were found to be consistent with the interpreted drilling data. With good recharge capability, shallow depth to water table (generally within 1-10m), tested yield of between 1.3 to 10m3/h, permeability range of 0.13 to 0.48 m/day, and an estimated groundwater storage capacity of about 23.6 million m3, there is indeed a great groundwater potential for irrigated farming, and possibly rural water supply in the fadama.

[Isaac Oladejo Olaniyan, Olusola Timothy Olabode. Assessment of the Groundwater Potential of a Typical “Fadama” in Kaduna State Nigeria. Researcher. 2012;4(4):10-15]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).http://www.sciencepub.net. 3



Keywords: Fadama, groundwater potential, groundwater storage, irrigated farming, aquiferous zone

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The Effect of Graphic Organizer and Marginal L2 Glossing Training on the Reading Comprehension of ESP Students


Zahra Rostami Sarabi.


Shahid Beheshti University. Tehran, Iran.

MA. Graduate student in TEFL. Lecturer of State Shahed University in Tehran. Sarah_rostami1985@yahoo.com.


Abstract: There have been a plethora of seminal studies regarding teaching reading strategies to ESL and EFL learners, but teaching reading strategies to ESP students has been given scant attention in language teaching. The guiding theme of this research was prompted by awareness of marketing university students’ problems understanding business texts in English. In other words, this study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of using two reading strategies (i.e. graphic organizer and marginal L2 glossing) in ESP students’ reading comprehension. The Students who participated in this study were randomly assigned to “graphic organizer” treatment, “marginal L2 glossing” treatment, and a control group. The result of this quasi-experimental study revealed that both treatment groups outperformed the control group in the reading comprehension posttest. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between the means for the graphic organizer and marginal glossing groups in favor of the graphic organizer group. In other words, the result of this study indicated that the graphic organizer group performed significantly better than the other two groups in reading comprehension of business texts. The Students in the graphic organizer group were provided by a “structured picture” of the concepts of the texts.

[Zahra Rostami Sarabi. The Effect of Graphic Organizer and Marginal L2 Glossing Training on the Reading Comprehension of ESP Students. Researcher. 2012;4(4):16-23]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4



Keywords: Graphic organizer, marginal L2 glossing, reading comprehension, ESP learners.

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Emotional Intelligence Of Children Of Working And Non-Working Mothers


Dr. Mahmood Ahmad Khan 1, Asma Hassan 2


  1. Dean & Head, Faculty of Education, University of Kashmir, India

  2. Research Scholar, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, India



ABSTRACT: The study was under taken to study the emotional intelligence of children of working and non-working mothers. The sample of the study comprised of 100 children (50 children of working mothers and 50 children of non-working mothers) selected randomly from all Govt. High and Higher Secondary Schools of zone Shopian. Emotional intelligence scale by Hyde et al was employed for the collection of data and ‘t’ test was used for the analysis of data. Bar diagrams and Line graphs were drawn to make the results transparent. The results of the study highlight that children of non-working mothers are more emotionally intelligent than children of working mothers. Children of working and non-working mothers show significant difference in self-awareness, empathy, self-motivation, emotional stability, managing relations, integrity, self-development and altruistic behaviour. Children of non-working mothers have been found clear in their priorities, pay more attention to the worries and concerns of others. They are found to be friendly, sociable, helpful and skilful in dealing with people. They are found to be more responsible, more comfortable to novel ideas and new information. They face boldly good and bad situations. They are more aware of their weaknesses, are more co-operative, helpful, outgoing and democratic. They are better able to encourage people to take initiative. They can handle conflicts around them more intelligently than the children of working mothers. No significant difference was found in value orientation and commitment between children of working and non-working mothers.

[Mahmood Ahmad Khan, Asma Hassan. Emotional Intelligence Of Children Of Working And Non-Working Mothers. Researcher. 2012;4(4):24-31]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5



Keywords: emotional intelligence, Children, Working and Non- Working, Mothers

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Immunosuppressive Potential of Acute Caecal Coccidiosis as Well As Anticoccidial Vaccine on Antibody Titers Induced by Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Vaccines in Broiler chickens.


