Volume 4 - Issue 8 (Cumulated No. 38), August 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-9865
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0408
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Titles / Authors
concept and scope of Non-Pecuniary Loss
And its remedy in contract claim matrix
Dr. Sharareh Mofidian
Department of private law, PH.D
Graduate in Private Law, Tehran, Science and Research Branch,
Islamic Azad University (IAU) Tehran, Iran.
in the field of
extra compensation, since the purpose
law is to
practice and arguments against and
benefit of compensating for
such losses have
different countries. Nowadays
it seems in
cases where the primary purpose of
the contract are to
security, Courts tend
contractual liability claim. I think there is
logical reason to
justify the impossibility of
these kinds of losses in Contractual
and monopoly it to
tort claim. Opposition to give
remedy for this
of losses contract
scope is not
based on legitimate
is Philosophical doubt.
[Mofidian, Dr. Sharareh.
Comparative Study on
concept and scope of Non-Pecuniary Loss
And its remedy in contract claim
2012;4(8):1-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Contract claim, contractual liability,
Non-Pecuniary Loss, Compensation.
Development of Leadership Qualities among Secondary School
Students in Kashmir- An Evaluative Study
A. Nadeem1, Kounsar Jan2
Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir.
Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of
present study was carried out to evaluate the leadership
qualities of rural, urban and semi-urban secondary school
students. A sample of 720 students was drawn randomly from
Government High and Higher Secondary Schools functioning in
various Districts In Kashmir Valley. The age of the subjects was
16-18 years. The data was collected with the help of Dr. (Mrs.)
Haseen Taj`s “leadership effectiveness scale”. Mean, S.D and
test of significance were calculated to find out the differences
between the mean scores of rural, urban and semi-urban students
on leadership qualities, The results revealed significant mean
difference between the groups under investigation.
A. Nadeem, Kounsar Jan.
Development of Leadership Qualities among Secondary School
Students in Kashmir- An Evaluative Study.
2012;4(8):7-12]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher.
Leadership qualities, Rural, Urban, Semi-urban, Secondary
Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in Kunun-zaki at different storage
B.T. Thomas1*, A. J.
Adeleke2, O.D. Popoola3 and O.O. Adebayo4
Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo
University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Department of Microbiology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola,
Adamawa State, Nigeria.
Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye, Ogun
Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi
Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Abstract: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 has emerged as
a new pathogen of public health importance and currently appear
to occur worldwide causing different type of infectious diseases
ranging from haemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and
thrombocytopaenic purpura among other infections. This study was
carried out to investigate the growth and survival of this
organism in Kunun-zaki at different temperatures. 0.1ml of
0.5McFarland standard of E .coli 0157:H7 was artificially
inoculated into preautoclaved kunun-zaki and stored at
refrigerating and room temperatures. The enumeration of these
organisms was carried out using standard microbiological
techniques at 24 hours intervals. The pH and the
titrable acidity were also determined as described by the
A.O.A.C methods. Counts of E coli 0157:H7 decreased by
approximately 8log units from 8.4log units to 5.10 log unit at 4oC
and 5.76 log unit at 27oC. The cell decreased rapidly
at a death rate of 0.1520 and 0.230 at both 4oC and
27oC respectively. This indicates that at a specific
time, the numbers of cells in kunun zaki were decreasing by
15.2% and 23.0% at refrigerating and at room temperatures. Also,
there seems to be a direct relationship between high titrable
acidity, low pH and the high death rate observed at room
temperature. This study therefore showed that E coli
0157:H7 cannot grow but can only survive for a period of 3.28
days at 4oC and 1.64 days at room temperatures in the
kunun-zaki samples used in this study
[B.T. Thomas, A. J. Adeleke, O.D. Popoola
and O.O. Adebayo. Survival of Escherichia coli
0157:H7 in Kunun-zaki at different storage temperature.
Researcher 2012;4(8):13-16]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Survival, Escherichia coli, Kunun-zaki, Temperatures
EVALUATION STUDY ON NIGERIAN
SPECIES OF MUSA PARADISIACA PEELS.
