Science Journal

 

Researcher
 
Volume 4 - Issue 8 (Cumulated No. 38), August 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-9865
 
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0408
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: researcher@sciencepub.net 

CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

page

No.

1

Comparative Study on concept and scope of Non-Pecuniary Loss And its remedy in contract claim matrix

 

Dr. Sharareh Mofidian 

 

Department of private law, PH.D Graduate in Private Law, Tehran, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU) Tehran, Iran. sh.mofidian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Courts use extra caution for sentencing non-pecuniary loss in the field of contract law because of extra compensation, since the purpose of contract law is to facilitate market transactions. The practice and arguments against and benefit of compensating for such losses have been studied in different countries. Nowadays it seems in cases where the primary purpose of the contract are to provide comfort, joy or freedom from harassment or create a security, Courts tend sentence to compensation non-financial losses in contractual liability claim. I think there is no logical reason to justify the impossibility of compensating for these kinds of losses in Contractual liability lawsuits and monopoly it to tort claim. Opposition to give remedy for this type of losses contract scope is not based on legitimate and reasonable justification rather is Philosophical doubt.

[Mofidian, Dr. Sharareh. Comparative Study on concept and scope of Non-Pecuniary Loss And its remedy in contract claim matrix. Researcher 2012;4(8):1-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040812.01

 

Keywords: Contract claim, contractual liability, Non-Pecuniary Loss, Compensation.

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2

Development of Leadership Qualities among Secondary School Students in Kashmir- An Evaluative Study

 

N. A. Nadeem1, Kounsar Jan2

 

1. Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir.

2. Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir.

E-Mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out to evaluate the leadership qualities of rural, urban and semi-urban secondary school students. A sample of 720 students was drawn randomly from Government High and Higher Secondary Schools functioning in various Districts In Kashmir Valley. The age of the subjects was 16-18 years. The data was collected with the help of Dr. (Mrs.) Haseen Taj`s “leadership effectiveness scale”. Mean, S.D and test of significance were calculated to find out the differences between the mean scores of rural, urban and semi-urban students on leadership qualities, The results revealed significant mean difference between the groups under investigation.

[N. A. Nadeem, Kounsar Jan. Development of Leadership Qualities among Secondary School Students in Kashmir- An Evaluative Study. Researcher 2012;4(8):7-12]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040812.02

 

Keywords: Leadership qualities, Rural, Urban, Semi-urban, Secondary Students

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3

Survival of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in Kunun-zaki at different storage temperature

 

B.T. Thomas1*, A. J. Adeleke2, O.D. Popoola3 and O.O. Adebayo4

 

1. Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Microbiology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

3. Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria

4. Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.

benthoa2013@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 has emerged as a new pathogen of public health importance and currently appear to occur worldwide causing different type of infectious diseases ranging from haemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombocytopaenic purpura among other infections. This study was carried out to investigate the growth and survival of this organism in Kunun-zaki at different temperatures. 0.1ml of 0.5McFarland standard of E .coli 0157:H7 was artificially inoculated into preautoclaved kunun-zaki and stored at refrigerating and room temperatures. The enumeration of these organisms was carried out using standard microbiological techniques at 24 hours intervals. The pH and the titrable acidity were also determined as described by the A.O.A.C methods. Counts of E coli 0157:H7 decreased by approximately 8log units from 8.4log units to 5.10 log unit at 4oC and 5.76 log unit at 27oC. The cell decreased rapidly at a death rate of 0.1520 and 0.230 at both 4oC and 27oC respectively. This indicates that at a specific time, the numbers of cells in kunun zaki were decreasing by 15.2% and 23.0% at refrigerating and at room temperatures. Also, there seems to be a direct relationship between high titrable acidity, low pH and the high death rate observed at room temperature. This study therefore showed that E coli 0157:H7 cannot grow but can only survive for a period of 3.28 days at 4oC and 1.64 days at room temperatures in the kunun-zaki samples used in this study

[B.T. Thomas, A. J. Adeleke, O.D. Popoola and O.O. Adebayo. Survival of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in Kunun-zaki at different storage temperature. Researcher 2012;4(8):13-16]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040812.03

 

Key words: Survival, Escherichia coli, Kunun-zaki, Temperatures

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4

EVALUATION STUDY ON NIGERIAN SPECIES OF MUSA PARADISIACA PEELS.