Shaban, KH. S


Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt


Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the most prevalent and highly virulent coccidial infection (caecal coccidiosis) as well as anticoccidial vaccination on haemagglutinating antibody titers of Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) antibody ELISA titers resulted from vaccination program in broiler chickens. For this purpose, 180 day old Hubbard broiler chicks were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (G1, G2 and G3), each of 60 chicks. At 3rd day of age birds of G1 was vaccinated with anticoccidial vaccine via crop, and at 14th day of age birds of G2 was infected with high dose (50000) of sporulated E. tenella oocysts intra crop, while birds of G3 remain as control (Non coccidia vaccinated or infected). At 14th, 21th and 28th days of age, mean HI antibody titers of G3 were higher than G2 and G1 groups. At 21th and 28th days of age, mean HI antibody titers for NDV as well as mean ELISA antibody titers for IBDV of G2 were significantly lower than other groups (p≤0.05). At 35th and 42th days of age HI titers of G3 and G1 were higher than G2, but the differences were not significant (p>0.05). The mean HI antibody titers for NDV as well as mean ELISA antibody titers for IBDV of G1 had non-significant lowering values than those of G3 at all ages (p>0.05). It was concluded that coccidial infections as well as anticoccidial vaccination are able to reduce humeral immunological reactions of broiler chickens as indicated by the significant reduction in mean HI antibody titers for NDV and mean ELISA antibody titers for IBDV as well as the significant lowering in the protection percentage against challenge with VVND and virulent IBDV in these chickens. Since this effect was more prominent in infected group than in anticoccidial vaccinated one, in the cases of coccidiosis outbreaks in the farm with higher levels of coccidial infections, involvement of mixed virulent species (E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. acervulina, E. maxima….. ect.) and other environmental stressors, more severe and prolonged immunosuppresion are expected.

[Shaban, KH. S. Immunosuppressive Potential of Acute Caecal Coccidiosis as Well As Anticoccidial Vaccine on Antibody Titers Induced by Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Vaccines in Broiler chickens. Researcher. 2012;4(4):32-36]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 6



Key words: Immunosuppretion, Chickens, IBDV, NDV, Coccidiosis, anticoccidial vaccine.

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Pathogenic Microorganisms Associated With Flies Within Uyo Metropolis During The Wet Season


Adebayo-Tayo BC1, Ekanem MS2, Odu NN3, Igwiloh NJPN3, Okonko IO3


1Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Depertment of Zoology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng


Abstract: This study reports on pathogenic microorganisms associated with flies within Uyo metropolis during the wet season. Flies were collected from ten (10) different sites within Uyo metropolis in the month of July. The sites were characterized into institutional areas, market areas, congested areas and affluent areas. The pour plate method was employed for the determination of microbial load of samples using standard methods. The microbial counts of the various fly samples analyzed for the months of July and August showed that the total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 4.8 x 104 cfu/g to 18.9 x 104 cfu/g. Total coliform ranged from 4.9 x 104 cfu/g to 13.0 x 104 cfu/g, Salmonella/Shigella count ranged from 4.1 x 104 cfu/g to 2.16 x 104 cfu/g. Vibro count was 2.6 x 104 cfu/g to 18.3 x 104 cfu/g, Staphylococcus count was 2.5 x 104 cfu/g to 3.2 x 104 cfu/g and 1.1 x 104 cfu/g to 1.9 x 104 cfu/g for fungal count. For the month of August, the total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 4.6 x 104 cfu/g to 17.4 x 104cfu/g, 8.2 x 104cfu/g to 15.3 x 104 cfu/g, for total coliform, 5.4 x 104 cfu/g to 15.6 x 104cfu/g for Salmonella/Shigella count, 2.7 x 104cfu/g to 14.1 x 104cfu/g for Vibro count, 3.1 x 104cfu/g to 5.4 x 104cfu/g for Staphylococcus count and 1.4 x 104cfu/g to 3.1 x 104cfu/g for fungal count. The frequency of occurrence of the isolates showed that bacteria (57.8%) were more predominant than fungi isolates (42.2%). It showed that Salmonella spp., [18 (34.6%)] was the most prevalent bacterial isolates. This was followed by Shigella spp. [10 (19.2%)], Vibrio cholerae [8 (15.4%)], Vibrio parahaemolyticus [6 (11.5%)], Escherichia coli [4 (7.7%)], and Staphylococcus aureus [3 (5.8%)]. Pseudomonas aeruginosa [1(1.9%)], Bacillus spp., [1(1.9%)] and Aeromonas spp. [1 (1.9%)] were less prevalent. The frequency of occurrence of fungal isolates showed that Penicillium spp. [16(42.1)] was most prevalent fungi isolates among the flies studied, followed by Aspergillus fumigatus [10(26.3%)], Aspergillus niger [7(18.4%)] and Verticillium spp., [2 (5.3%)] while Paecilomyces spp. [1(2.6%)], Mucor spp. [1(2.6%)] and Aspergillus spp. [1(2.6%)] were less prevalent. This study has so far established that flies pose a possible health risk to both man and his environment. Thus, the introduction of strict public health measures is however needed in homes, public places and the environment at large.

