Science Journal

 

Researcher
 
Volume 4 - Issue 6 (Cumulated No. 36), June 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-9865
 
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0406
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: researcher@sciencepub.net; Please note the journal name when you submit paper(s).
 

CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

page

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1

Comparative Study of Extreme Groups of Delinquency Proneness, on the Verbal Dimensions of Creativity – In Kashmir Region

 

Prof. Neelofar Khan, N. A. Gash

 

Director, Directorate of Distance Education, University of Kashmir.

Research Scholar, Department of Education, University of Kashmir.

showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study was executed with the objective to work on the title, “A Comparative Study of Extreme Groups of Delinquency Proneness, on the Verbal Dimensions of Creativity – in Kashmir Region”. Firstly the objective of the study is to identify high and low delinquency prone adolescents, to compare these delinquency prone adolescent groups on the various dimensions of verbal creativity i.e, Fluency, Flexibility and originality accordingly. The 100 adolescent subjects were drawn randomly, Lidhoo`s delinquency proneness scale and Baqer Mehdi`s verbal tool of creativity were administered. The extreme group technique was used, to categorize high and low delinquency prone groups. These groups were compared on the various dimensions of verbal creativity by using recognized statistical technique viz, Mean, S.D, and ‘t’ value respectively, to pool out the required results of the study. The results of the said study revealed that the high and low delinquency prone adolescents show no significant difference on the originality dimension of verbal creativity. But on fluency and flexibility dimensions of verbal creativity shows significant difference tentamountly.

[Neelofar Khan, N. A. Gash. Comparative Study of Extreme Groups of Delinquency Proneness, on the Verbal Dimensions of Creativity – In Kashmir Region. Researcher 2012;4(6):1-4]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040612.01

 

Key words: Delinquency Prone Adolescents, Extreme Groups, Verbal Creativity, Fluency, Flexibility, Originality.

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Physico Chemical properties of water of river Narmada at Madhya Pradesh, India

 

1Imtiyaz Tali, 2Zahoor Pir, 3Shailendra Sharma, 2L. K. Mudgal, 1Anis Siddique

 

  1. Department of Zoology, Govt Holkar Science College Indore MP- 452001.

  2. Department of Zoology, Govt P. G. Girls College Motitabela Indore MP- 452001.

  3. Department of Zoology, Shri Omya College Maheshwar Indore MP- 452001.

Address for correspondence: Zahoor Pir, Department of Zoology, Mata Jijabai Govt P. G. Girls College Motitabela Indore MP- 452001. zahoor7887@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The river Narmada is the third holy and fifth largest west flowing river of India and biggest west flowing river of the state. The river takes its origin from Maikal hillocks from eastern highlands of Vidhyas ranges near Amarkantak and finally falls in Arabian Sea. Limnological study was carried out for the period one year from August 2010 to July 2012 to enumerate the various physico-chemical parameters of Narmada river. Water samples were collected from sampling stations every month and were analysed as per standard methods. Minimum value of Total solids, BOD and Chloride was recorded in January month and maximum value in June-July months. The results of present study indicate that physico- chemical parameters of Narmada river are within WHO limits.

[Imtiyaz Tali, Zahoor Pir, Shailendra Sharma, L. K. Mudgal, Anis Siddique. Physico Chemical properties of water of river Narmada at Madhya Pradesh, India. Researcher 2012;4(6):5-9]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040612.02

 

Keywords: river; Narmada; physico-chemical parameter; WHO

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GC-MS Study of the Excoecaria agollocha Leaf extract from Pitchavaram, Tamil nadu , India

 

Dr .S. Ahmed John, P. Kumar

 

P.G & Research deportment of botany, Jamal Mohamed College

Tiruchirappali. Tamil Nadu, India- 620020

Kumarbiotechnology.periyasamy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The secondary metabolites in herbal samples could be analyzed by GC-MS technique. The present study is involved using plant extract from mangrove (Excoecaria agallocha -Euphorbiaceous). Four bioactive compounds are identified in the plant sample such as Stigma 4 en 3 one; 9, 12, octadecadienoic acid (z,z) octyl ester; 1,2,3 - Benzenetriol and Ambelline. The compound 1,2,3 - Benzenetriol and Ambelline were found to be useful for the treatment of anti fungal, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti cancer activities.