 

Phytochemical screening, Proximate analysis, Mineral Composition and Antimicrobial Activities Ighodaro, O.M

 

 Biochemistry Laboratory, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State, +234, Nigeria

 macigho@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract:Plantain fruit is widely consumed in Africa and some other parts of the world. The peel (epicarp) which constitutes about 40% of the whole fruit weight is thought to be of little or no significance, and hence, often discarded. In view of this, the present study was carried out to investigate possibly, the presence of phytochemicals, minerals and nutrient components in ripe and unripe peels of Musa parasidiasca. The phytochemical screening of the powdered and aqueous peel extracts showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides and phlobatannins. The carbohydrate contents of the peels (ripe and unripe) were 42.95 and 48.18% respectively. The crude protein ranged between 6.89 to 7.18%. Ca, Mn, K, Na, Fe, Zn, N, and Cu were the detectable mineral elements in the peals. Sodium and Phosphorus had the highest (84.33-84.53 PPM)) and lowest (0.13-0.14 PPM) values respectively. Both peel (ripe and unripe) showed high ash contents, 22.30 and 17.59% respectively. The antimicrobial activity of M. paradisiacal peel extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) was evaluated on selected human pathogenic microbes, and the extracts were effective against most of the bacteria and fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 6.25mg/mL and 50mg/mL depending on the microorganism and

[Phytochemical screening, Proximate analysis, Mineral Composition and Antimicrobial Activities Ighodaro, O.M. EVALUATION STUDY ON NIGERIAN SPECIES OF MUSA PARADISIACA PEELS. Researcher 2012;4(8):17-20]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040812.04

 

Key words: Musa parasidiasca, phytochemicals, minerals, antimicrobial sensitivity.

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5

Phallales of West Bengal, India. II. Phallaceae: Phallus and Mutinus

 

Arun Kumar Dutta1,2, Nilanjan Chakraborty1, Prakash Pradhan1,2 and Krishnendu Acharya1*

 

1. Molecular and Applied Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata- 700019.

2. West Bengal Biodiversity Board, Paribesh Bhawan, Salt Lake City, Kolkata- 700098

Email: krish_paper@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Four members of Phallaceae were collected from different corners of West Bengal and among them three are reported to be new to India and one from West Bengal. A detailed macro and microscopic features of those members were presented in this paper.

[Arun Kumar Dutta, Nilanjan Chakraborty, Prakash Pradhan and Krishnendu Acharya. Phallales of West Bengal, India. II. Phallaceae: Phallus and Mutinus. Researcher 2012;4(8):21-25]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040812.05

 

Key words: Agaricomycetes, diversity, macrofungi, new record

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6

Job Satisfaction among Teacher Educators: Interplay of Gender and Qualification

 

Ms Shipra Srivastava1 & Ms Sonal Chabra2

 

1. Assistant Professor, Ishan College of Education, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

2. Assistant Professor, Aravali College of Advanced Studies in Education, Faridabad, Haryana, India

shipra_rahulsingh@hotmail.com, sonal.chabra77@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Teacher education in any country has to face the challenge of producing teachers for a new society on whom the future of the nation depends. Job satisfaction is of great significance for efficient functioning of any organization and the persons involved. With a teacher, who is happy with his job, the role becomes more pivotal in the upliftment of society. These teachers are nurtured by teacher educators in teacher education colleges. The present study was designed to assess the job satisfaction level of teacher educators and to find out if the expressed level of job satisfaction was influenced by their gender or educational qualification like NET and Ph.D. The study was a descriptive study and made use of standardized job satisfaction scale as a research tool. 80 teacher educators working in self-financing colleges were randomly selected. The study concluded that teacher educators are satisfied with their job, with gender not influencing the level of job satisfaction significantly and qualification having a significant effect.

[Shipra Srivastava & Sonal Chabra. Job Satisfaction among Teacher Educators: Interplay of Gender and Qualification. Researcher 2012;4(8):26-30]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 6

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040812.06

 

Key words: job satisfaction; teacher educators

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7

Project Portfolio Selection in electrical company based on the Analytic Network Process and Data Envelopment Analysis

 

Reza Sheikhrabori *, Mohsen Akbarpoor Shirazi, Reza Jahanbin

 

Industrial Engineering and Management Systems Department at Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave, Tehran, Iran.