[Adebayo-Tayo BC, Ekanem MS, Odu NN, Igwiloh NJPN, Okonko IO. Pathogenic Microorganisms Associated With Flies Within Uyo Metropolis During The Wet Season. Researcher. 2012;4(4):37-42]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 7



Keywords: Flies, public health, pathogenic microorganisms, total heterotrophic bacterial counts, total coliform

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In vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. an important antidiabetic medicinal plant.


Pratibha Gupta1, Shagufta khan2, Sujata Ganguly 3, Pratibha Singh4


1,3Department of Botany, Govt Motilal Vigyan Mahavidhyalaya Bhopal, 2GrowTips Biotech, Bhopal, 4Department of Botany, Sarojini Naidu Govt. Girls P.G. (Autonomous) college Bhopal, Barkatullah University Bhopal (M.P.)


Abstract: Efficient culture medium and culture condition (dark /light period) for each step of In vitro seeds germination and growth of seedlings were determined in Gymnema silvestra R.Br. Different ages (immature, mature and dry seeds) of seeds germination were found within 6 to 10 days on MS half /MS full medium and growth of seedlings were obtained on MS medium in six weeks. The maximum percentage of seeds germination (98+0.30%) were found on MS half strength medium incubated 120 hours in dark period from immature seeds. Numbers of seeds germination were observed on MS half and full basal medium with 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar with longer dark period. Germinated seeds were subculture on MS salt supplemented with BAP, NAA and KI (alone and in combination) with different concentration. The best seedlings growths (6.0+0.31cm.) were obtained on MS medium containing (BAP-1.0mgL-1+ NAA-0.1mgL-1 + KI-0.5mgL-1) within six weeks culture.

[Pratibha Gupta, Shagufta khan, Sujata Ganguly, Pratibha Singh. In vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. an important antidiabetic medicinal plant. Researcher. 2012;4(4):43-50]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.. 8



Key words- BAP – (6- Benzyl amino purine), NAA – (1- Naphthalene acidic acid), Kinetin-(6- furfuryl aminopurine), MS- Murashige & skoog, Immature seeds (green seeds), Mature seeds (yellow seeds), Dry seeds (brown seeds), Gymnema sylvestr R.Br.