[S. Ahmed John, P. Kumar. GC-MS Study of the Excoecaria agollocha Leaf extract from Pitchavaram, Tamil nadu, India. Researcher 2012;4(6):10-14]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040612.03

 

Keywords: metabolite;herbal; GC-MS technique; mangrove; fungal, microbial; inflammatory

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Bacteriological quality of traditionally processed peanut butter sold in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria

 

Odu NN and Okonko IO

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel: +234-80-3538-0891

 

ABSTRACT: The assessment of the quality and safety of food is important in human health. This study evaluated the bacteriology quality of traditionally processed peanut butter sold in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. A total of four samples of processed and packaged (plastic and nylon) peanut butter were purchased from two local markets (Mile 1 and Mile 3 markets) and analyzed for their bacteriological quality. Eighteen isolates belonging to seven genera of bacteria were isolated from the samples. These include Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., Proteus sp. and Micrococcus sp. Staphylococcus sp. and Escherichia coli had equal and highest percentage occurrence of 22.2%. This was followed by Salmonella and Bacillus species (16.7%), Serratia sp. was (11.1%) while Proteus and Micrococcus species had the lowest percentage occurrence (5.6%). The total viable counts ranged from 3.5 x 102 cfu/g – 2.3 x 103 cfu/g. The Staphylococcus count ranged from 1.2 x 102 cfu/g - 2.1 x 103 cfu/g, Bacillus count ranged from 1.5 x 102cfu/g -2.5 x 103 cfu/g and the total coliform count 2.0 x 102 cfu/g - 1.75 x 103 cfu/g. A total of 12 bacteria isolate were detected from mile1 peanut butter samples (MIN and MIP) and a total of 6 bacteria isolates were also recovered in mile 3 peanut butter samples (M3N and M3P). Whereas, Bacillus sp, Proteus sp, Staphylococcus sp, Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli, and Serratia sp, were isolated from MIP samples, Proteus sp and Staphylococcus sp were not isolated from MIP samples. Bacillus sp and Escherichia coli, only was isolated from M3N while Staphylococcus and Micrococcus sp. were isolated from M3P samples. Also, MIP had more gram negative bacteria (GNB) compared to other samples while the numbers of gram positive bacteria (GPB) isolates were equal in the MIP samples. This study showed that the bacteriological quality of traditionally processed peanut butter creates a potential danger with regard to public health. Therefore, there is need for systematic and universally applicable approach to food safety control. The substantial presence of pathogenic bacteria in retailed peanut butter samples indicates the need for appropriate hygienic handling of the product from the raw materials through processing stages to storages and/or retailing and to protect indigenous consumers visitor exposed to consumption of such peanut butter from potential health hazards.

[Odu NN and Okonko IO. Bacteriological quality of traditionally processed peanut butter sold in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. Researcher 2012;4(6):15-21]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040612.04

 

Keywords: Bacteriological quality, Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, peanut butter, Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., Proteus sp., Micrococcus sp.

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Antioxidant Activity of Callus Culture of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

 

Sharad Vats

 

Department of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Banasthali University-304022 (Rajasthan), India

vats_sharad@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Tissue culture of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. was done on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of auxins and cytokinins. Maximum callusing was observed in basal MS medium containing 5 ppm Kn and 1 ppm NAA. Methanolic extract of callus was successively partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Maximum phenolic content and antioxidant activity using DPPH and FRAP assays was observed in ethyl acetate fraction and minimum potential in n-hexane. The results reveal that in vitro culture of V. unguiculata as an alternative source of antioxidant.

[Vats S. Antioxidant Activity of Callus Culture of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Researcher 2012;4(6):22-24]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040612.05

 

Key words: Vigna unguiculata, callus, DPPH, FRAP, antioxidant

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Using of tissue culture to decrease the deterioration of productivity of Pelargonium graveolens plant in Egypt

 

Mohamed E.F.1, El-Refaei1 M.I.1, Hilal A.A.2 and Abdel-Wahed A.G.2

 