Email: sheikhrahbori@gmail.com; Tell.: +98-912-537-0458

 

Abstract: Selecting the “best” project portfolio out of a given set of investment proposals is a common and often critical management issue. Decision-makers must regularly consider multiple objectives and often have little a priori preference information available to them. In this paper a new approach to prioritize project portfolio in an efficient and reliable way is presented. It is based on strategic objectives of the company and multicriteria decision methods. The method that is proposed here relies on the use of the analytical network process (ANP) and to help integrate managerial evaluations into a more quantitatively based decision tool, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used. In this study, a portfolio selection procedure is presented to construct a desirable facility by using ANP and DEA approaches in two stages. In the first stage ANP model is used, results of this stage are inputs for the second stage. In this stage, DEA is applied to select best portfolio. The proposed method is applied on an electronic company.

[Reza Sheikhrabori, Mohsen Akbarpoor Shirazi, Reza Jahanbin. Project Portfolio Selection in electrical company based on the Analytic Network Process and Data Envelopment Analysis. Researcher 2012;4(8):31-41]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040812.07

 

Key words: Project portfolio selection, analytical network process, data envelopment analysis, Electrical company decisions

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8

Correlation between ALT level, HCV RNA titer and fibrosis stage in chronic HCV genotype 4 infection

 

Reham Al Swaff

 

Department of Internal medicine, Faculty of medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Reham Al Swaff MD, MRCP (UK)

Lecturer of internal medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

drrehamalswaff@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Summary: Background: the relationship of serum ALT level and viral replication to liver damage in chronic HCV patients' remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the stage of fibrosis correlates with HCV RNA titer and /or serum ALT level in patients with chronic hepatitis C (genotype 4) infection. Methods: Clinical and biochemical characteristics were collected from 138 patients with Chronic HCV genotype 4 Infection. Quantitative HCV RNA level measurement, HCV genotyping, and abdominal ultrasonography were investigated in all patients. Liver biopsy was done for 80 patients and the remaining 58 patients were examined using Fibroscan. Results: Highly significant higher percentage of cases with high level of HCV viraemia was found among patients with fibrosis stage 3 as compared to other stages of fibrosis .In contrast, grades of activity were independent of serum HCV-RNA titer. Patients with stage 1and 4 hepatic fibrosis had significantly higher levels of ALT than patients with other stages of fibrosis. In contrast, an insignificant correlation was found between ALT level and grade of necroinflammation. Conclusion: neither ALT level nor HCV viraemia can reflect the histological liver change accurately. As a result, liver biopsy or other non invasive procedures that measures liver stiffness (i.e.: Fibroscan) remains essential for accurate staging of liver fibrosis in patient with genotype 4 chronic HCV infection.

[Reham Al Swaff. Correlation between ALT level, HCV RNA titer and fibrosis stage in chronic HCV genotype 4 infection. Researcher 2012;4(8):42-48]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040812.08

 

Key words: HCV, RNA, ALT, fibrosis, genotype 4

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9

Abiotic environmental factors and infection of Fasciola gigantica in vector snail Lymnaea acuminata.

 

Kumari Sunita, Pradeep Kumar, D. K. Singh*

 

Malacology Laboratory

*Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, UP 273009, India

Address for correspond: * Prof. D. K. Singh, Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur-273009, U.P., India, Phone no.0551-2202187 (O), E-mail: dksingh_gpu@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Abiotic factors influence the infection of Fasciola larva in vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. Every month during the year 2011-2012, the rate of infection of Fasciola larva (sporocyst, redia and cercaria) in snail Lymnaea acuminata and simultaneous measurement of abiotic environmental factors viz temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and free carbon dioxide in Mahesara Lake were studied. Each infected snail were dissected in glass petri dish containing 10 ml of dechlorinated water. After dissection the sporocyst, redia and cercaria were separated in different petri dish and counted with the help of Sterio-microscope. The highest infected snails were noted in month of June to November. On the basis of this observation, it was noted that abiotic environmental factors significantly affect the infection rate of Fasciola larva in snail Lymnaea acuminata. Highest infections of sporocyst (38/snail), redia (2782/snail) and cercaria (6357/snail) were noted in September to October month. There was significant (p<0.05) negative correlation between number of Fasciola larva (sporocyst, redia and cercaria) and dissolved oxygen concentration of water in different months of the year 2011-2012. A positive correlation was noted in between different larval stages and temperature/ pH /free carbon dioxide in water.

[Kumari Sunita, Pradeep Kumar, D. K. Singh. Abiotic environmental factors and infection of Fasciola gigantica in vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. Researcher 2012;4(8):49-53]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040812.09

 

Key word: Lymnaea acuminata, Sporocyst, Redia, Cercaria, Climatic factor

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10

Cross Class Resistance to Non Beta Lactam Antimicrobial in Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases Producing Escherihia coli-A Concern to Health Care Practioners.