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The Effect of Klebsiella pnemoniae on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)\


Udeze AO1, Talatu M1, Ezediokpu MN2, Nwanze JC3, Onoh C3, Okonko IO2


1Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria;

2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East/West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria;

3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng


The objective of this study is to isolate, identify and evaluate the effect of Klebsiella pnemoniae in relation to the catfish, by isolating the microorganisms present on the catfish skin and intestine. To find out if Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria isolate can survive in the fish (immunity of fish) and observation of the public health hazard that bacteria i.e. test organism and natural flora exposes the people to, samples of catfish were analyzed using standard techniques. The physicochemical analysis showed that there were changes in the pH, the temperature and the dissolved oxygen of the water samples. The distributions of the bacteria species isolated from the catfish intestine and on the skin showed that Klebsiella pneumoniae [12(25.0%)] was the most predominant bacteria isolates. This was followed by Enterococcus feacalis [9(18.6%)], Staphylococcus aureus [7(14.6%)], Escherichia coli [6(12.5%)], Citrobacter ferundii [5(10.4%)], Pseudomonas aeruginosa [5(10.4%)], and Bacillus subtilis [4(8.3%)]. It also showed that Enterococcus feacalis and Citrobacter ferundii were absent in all the skin samples of the catfish but present in all the intestines. Klebsiella pneumoniae was present on all the skin and intestines of the catfish samples. Escherichia coli were present in all the skin and intestine except for skin of the catfish samples in Experiment 1. Bacillus subtilis was only present in the skin of the catfishes used as control. Staphylococcus aureus was absent in all the intestine of the catfishes samples but present in their skins. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was absent in all the samples except for the intestines of the catfishes used as control and those in experiment 2. Generally, Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculated into catfish Clarias gariepinus presented to be virulent in the fishes leading to shedding of skin patches and fading of colour on skin from black to faint black. The findings of this study showed that Klebsiella pneumoniae may cause an infection in catfish and can act as a vector of human pathogen. Furthermore, other bacteria were isolated which may be resident flora of the catfish. Therefore, it is important to handle fishes with proper hygiene and best public health measures since fishes are used for consumption.

[Udeze AO, Talatu M, Ezediokpu MN, Nwanze JC, Onoh C, Okonko IO. The Effect of Klebsiella pnemoniae on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Researcher. 2012;4(4):51-59]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 9



Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, E. feacalis, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, E. coli, C. ferundii, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis

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Detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antigen among Attendees of a Fertility Clinic in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria


Ogiogwa IO1, Motayo BO1, Okerentugba PO2, Innocent-Adiele HC2, Tafeng Y3, Onoh CC4, Nwanze JC4, Okonko IO2


1Microbiology Unit, Federal Medical Center, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Niger Delta University, Yenogoa, Nigeria.

4Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel: +234-80-3538-0891


Abstract: Infertility is the biological inability of a man or woman to contribute to conception. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most implicated organism in infertility. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of recent Chlamydia trachomatis infection by antigen detection in couples with various forms of infertility. Three hundred and fifteen (315) subjects comprising 108 (24.3%) males and 207(75.7%) females, attending fertility clinic at Federal Medical Center, Abeokuta. High vaginal swabs and semen were collected and processed for microscopy; semen was analyzed for count and morphology following standard methods. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen was tested on all samples using an immunochomatographic rapid test kit. Overall prevalence rate of Chlamydia trachomatis was found to be 9.8%. Prevalence rate of Chlamydia trachomatis was highest in age group 31-40 years of age, when compared to other age groups. It also showed that Chlamydia trachomatis antigen was more prevalent among females (11.6%) compared to their male counterparts having 6.5% positivity. Antigen positivity was highest in subfertile group (26.3%) and lowest in secondary infertility group (8.3%). It was also higher in Azoospermic male subjects than Oligozoospermic or normal ranged subjects. From the findings of this study, it can be concluded that there was no strong independent evidence showing any association between Chlamydia trachomatis antigen positivity and infertility in couples at Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, although more case controlled studies are needed to further investigate any relationships between infertility and recent Chlamydia infection in our environment. However, there is strong evidence that adult couples in the prime of their reproductive age pose the risk of exposure to Chlamydia trachomatis. Thus, concerted efforts to address possible risk factors which are proxies to acquisition of Chlamydia trachomatis, and better health seeking behavior by couples intending to have children will likely reduce the burden of infertility in Nigerian couples.

