Science Journal


Volume 4 - Issue 7 (Cumulated No. 37), July 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-9865
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0407
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Titles / Authors




Groundwater Contamination from Septic Tanks in Selected Part of Kaduna, Nigeria


Isaac O. Olaniyan, Emmanuel U. Ogwuche and Emmanuel S. Olorunaiye


Department of Agricultural Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria,


Abstract: The groundwater of Kudenda and Nasarawa areas of Kaduna, in northern Nigeria, were assessed through chemical and bacteriological analyses of water samples obtained from shallow wells located in the study area. The essence of the study was to investigate the quality and the portability of the groundwater using the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water. The results showed potential contamination of the water in these areas as evidenced by the high concentrations of sodium, coliform count, calcium and magnesium values as compared to W.H.O. standards for safe drinking water. This result suggests that the water might have been contaminated due to human activities and closeness to pit latrines/septic tanks and domestic refuse dumps.

[Isaac O. Olaniyan, Emmanuel U. Ogwuche and Emmanuel S. Olorunaiye. Groundwater Contamination from Septic Tanks in Selected Part of Kaduna, Nigeria Researcher. 2012;4(7):1-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 1


Keywords: Groundwater, septic tanks, contamination, water quality, shallow wells

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Production of Bioethanol From “Jatropha Oil Cake”


Shubhra Tiwari1, Shailesh Kumar Jadhav2 and Kishan Lal Tiwari3


 1, 2*,3: School of Studies in Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University

 Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India-492010,,


Abstract: Biofuels are a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass. Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price spikes, the need for increased energy security and concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials mostly from sugar and starch crops. Fermentation is process by which large organic molecules are broken down in to simpler molecules as the result of the activity of microorganisms. Biologically, bioethanol is produced by activity of some bacteria, yeast and their action on substrate containing carbohydrate. The present work deals with the bioethanol production by Jatropha oil cake by the process of fermentation and effect of physical parameters on bioethanol production. During present investigation, Jatropha oil cakes were fermented for 48 hours at 370C and distilled. The bioethanol production was studied during three, four, five and six days of incubation and for shaking and non- shaking condition and effect of temperature was also observed. The results indicate that the bioethanol production was observed in third day (1.32%), fourth day (4.81%), fifth day (7.76%) and sixth day (2.64%). The highest percentage of bioethanol was observed on fifth day of incubation and the amount of bioethanol produced in shaking condition was higher than static condition. Temperature variation also affects the production of bioethanol, at temperature 400C the production was maximum 8.04%.

[Shubhra Tiwari, Shailesh Kumar Jadhav and Kishan Lal Tiwari. Production of Bioethanol From “Jatropha Oil Cake”. Researcher. 2012;4(7):7-10]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 2



Key words: Bioethanol; Fermentation; shaker

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Response of Roots of Plumbago zeylanica L. to the Different Growth Regulators


Meenakshi Walia*, Govind S. Rajwar, Prakash Kuniyal and Ritu Vishnoi


Department of Botany, Govt. Post Graduate Autonomous College

Rishikesh 249201, Uttarakhand, India

Corresponding author* E-mail:


ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to know the response of root of Plumbago zeylanica to the different growth regulators. Plumbago zeylanica L. (Vernacular name: Chitrak) is very useful medicinal plant in terms of chemical constituents it contains. It is distributed throughout as a weed in the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. In this experiment the seeds were treated with three different concentrations of IAA, IBA and GA3 before sowing and compared with the seeds directly sown in control or normal conditions. Results of the present study revealed variation in root length, circumference, basal area and biomass as an evidence of response to growth regulators.

[Meenakshi Walia, Govind S. Rajwar , Prakash Kuniyal and Ritu Vishnoi. Response of Roots of Plumbago zeylanica L. to the Different Growth Regulators. Researcher. 2012;4(7):11-16]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 3



Key words: Growth regulator, Plumbago zeylanica, medicinal plant, Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), Gibberelic acid (GA3)

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Screening of Some Natural and Cultivated plants in Sudia Arabia Fight Infections And inhibit growth of pathogenic Bacteria


Amnah A.H. Rayes


Faculty of Applied Sciences. Umm Al- Qura University Makkah Saudi Arabia


Abstract: Aqueous, ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether, extracts of 8 Medicinal plant species, Grow naturally on the land of the Kingdom Sudia Arabia, traditionally used in for treatment of ailments of infectious and/or inflammatory nature were screened for in vitro antibacterial activities. Antibacterial activity was tested using the agar diffusion method. All the antibacterial activity was against10 bacterial species Gram-positive and Gram-negative; Staphylococcus aureus. ATCC 33591, Proteus Mirabilis ATCC 43071, Escherichia. Coli ATCC 2592, Klebsiella pneumoniae. ATCC 700603, Klebsiella pneumoniae. ATCC 13883, Salmonella typhi. ATCC 14028, Enterococcus faeculis. ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ATCC 27853 Staphylo coccus aureus. ATCC 25923, Proteus mirabils. ATCC 12153 with 8 plants species showing some activity against all tested bacteria with different degree. The highest activity was found in the aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts respectively of Abutilon pannosum, Salavadora persicalin, Matricaria chamomilla, Citrullus colocynthis, Ricinus Communis Azadirachta indica and Ocimum basilicum L. In most cases, aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts show stronger inhibitionof bacteria than other extracts. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Aqueous extract of plants used (microgram/ml) (MIC) was determined for each plant for all strains of bacteria..