Phytochemical screening, Proximate analysis, Mineral Composition
and Antimicrobial Activities
Biochemistry Laboratory, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo
State, +234, Nigeria
fruit is widely consumed in Africa and some other parts of the
world. The peel (epicarp) which constitutes about 40% of the
whole fruit weight is thought to be of little or no
significance, and hence, often discarded. In view of this, the
present study was carried out to investigate possibly, the
presence of phytochemicals, minerals and nutrient components in
ripe and unripe peels of Musa parasidiasca. The
phytochemical screening of the powdered and aqueous peel
extracts showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids,
alkaloids, glycosides and phlobatannins. The carbohydrate
contents of the peels (ripe and unripe) were 42.95 and 48.18%
respectively. The crude protein ranged between 6.89 to 7.18%.
Ca, Mn, K, Na, Fe, Zn, N, and Cu were the detectable mineral
elements in the peals. Sodium and Phosphorus had the
highest (84.33-84.53 PPM)) and lowest (0.13-0.14 PPM) values
respectively. Both peel (ripe and unripe) showed high ash
contents, 22.30 and 17.59% respectively. The antimicrobial
activity of M. paradisiacal peel extracts (aqueous and
ethanolic) was evaluated on selected human pathogenic microbes,
and the extracts were effective against most of the bacteria and
fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between
6.25mg/mL and 50mg/mL depending on the microorganism and
screening, Proximate analysis, Mineral Composition and
EVALUATION STUDY ON NIGERIAN SPECIES OF MUSA PARADISIACA PEELS.
2012;4(8):17-20]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Musa parasidiasca, phytochemicals, minerals,
Phallales of West Bengal,
India. II. Phallaceae: Phallus and Mutinus
Arun Kumar Dutta1,2,
Nilanjan Chakraborty1, Prakash Pradhan1,2
and Krishnendu Acharya1*
Molecular and Applied Mycology and Plant Pathology
Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta,
Biodiversity Board, Paribesh Bhawan, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-
Abstract: Four members of
Phallaceae were collected from different corners of West Bengal
and among them three are reported to be new to India and one
from West Bengal. A detailed macro and microscopic features of
those members were presented in this paper.
[Arun Kumar Dutta, Nilanjan Chakraborty, Prakash Pradhan and
Krishnendu Acharya. Phallales of West Bengal, India. II.
Phallaceae: Phallus and Mutinus. Researcher
2012;4(8):21-25]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Agaricomycetes, diversity, macrofungi, new record
Job Satisfaction among Teacher Educators: Interplay of Gender
Ms Shipra Srivastava1
& Ms Sonal Chabra2
Assistant Professor, Ishan College of Education, Greater
Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
Teacher education in any country has to face the challenge of
producing teachers for a new society on whom the future of the
nation depends. Job satisfaction is of great significance for
efficient functioning of any organization and the persons
involved. With a teacher, who is happy with his job, the role
becomes more pivotal in the upliftment of society. These
teachers are nurtured by teacher educators in teacher education
colleges. The present study was designed to assess the job
satisfaction level of teacher educators and to find out if the
expressed level of job satisfaction was influenced by their
gender or educational qualification like NET and Ph.D. The study
was a descriptive study and made use of standardized job
satisfaction scale as a research tool. 80 teacher educators
working in self-financing colleges were randomly selected. The
study concluded that teacher educators are satisfied with their
job, with gender not influencing the level of job satisfaction
significantly and qualification having a significant effect.
Srivastava & Sonal Chabra. Job Satisfaction among Teacher
Educators: Interplay of Gender and Qualification.
2012;4(8):26-30]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
job satisfaction; teacher educators
Project Portfolio Selection in
electrical company based on the Analytic Network Process and
Data Envelopment Analysis
*, Mohsen Akbarpoor
Industrial Engineering and
Management Systems Department at Amirkabir University of
Technology, 424 Hafez Ave, Tehran, Iran.
Selecting the “best” project portfolio out of a given set of
investment proposals is a common and often critical
management issue. Decision-makers must regularly consider
multiple objectives and often have little a priori
preference information available to them.
In this paper a new approach to
prioritize project portfolio in an efficient and reliable
way is presented. It is based on strategic objectives of the
company and multicriteria decision methods.
The method that is proposed here relies on the use of the
analytical network process (ANP) and to help integrate
managerial evaluations into a more quantitatively based
decision tool, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used. In
this study, a portfolio selection procedure is presented to
construct a desirable facility by using ANP and DEA
approaches in two stages. In the first stage ANP model is
used, results of this stage are inputs for the second stage.
In this stage, DEA is applied to select best portfolio. The
proposed method is applied on an electronic company.