[Ogiogwa IO, Motayo BO, Okerentugba PO, Innocent-Adiele HC, Tafeng Y, Onoh CC, Nwanze JC, Okonko IO. Detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antigen among Attendees of a Fertility Clinic in Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria. Researcher. 2012; 4(4):60-64]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net.10



Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis, Antigen, Infertility, Nigeria

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Effect of heavy metal Cadmium sulphate on the toxicity and biochemical parameters of Reproductive cycle of Colisa fasciatus


Sangita Tripathi, Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra and S.P. Tripathi


P.G. Department of Zoology, M.G.P.G. College, Gorakhpur, 273 001, India. b2mishra123@gmail.com


Abstract: Freshwater fish, Colisa fasciatus caught from lake was studied for toxicity and biochemical parameters in reproductive cycle and was compared with control fish. Fish liver was dissected out and analyzed for various biochemical parameters like total protein, total glycogen, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). Cadmium Sulphate was lethal to 0, 50 and 100% of test fish which produce absolute mortality for four different time intervals. Sub-lethal exposure of Cadmium Sulphate for 30 days caused significant (p>0.05) alternation in total protein, total glycogen nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and body weight in both testicular cycle and ovarian cycle of C. fasciatus.

[Sangita Tripathi, Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra and S.P. Tripathi. Effect of heavy metal Cadmium sulphate on the toxicity and biochemical parameters of Reproductive cycle of Colisa fasciatus. Researcher. 2012;4(4):65-68]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 11



Key words: Heavy metal, cadmium sulphate, toxicity, biochemical parameters, reproductive cycle.

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Molecular genotyping of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Egypt


2Maha, A.N. Gamal; 2Soliman, Y.A.; and 2Khalil, S. A


 1Central Laboratory for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics, Abbasia, Cairo, Egypt

2Vet. Collage, Virology Depart. Alex University, Egypt



Abstract: Avian influenza virus usually refers to influenza A viruses found chiefly in birds, but infections can occur in humans. The risk is generally low to most people, because the viruses do not usually infect humans. However, confirmed cases of human infection have been reported since 1997by H5N1 subtype. In the current study, a highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 was isolated and confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed some degree of heterogeneity withers on the level of HA or HI. The poly basic amino acid sequence of the isolated virus was similar to the highly pathogenic strains of H5N1 (PQGE (R/G/K)RRKKR↓GLF) with some strains having differences in the 5th amino acid were the R residues were substituted with either G or K. phylogenetic tree revealed that 3 out of the 7 studied samples were greatly homologues while the other 4 samples were widely heterologous.

[Maha, A.N. Gamal; Soliman, Y.A., and Khalil, S. A. Molecular genotyping of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Egypt. Researcher. 2012;4(4):69-76]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 12



Key words: avian influenza; haemagglutinin gene; neuraminidase gene; highly pathogenic; cleavage site.

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Barriers to Adoption of some Agricultural Innovations in a Village in the New Valley Governorate


Ahmed Mohamed Diab1; Ahmed A. Ibrahim2; Zenat H. El-Sharief1 and Amro B. El-Shrabassee2


1 Agric. Extension Dept, Socio-Economic Studies Division, Desert Research Center

2 Rural Sociology & Agric. Extension Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University



Abstract: This research aims to determine rates of adoption and continuation of some selected innovations (Wheat Seds1, El-Gorma Watermelon, Sprinkler Irrigation System, and Sugar Beet) and to determine perceived barriers to adoption and diffusion of these selected innovations from farmers' point of view. In order to achieve these objectives, an empirical study targeted all farmers of The Third Village in Darb El-Arbaeen area, Paris District, The New Valley Governorate. Data were collected during January 2008 through personal interviews with farmers using a questionnaire form constructed and pre-tested to fulfill the study objectives. Frequencies and percentages were used for data processing and presentation. Results showed that high price of fertilizers, its unavailability and high shelling of grains were the most important barriers to the adoption and diffusion of Wheat Seds1. Lack of farmers experience and lack of extension activities were the most important barriers to the adoption and diffusion of El-Gorma Watermelon. Barrier to the adoption and diffusion of Sprinkler Irrigation System were: (1) it requires more labor, (2) it requires more effort, time, and money, (3) losses in yields caused by transferring pipes, (4) damage of pipes, (5) type of soil is not suitable, and (6) prefer surface irrigation system. Barriers to the adoption and diffusion Sugar Beet were: sugar factory did not implement its promises, lack and late arrival of transportation means, prefer wheat cultivation and have no experience about it.