1 Botany Dept., Fac. Agric., Fayoum University, Egypt.

2 Plant Pathol. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center,Giza, Egypt.

emaddwidar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pelargonium plants are infected with different soil-borne fungi causing root rot and wilt diseases. This investigation aimed to production of pelargonium plants free from root rot and wilt diseases using tissue culture. Root rot and /or wilt fungal diseases were always detected in fields of ten districts of Beni-Suief, Minia and Fayoum governorates during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons. Mean percentages of infection on (2, 4,7&12 months old) during the two seasons ranged between (25.3,23.7,28.6,30.7,27.1%) respectively. During the experimental course of isolation, infected cuttings and plants yield six identified fungi, i.e. Fusarium moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. F. oxysporum (21.62%) and F. moniliforme (19.31%), however, were the most frequently fungi isolated from infected cuttings, followed by F. semitectum (15.44%) and M. phaseolina (12.74%). Whereas, F. oxysporum (21.50%) and R. solani (21.17%) gave the highest occurrence (%) from root rotted and or wilted plants, followed by F. semitectum (18.89%) and F. moniliforme (17.92%). In contrast, F. solani. (11.58%), M. phaseolina (9.77%) and F. solani (10.75) were isolated at low frequencies plants, respectively. The results of pathogenicity tests are as follows: Sowing cuttings in infested soil proved that all the isolated fungi from root rotted and /or wilted Pelargonium plants were pathogenic to cuttings, except M. phaseolina. F. oxysporum, F. moniliforme and R. solani, however, were the most virulent fungi, recorded the highest percentages of root rot and /or wilted.While, M. phaseolina, F. solani, F. moniliforme gave the low frequencies. On the other hand, the foliage growth parameters (no. of branches, fresh weight/ gm and no. of leaves) minimized by all pathogenic fungi. However, F. oxysporum and R. solani significantly realized the highest reductions, followed by F. semitectum and F. moniliforme. Planting fresh terminal cuttings in infested soil confirmed that all fungi tested were pathogenic and F. oxysporum (59.25%) and F. semitectum (53%) significantly recorded the highest infection (%), followed by F. moniliforme (40.50%). The superiority of these fungi was also found in decreasing foliage growth parameters, i.e. (no. of branches, fresh weight /gm and no. of leaves). F. moniliforme and F. semitectum, however, were significantly the most virulent fungi against foliage growth parameters in most cases. In contrast, M. phaseolina recorded the least reductions. Planting rooted terminal cuttings in infested soil confirmed that oil fungi tested were pathogenic and F. oxysporum (53%) and R. solani (46.75) significantly recorded the highest infection (%), followed by F. semitectum (40.50%), F. moniliforme (34.25%). The superiority of these fungi were also found in decreasing foliage growth parameters, i.e. (No. of branches, fresh weight (gm) and No. of Leaves). F. oxysporum and R. solani however, were significantly the most virulent fungi against foliage growth parameters in most case. In contrast M. phaseolina recorded the least reductions. Field experiments: tissue culture was significantly the most active normal cuttings. Nitrobien (5.88%), however, proved to be the superior treatment significantly, followed by Vitavax. These treatments led to decrease the infection percentage and increase the different measurements (No. of branches, Fresh weight, dry weight and oil percentage).

[Mohamed E.F., El-Refaei1 M.I., Hilal A.A. and Abdel-Wahed A.G. Using of tissue culture to decrease the deterioration of productivity of Pelargonium graveolens plant in Egypt. Researcher 2012;4(6):25-35]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 6

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040612.06

 

Keywords: Pelargonium graveolens; tissue culture; deterioration; productivity; disease free

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7

Impact of Climate Change on the Behaviour of Some Rice varieties in Egypt

 

Samia M. El-Marsafawy1; M. K. Hassanein2 and K. M. Abdel-Latif1 

 

1Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute (SWERI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC).

2Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), ARC.

samiaelmarsafawy797@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. Inclusion of climatic risks in the design and implementation of development initiatives is necessary to reduce vulnerability and enhance sustainability. Enhancement of adaptive capacity is a necessary condition for reducing vulnerability, particularly for the most vulnerable regions, nations, and socioeconomic groups. Activities required for the enhancement of adaptive capacity are essentially equivalent to those promoting sustainable development. This study employed the DSSAT simulation model to measure the adverse impacts of climate change on some rice varieties in Egypt. CERES-Rice model, embedded in the Decision Support system for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT3.5) were used for the crop simulations with current and possible future management practices. Equilibrium doubled CO2 climate change scenarios were derived from the Canadian Climate Center (CCCM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFD3) general circulation models (GCMs). Field experiments were carried out at different agroclimatological zones in 2009 and 2010 seasons to calibrate and validate the models. Simulation of rice productivity was done on data covering 25 years under the normal weather conditions and climate change conditions. Results indicated that future climatic changes would decrease the national production of rice crop in Egypt. The change percent in productivity of different rice varieties ranging from -34 to -47 % at Gemmiza area and -26 to -36 % at Sakha area compared with their productivity under current conditions. The highest tolerant variety to high temperature under future climate was found for V2 at the two areas. In addition, increase rice water consumption at Gemmiza area around 3.5 % and 8.0 % with increasing temperature 1.5C and 3.5C, respectively. However, at Sakha area it was increased around 3.0 % and 7.5 % for the same respective increasing temperatures. Concerning rice adaptation strategies, results indicated that select optimum sowing date could reduce the potential risks of climate change up to about 14 % at Gemmiza area and up to about 6 % at Sakha area. The optimum sowing date at Gemmiza and Sakha was found for 1st April and 25th April, respectively. On the other hand, more reduction of rice yield will be happened under sacristy of water supply. The reduction will be ranged from 41 to 57 %. However, increasing irrigation water up to 20 % could increase rice yield up to 22%. The highest variety under excess water supply is V2 at the two sites under study.

[Samia M. El-Marsafawy ; M. K. Hassanein and K. M. Abdel-Latif. Impact of Climate Change on the Behaviour of Some Ricevarieties in Egypt. Researcher 2012;4(6):36-45]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040612.07

 

Keywords: Climate change, adaptation, rice varieties, irrigation water.

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ROLE OF CHEMOTHERAPY AS ADJUNCT TO WEAK OPIOIDS FOR PAIN RELIEF IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED CANCER

 

Adenipekun A. A., Omoyeni N.E, Soyanwo I.O.

 

Department of Radiotherapy, College of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

adenipek2000@yahoo.com,

 

Abstract:- Background: Pain is the most common symptom of advanced cancer patients, with 30% having pains as the first presenting feature, while in the last few weeks of life the figure rises to 70%1. In a developing country like Nigeria, majority of cancer patient present late at stage III&IV 3x4. At this stage treatment like surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy could not achieve desired cure. Pain and symptoms control therefore are of priority to these patients. In this advanced stage,further compounding their suffering is the unavailability of strong opioids like liquid morphine to alleviate pain. Chemotherapy therefore becomes the readily available treatment option which could be applied in most centers not having strong opioids and Radiotherapy facilities. This study was therefore conducted to assess the degree of response of chemotherapy to pain relief among the cancer patients. Patients and Method: Consecutive cancer patients who were scheduled to receive chemotherapy for various malignancies with histological confirmation, within a period of 10 months in 2011 were studied. They were interviewed with structured questionnaires by trained medical officer from palliative care unit of University College Hospital. The pain was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), data was collated and analyzed using SSPS application software version 16.0. Results: Most patients were in 50-59 years age group , in terms of education 25% had primary, 35% had secondary and 38% had tertiary level of education. Over 60% of patients completed 6 courses of chemotherapy prescribed. The common malignancy seen were breast 50%, cervix 22%, prostate 3% and naspharynx 7%, others 18%. Pre-chemotherapy pain assessment were mild 10% moderate 8% and severe 75% and no pain 7% while the post chemotherapy pain assessment was mild 17% moderate 27%, severe 22% and no pain 24%. about 50% response was observed post chemotherapy. Conclusion: In this study chemotherapy showed appreciable pain relief about 30% reduction in number of patients with severe pain was achieved, however the cost of chemotherapy drugs is still high in Nigeria compared to cost of liquid morphine, it can only be recommended for pain relief when liquid morphine is unavailable.