[Amnah A.H. Rayes. Screening of Some Natural and Cultivated plants in Sudia Arabia Fight Infections And inhibit growth of pathogenic Bacteria. Researcher. 2012;4(7):17-28]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 4



Keywords: Medicinal plants; Antibacterial activity; agar diffusion method; Sudia Arabia.

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Relationship between Perceived Organizational Climate and Conflict Management Strategies among Nurses in Cairo University Hospitals


1Alaa H. Abudahi; 2Nehad E.A. Fekry, and 3Eglal A. Elwahab


1Nursing Administration, Ministry of Health, Gaza, 2 Nursing Administration Dept., Faculty of Nursing

Cairo University, 3 Nursing Administration Dept, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University


Abstract: Developing the competencies and understanding of how effectively handle conflict is necessary for nurses working in a highly stressful occupation. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived organizational climate and the conflict management strategies used by nurses in Cairo University hospitals. It is imperative that nurses learn how to effectively handle conflict in the work environment. Nurses must learn to understand their own feelings and use them in making good decisions while having empathy for others. The sample of study was 453 nurses randomly selected from Cairo University hospitals. Two tools were use; organizational climate questionnaire to measure nurses perception to Organizational climate and Thomas Kilmann mode instrument was used to measure Conflict management strategies. Results indicate (66.1%) of the participants were perceived their hospital climate positively, role clarity factor had the highest positive percentage, (77.4%) and the lowest percentage (59.7%) was for motivation and satisfaction factor. Moreover the study revealed that, the most preferred conflict management strategy was accommodating as it had the highest mean (6.6).The least used conflict management strategies in this sample was competing by mean (4.9), correlation between organization climate and conflict management strategies the study revealed a statistical significant relationship (0.030) between one component of organizational climate (management effectiveness) and conflict management strategies (compromising). The study recommended assessing the perception of nurses about the organizational climate periodically to use results for creating a positive work atmosphere conducive of productivity. Finally courses on conflict and personal management should be available for nurse managers. In addition, improvement in material and human condition (nursing support, motivation) should be greatly considered in order to create a positive work climate.

[Alaa H. Abudahi; Nehad E.A. Fekry, and Eglal A. Elwahab. Relationship between Perceived Organizational Climate and Conflict Management Strategies among Nurses in Cairo University Hospitals. Researcher. 2012;4(7):29-38]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 5



Key words: Organizational climate; conflict management strategies; Hospital nurses

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Production of Biosurfactant from Certain Candida strains Under Special Conditions


Hesham M. Mahdy1, Mohamed A. Fareid2 and Mohamed N. Hamdan3


Botany & Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Madient Nasr, Cairo.

Present address: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Fac. Sci. & Arts, Al-Baha University1, Fac. Med., Ha’il University2; Islamic University, Gaza Strip3


ABSTRACT: Special conditions were devised to improve the production of biosurfactant from three Candida strains viz. Candida famata No. 11, C. albicans No. 13 and C. albicans No. 25. Those strains were selected out of 25 strains previously screened for some aspects of industrial applications. A high rate of oil displacement was obtained from C. albicans No. 13 after 8 days of incubation under pH 7 and at temperature 20 oC; results confirmed by confidence interval (95%) at (r = 0.98, 0.99, and 0.99, respectively. P < 0.05). A high yield of biosurfactant was obtained from a culture of Candida isolates using carbohydrate substrate as a carbon source; among carbohydrates sucrose enhanced the best biosurfactant production. The optimum sucrose concentration was 1.0 %. (NH4)2SO4 was the best nitrogen source for biosurfactant production at a concentration of 12 %. Highest amount of biosurfactant was recorded by the addition of adenine followed by guanine, threonine, arginine and vitamin C. Statistically our data showed a high significant correlation between all nutritional, environmental factors investigated and biosurfactant production (P > 0.05 in all).

[Hesham M. Mahdy, Mohamed A. Fareid and Mohamed N. Hamdan. Production of Biosurfactant from Certain Candida strains Under Special Conditions. Researcher. 2012;4(7):39-55]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 6



Keywords: Production, Biosurfactant, Candida, Special conditions.

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1Shaikh Parveen R.*, 2Bhosle Arjun B., 3Yannawar Vyankatesh B.


1,3Research Student & 2Assistant Professor, School of Earth Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Vishnupuri, Nanded 431606 (Maharashtra) India.