Sheikhrabori, Mohsen Akbarpoor Shirazi, Reza Jahanbin.
Project Portfolio Selection in electrical company based on the
Analytic Network Process and Data Envelopment Analysis.
2012;4(8):31-41]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Project portfolio selection, analytical network process, data
envelopment analysis, Electrical company decisions
Correlation between ALT
level, HCV RNA titer and fibrosis stage in chronic HCV genotype
Reham Al Swaff
Department of Internal medicine,
Faculty of medicine, Ain Shams University,
Reham Al Swaff MD,
Lecturer of internal medicine,
Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
relationship of serum ALT level and viral replication to liver
damage in chronic HCV patients' remains unclear. The aim of the
present study was to determine whether the stage of fibrosis
correlates with HCV RNA titer and /or serum ALT level in
patients with chronic hepatitis C (genotype 4) infection.
Clinical and biochemical characteristics were collected from 138
patients with Chronic HCV genotype 4 Infection. Quantitative HCV
RNA level measurement, HCV
were investigated in all patients. Liver biopsy was done for 80
patients and the remaining 58 patients were examined using
Highly significant higher percentage of cases with high level of
HCV viraemia was found among patients with fibrosis stage 3 as
compared to other stages of fibrosis .In contrast, grades of
activity were independent of serum HCV-RNA titer. Patients with
stage 1and 4 hepatic fibrosis had significantly higher levels of
ALT than patients with other stages of fibrosis. In contrast, an
insignificant correlation was found between ALT level and grade
ALT level nor HCV viraemia can reflect the histological liver
change accurately. As a result, liver biopsy or other non
invasive procedures that measures liver stiffness (i.e.:
Fibroscan) remains essential for accurate staging of liver
fibrosis in patient with genotype 4 chronic HCV infection.
Al Swaff. Correlation
between ALT level, HCV RNA titer and fibrosis stage in chronic
HCV genotype 4 infection.
2012;4(8):42-48]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
HCV, RNA, ALT, fibrosis, genotype 4
Abiotic environmental factors and infection of Fasciola
gigantica in vector snail Lymnaea acuminata.
Kumari Sunita, Pradeep Kumar, D.
*Department of Zoology, DDU
Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, UP 273009, India
Address for correspond:
* Prof. D. K. Singh,
Department of Zoology,
DDU Gorakhpur University,
Gorakhpur-273009, U.P., India,
Phone no.0551-2202187 (O),
Abiotic factors influence the infection of Fasciola larva
in vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. Every month during the
year 2011-2012, the rate of infection of Fasciola larva
(sporocyst, redia and cercaria) in snail Lymnaea acuminata
and simultaneous measurement of abiotic environmental
factors viz temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and free carbon
dioxide in Mahesara Lake were studied. Each infected snail were
dissected in glass petri dish containing 10 ml of dechlorinated
water. After dissection the sporocyst, redia and cercaria were
separated in different petri dish and counted with the help of
Sterio-microscope. The highest infected snails were noted in
month of June to November. On the basis of this observation, it
was noted that abiotic environmental factors significantly
affect the infection rate of Fasciola larva in snail
Lymnaea acuminata. Highest infections of sporocyst
(38/snail), redia (2782/snail) and cercaria (6357/snail) were
noted in September to October month. There was significant
(p<0.05) negative correlation between number of Fasciola
larva (sporocyst, redia and cercaria) and dissolved oxygen
concentration of water in different months of the year
2011-2012. A positive correlation was noted in between different
larval stages and temperature/ pH /free carbon dioxide in water.
Pradeep Kumar, D. K. Singh. Abiotic
environmental factors and infection of Fasciola gigantica
in vector snail Lymnaea acuminata.
2012;4(8):49-53]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Lymnaea acuminata, Sporocyst, Redia, Cercaria, Climatic
Cross Class Resistance to Non
Beta Lactam Antimicrobial in Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases
Producing Escherihia coli-A Concern to Health Care
Thomas Benjamin Thoha1*
and Musa Oluwaseunfunmi Sikirat2
1.Department of Medical
Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago
Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.
2.Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State. Nigeria.
Extended Spectrum Beta
lactamases are group of enzymes capable of Hydrolyzing the third
generation cephalosporines thus rendering them ineffective for
treatment. This study was carried out to determine the
susceptibility profile of extended Spectrum Beta lactamases
(ESBL) producing and non ESBL producing strains of E. coli.