[Adenipekun A. A., Omoyeni N.E, Soyanwo I.O. ROLE OF CHEMOTHERAPY AS ADJUNCT TO WEAK OPIOIDS FOR PAIN RELIEF IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED CANCER. Researcher 2012;4(6):46-49]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040612.08

 

Key words: Pain relief , chemotherapy, Advanced cancer

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Unity – Existence be Viewpoint of SanaeiGhaznavi (Sixth-Century Poet, AH)

 

Dr. Maryam Bakhtyar1*, Felor valipourchahardah cherik2

 

Department of Islamic Gnosticism, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

bakhtyarmaryam@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In investigating viewpoint of Sanaei about "Unity of Existence", locality of God, World & Human in perspective of Sanae are considered. God is unique Essence that is not dualism- bearer. By view point of Sanaei. He is outstanding, summary of all Existence – worlds and containing ascending & descending arch that target of his creation is the insight of God. He entered from transcendental world (non- existence) to arena of world to reach to insight desert and unity with Right and survival by God. World of Existence also is manifestation Divine glory and shadow of Right (God).

[Maryam Bakhtyar, Felor valipourchahardah cherik. Unity – Existence be Viewpoint of SanaeiGhaznavi (Sixth-Century Poet, AH). Researcher 2012;4(6):50-55]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040612.09

 

Key words: Unity of Existence, God, Non – existence, Sanaei, annihilation, survival, love.

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Clutch Size and Egg Morphometric Parameters of House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in District Kurukshetra, Haryana (India)

 

1Girish Chopra, 2Ajay Kumar and 3Deepak Rai

1, 2,3 Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra -136119, Haryana, India

2Email: ajayindorakuk@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Clutch size and egg morphometric parameters of house sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) were studied during breeding season from March, 2010 to July, 2010 in district Kurukshetra of Haryana, India. A total numbers of 59 viable nests of house sparrow were observed in different habitats and parameters such as clutch size, eggs length, eggs width and egg weight of all the studied nests were recorded. The clutch size varied from 1 to 6 with a mean of 3.620.55; clutch size of 4 was the most common in the 59 studied nests. Observed eggs were white or buff colored with black spots having thick closely pitted shell. Average egg length and width were 2.240.97 cm and 2.450.10 cm, respectively. The weight of eggs varied from minimum 2.02 g to maximum 3.02 g with an average 2.790.20g.

[Girish Chopra, Ajay Kumar and Deepak Rai. Clutch Size and Egg Morphometric Parameters of House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in District Kurukshetra, Haryana (India). Researcher 2012;4(6):56-61]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040612.10

 

Keywords: House Sparrow, Selected Habitat, Viable Nests, Eggs Morphometric Parameters, Breeding Season.

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Assessment of the Effect of Different Preservatives on the Shell-Life of Soymilk Stored at Different Temperatures

 

Odu NN, Egbo NN and Okonko IO

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323 Uniport post office, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; +234 803 538 0891

 

ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of different preservatives on the shell-life of soymilk stored at different temperatures. The utilization of soybean for the production of soy milk was studied. Soy milk was extracted from whole and dehulled seed, pasteurized and fermented. All soy milk samples were analyzed for proximate composition (moisture%, ash %, total solids, fat) and the organoleptic tests (color, thickness, appearance, body, texture, taste, smell, flavor and overall acceptability) of the soy milk samples were evaluated to determine the shelf-stability of the products during refrigeration and room temperature storage. The moisture, protein, fibre, fat, ash, carbohydrate and total solids of soy milk from whole and dehulled seed differed significantly (p<0.05). There was marked variation in the % fat content of the products. The results of the sensory evaluation revealed that flavor with respect to taste and smell had significant influence (p<0.05) on overall acceptability of soy milk product. The sensory properties of yam bean yoghurt samples were compared with soybean yoghurt. The sensory properties showed that sample stored at refrigeration temperature maintained good quality up to 16 days storage while samples stored at room temperature were of poor quality by the 4th day. The implication of these results is discussed. So, the soy milk manufacturers need to improve on the sensory properties in particular flavor and taste for better consumer acceptability. Also, they may improve on packaging by labeling to specifications that precisely represent the content and type.

[Odu NN, Egbo NN and Okonko IO. Assessment of the Effect of Different Preservatives on the Shell-Life of Soymilk Stored at Different Temperatures. Researcher 2012;4(6):62-69]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040612.11

 

Key words: Soy milk, chemical evaluation, sensory properties, consumer acceptance, shelf-stability

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from June 1, 2012. 

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