ABSTRACT: A field study was conducted near municipal solid waste dumping site at Nanded in Maharashtra. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the physical, chemical and biological properties of groundwater and soil samples. Also to study the effect of dumping on their quality. The leachate produced by waste disposal sites contains a large amount of substances which are likely to contaminate ground water and soil. The water parameters studied were pH, EC, total hardness, chlorides, salinity, Phenolphthalein alkalinity , fluoride, chromium, carbon dioxide, sulphate, phosphate, TS, total alkalinity, iron, magnesium, sodium, potassium, calcium, SPC and MPN. Parameters measured in the field included soil moisture, EC, WHC, soil pH, chloride, alkalinity, organic carbon (OC), organic matter, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na) and SPC. All the parameters were found to be significantly different in the different sampling sites.

[Shaikh P. R., Bhosle A. B., Yannawar V. B. THE IMPACT OF LANDFILL ON SOIL AND GROUNDWATER QUALITY OF THE NANDED CITY, MAHARASHTRA Researcher. 2012;4(7):56-63]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). . 7



KEY WORDS: Soil analysis, water quality, Ground water contamination, Heavy metals, Leachate, Municipal solid waste, open dumping yard, Leachate impact.

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Mathematical Programming Approach to Optimization with Fritz John Conditions: Case Study


Taruni Singh1 & Mayank Pawar2


1Research Scholar Mewar University Chittorgarh (Rajasthan)

2Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad (U.P.)


Abstract: The mathematical discipline devoted to the theory and methods of finding the maxima and minima of functions on sets defined by linear and nonlinear constraints (equalities and inequalities).Mathematical programming is a branch of operations research, encompassing a wide class of control problems, the mathematical models of which are finite-dimensional extremal problems. Mathematical programming problems are used in various fields of man’s activity where it is necessary to choose one course of action from several possible courses, for example, in the solution of the numerous problems of projection and of process control and planning.

[Taruni Singh, Mayank Pawar. Mathematical Programming Approach to Optimization with Fritz John Conditions: Case Study. Researcher 2012;4(7):64-66]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 8



Keywords: mathematical programming with optimization, Fritz John conditions.

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Arjun Prasad Tiwari, Bhavana Joshi & A.A. Ansari


Botanical Survey of India, Central Regional Centre, Allahabad


Abstract: The present paper deals with the economic potential of plants growing as weed and unwanted plants. These are frequently used by the rural communities and urban poor people of Uttar Pradesh for various ailments. A total of 41 species of plants belong to 38 genera under the 22 families are enumerated from the state. Majority of such species are used for asthma, arthritis cuts & wounds, dysentery, skin disease, cough, cold, piles, fever, weakness, kidney disorder, diarrhea, eczema, snake bite, eye-ear trouble, nervous disorder, blood purification, gastric problems, swellings, leucoderma, liver disorder, hair disorder, gonorrheal disorder, urenogenital disorder, jaundice, intestinal worms, aphrodisiac, chronic dysentery, old ulcer, toothache and stomach disorders. The data presented here include their botanical name with authority followed by family to which it belongs, local name, acronym of herbarium, where specimens are deposited with number, habit, flowering / fruiting period, plant parts used with purpose and mode of uses.

[Arjun Prasad Tiwari, Bhavana Joshi & A.A. Ansari. ETHNOMEDICINAL USES OF SOME WEEDS OF UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA. Researcher. 2012;4(7):67-72]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). . 9



Key words: Weeds, Ethno-medicinal, Uttar Pradesh.

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Impact of marketing knowledge management on organizational performance (with respect to Pharmaceutical Organizations)


Bahram Kheiri, Hamed Razipour (Corrosponding author), Vahidreza Mirabi


Faculty member, Azad University-Central Tehran



Abstract: In current competitive and challenging marketplace, many companies need to take a holistic and systematic approach toward internal organizational knowledge in favor of making a competitive advantage. Therefore, in recent years they have been concentrating on knowledge sustaining and utilization. In general, most of the effective marketing approaches, which have been hidden under customers’ characteristics and their shopping approach can be revealed by a knowledge based on marketing management. Specific emphasis on managing the communication with customers has made marketing responsibility as an applied domain for customers’ data analysis. Knowledge can be a critical tool if organization uses it as a mean toward utilization of current opportunities in competitive market. The main motivation of current paper is to evaluate the effect of marketing knowledge management (MKM) on organizational performance. Based on these variables, a questionnaire was developed using previous studies and a Cronbach’s Alpha obtained is 0.824, which indicates reasonable reliability of 400 of distributed questionnaires. The data was analyzed using SPSS and Lisrel. Results from analysis indicates that if an organization poses some of the MKM advantages and capabilities then it will make competitive advantage, which in turn the organizational performance shall be improved as well. Any kind of increasing in MKM capabilities and properties would lead into better organizational market performance. In particular, such capabilities will make them to have better performance in target markets.

[Bahram Kheiri, Hamed Razipour, Vahidreza Mirabi. Impact of marketing knowledge management on organizational performance (with respect to Pharmaceutical Organizations). Researcher. 2012;4(7):73-81]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 10



Key Words: Marketing knowledge management, Marketing properties, Marketing capabilities, Organizational performance, Marketing management.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from 7/1/2012. 

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