A total of 180 raw sewage samples were collected between
September and December 2011 in Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria and
were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli using
standard Microbiological technique. The isolated Escherichia
coli were later screened for production of extended Spectrum
Beta lactamase enzyme using double disk synergy test method. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of both ESBL producing and
non ESBL producing strains were evaluated using disk diffusion
method. A total of 61(39.20%) strains of Escherichia coli
were isolated from the samples. 20(32.8%) of the isolated
Escherichia coli produced ESBL enzyme. Antimicrobial
susceptibility studies performed on the twenty ESBL producers
and twenty non ESBLs producers showed that the ESBL producers
had significantly reduced susceptibility compared with the non
ESBL producers with an alarming trend of associated resistance
to gentamicin (75%), Nitrofurantion (70%), Erythromycin (70%),
Ciprofloxacin (55%), Sulphamethoxazole (45%), Clindamycin (50%)
and Amikacin (35%). Our findings confirm the cross class
resistance to non Beta lactam antimicrobials in Extended
spectrum Beta lactamases producing Escherichia coli. It
is therefore very imperative for the clinicians to always
request for the susceptibility test result of this isolate
before the commencement of treatment.
Benjamin Thoha and Musa Oluwaseunfunmi Sikirat.
Cross Class Resistance to Non Beta Lactam Antimicrobial in
Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases Producing Escherihia coli-A
Concern to Health Care Practioners.
2012;4(8):54-58]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Keywords:- Cross Class Resistance, ESBL, Escherichia Coli
dietary vitamin C and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as
an Immunostimulants and probiotics on cultured Oreochromis
Amnah A.H. Rayes
Faculty of Applied Sciences. Umm
Al- Qura University Makkah Saudi Arabia
Abstract: The aim of this study to determine the impact of dietary
vitamin C and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an
Immunostimulants on cultured Oreochromis niloticus,
present study was carried out on three groups each 20 fish The
first 2 groups received a supplemented diet with vitamin C and
yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae,while the remaining
group served as a control one. The 1st group fed a
diet containing vitamin C 500 mg / kg diet while the 2nd
group fed a diet containing yeast S .cerevisiae
1.0 g / kg diet for two weeks. Present study revealed that
Phagocytic activity and phagocytic index of O. niloticus
fed on diet contain vit. C and yeast S. cerevisiae for 2
weeks were significantly elevated than the control group also
lyzozyme concentration and serum albumin, globulin and A/G
A.H. Rayes. Role of dietary vitamin C and yeast Saccharomyces
cerevisiae as an Immunostimulants and probiotics on cultured
2012;4(8):59-67]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Key words: vitamin C- yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae -
Oreochromis niloticus- Immunostimulants- Phagocytic
activity- phagocytic index – lyzozyme-albumin-globulin- A/G
Ecologically friendly alkaline
pulping of pigeon pea stalks from Sudan
Khider*, 2Safaa Omer, 3Osman Taha and
3Suhair Kamal Shomeina
1 Department of
Pulp and Paper, College of Applied and Industrial Sciences,
University of Bahri- Khartoum state, Sudan,
Forestry, College of Natural Resources and Environmental
Studies, University of Bahri- Khartoum, Sudan
Chemistry and Technology Research Unit National Centre of
Research, Khartoum, Sudan
Pigeon pea stalks, agricultural residues from Gezira state
–Sudan were pulped with alkaline sulphite, alkaline sulphite
anthraquinone (AS-AQ) and alkaline sulphite anthraquinone with
methanol- ASAM. The objective of present work was to optimize
alkaline processes for pigeon pea stalks and to reach
delignification suitable for bleaching. With active alkali
charge 16-19% as Na2O demonstrated total yields
50.4-52.7% viscosities 833-886 ml/g for alkaline sulphite
process. AS-AQ produced pulps with total yields 40.2-50.1%,
viscosities 722-932 ml/g and brightness 27-44% when active
alkalis charges 16-20%. ASAM pulping gave good to excellent
physical properties, total yields 47.6-51.7%, screened yields
46.9-48.3%, viscosities 981-1032 ml/g, when active alkali charge
15-19% and methanol 15% were applied.
Khider, Safaa Hassan Omer, Osman Taha Elzaki, and Suhair Kamal
Ecologically friendly alkaline pulping of pigeon pea stalks
2012;4(8):68-76]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Pigeon pea stalk; agricultural residue; alkaline sulphite;
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