[Ahmed Mohamed Diab; Ahmed A. Ibrahim; Zenat H. El-Sharief and Amro B. El-Shrabassee. Barriers to Adoption of some Agricultural Innovations in a Village in the New Valley Governorate. Researcher. 2012;4(4):77-82]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 13



Key words: Agricultural innovations, Barriers to Adoption, Egypt

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Micropropagation of Salvadora oleoides Decne through shoot tip explants


1J.S. Laura , 2Narender Singh and 1 Surender Kumar*


Department of Enironmental Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak (India)

1Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra(India)

*Email- suren_kr@yahoo.co.in


Abstract: In vitro multiple shoot regeneration of Salvadora oleoides has been accomplished on MS medium utilizing shoot tip explants. Direct multiple shoots differentiated with in 5 weeks when explants were cultured on MS medium containing Kn and BAP individually as well as in combination with auxins. Among various concentrations of cytokinins tested, maximum shoots induction from shoot tip explants was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mgl-1 BAP individually. 2.5 mgl-1 BAP+0.25 mgl-1 NAA gave better results than all other treatments used in combinations. The regenerated shoots were rooted on MS full strength medium augmented with 1.0 mgl-1 NAA. The regenerated plantlets were established successfully under field conditions.

[J.S. Laura, Narender Singh and Surender Kumar. Micropropagation of Salvadora oleoides Decne through shoot tip explants. Researcher. 2012; 4(4):83-87]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net. 14



Key words- Shoot tip, Salvadora oleoides , Micropropagation, Cytokinins, auxins

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Ecologically friendly alkaline pulping of pigeon pea stalks from Sudan


1Tarig Osman Khider*, 2Safaa Omer, 3Osman Taha and 3Suhair Kamal Shomeina


1 Department of Pulp and Paper, College of Applied and Industrial Sciences, University of Bahri- Khartoum state, Sudan, Telephone 00249922240925

Email: tkhider@yahoo.com

2Department of Forestry, College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Bahri- Khartoum, Sudan

3 Cellulose Chemistry and Technology Research Unit National Centre of Research, Khartoum, Sudan


Abstract: Pigeon pea stalks, agricultural residues from Gezira state –Sudan were pulped with alkaline sulphite, alkaline sulphite anthraquinone (AS-AQ) and alkaline sulphite anthraquinone with methanol- ASAM. The objective of present work was to optimize alkaline processes for pigeon pea stalks and to reach delignification suitable for bleaching. With active alkali charge 16-19% as Na2O demonstrated total yields 50.4-52.7% viscosities 833-886 ml/g for alkaline sulphite process. AS-AQ produced pulps with total yields 40.2-50.1%, viscosities 722-932 ml/g and brightness 27-44% when active alkalis charges 16-20%. ASAM pulping gave good to excellent physical properties, total yields 47.6-51.7%, screened yields 46.9-48.3%, viscosities 981-1032 ml/g, when active alkali charge 15-19% and methanol 15% were applied.

[Tarig Osman Khider, Safaa Hassan Omer, Osman Taha Elzaki, and Suhair Kamal Shomeina. Ecologically friendly alkaline pulping of pigeon pea stalks from Sudan. Researcher. 2012;4(4):88-95]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 15



 Key words: Cajanus Cajan, Pigeon pea, Papermaking, Pulp strength properties, Alkaline sulphite cooking, Alkaline sulphite with anthraquinone, ASAM process.

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