 

Thomas Benjamin Thoha1* and Musa Oluwaseunfunmi Sikirat2

 

1.Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.

2.Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State. Nigeria.

Benthoa2009@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Extended Spectrum Beta lactamases are group of enzymes capable of Hydrolyzing the third generation cephalosporines thus rendering them ineffective for treatment. This study was carried out to determine the susceptibility profile of extended Spectrum Beta lactamases (ESBL) producing and non ESBL producing strains of E. coli. A total of 180 raw sewage samples were collected between September and December 2011 in Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria and were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli using standard Microbiological technique. The isolated Escherichia coli were later screened for production of extended Spectrum Beta lactamase enzyme using double disk synergy test method. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of both ESBL producing and non ESBL producing strains were evaluated using disk diffusion method. A total of 61(39.20%) strains of Escherichia coli were isolated from the samples. 20(32.8%) of the isolated Escherichia coli produced ESBL enzyme. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies performed on the twenty ESBL producers and twenty non ESBLs producers showed that the ESBL producers had significantly reduced susceptibility compared with the non ESBL producers with an alarming trend of associated resistance to gentamicin (75%), Nitrofurantion (70%), Erythromycin (70%), Ciprofloxacin (55%), Sulphamethoxazole (45%), Clindamycin (50%) and Amikacin (35%). Our findings confirm the cross class resistance to non Beta lactam antimicrobials in Extended spectrum Beta lactamases producing Escherichia coli. It is therefore very imperative for the clinicians to always request for the susceptibility test result of this isolate before the commencement of treatment.

[Thomas Benjamin Thoha and Musa Oluwaseunfunmi Sikirat. Cross Class Resistance to Non Beta Lactam Antimicrobial in Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases Producing Escherihia coli-A Concern to Health Care Practioners. Researcher 2012;4(8):54-58]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040812.10

 

Keywords:- Cross Class Resistance, ESBL, Escherichia Coli

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Role of dietary vitamin C and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Immunostimulants and probiotics on cultured Oreochromis niloticus

 

Amnah A.H. Rayes

 

Faculty of Applied Sciences. Umm Al- Qura University Makkah Saudi Arabia

Amnaa_rayes_50@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study to determine the impact of dietary vitamin C and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Immunostimulants on cultured Oreochromis niloticus, present study was carried out on three groups each 20 fish The first 2 groups received a supplemented diet with vitamin C and yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae,while the remaining group served as a control one. The 1st group fed a diet containing vitamin C 500 mg / kg diet while the 2nd group fed a diet containing yeast S .cerevisiae 1.0 g / kg diet for two weeks. Present study revealed that Phagocytic activity and phagocytic index of O. niloticus fed on diet contain vit. C and yeast S. cerevisiae for 2 weeks were significantly elevated than the control group also lyzozyme concentration and serum albumin, globulin and A/G ratio.

[Amnah A.H. Rayes. Role of dietary vitamin C and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Immunostimulants and probiotics on cultured Oreochromis niloticus. Researcher 2012;4(8):59-67]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040812.11

 

Key words: vitamin C- yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Oreochromis niloticus- Immunostimulants- Phagocytic activity- phagocytic index – lyzozyme-albumin-globulin- A/G ratio.

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12

Ecologically friendly alkaline pulping of pigeon pea stalks from Sudan

 

1Tarig Osman Khider*, 2Safaa Omer, 3Osman Taha and 3Suhair Kamal Shomeina

 

1 Department of Pulp and Paper, College of Applied and Industrial Sciences, University of Bahri- Khartoum state, Sudan, Telephone 00249922240925

E .mail: tkhider@yahoo.com

2Department of Forestry, College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Bahri- Khartoum, Sudan

3 Cellulose Chemistry and Technology Research Unit National Centre of Research, Khartoum, Sudan

 

Abstract: Pigeon pea stalks, agricultural residues from Gezira state –Sudan were pulped with alkaline sulphite, alkaline sulphite anthraquinone (AS-AQ) and alkaline sulphite anthraquinone with methanol- ASAM. The objective of present work was to optimize alkaline processes for pigeon pea stalks and to reach delignification suitable for bleaching. With active alkali charge 16-19% as Na2O demonstrated total yields 50.4-52.7% viscosities 833-886 ml/g for alkaline sulphite process. AS-AQ produced pulps with total yields 40.2-50.1%, viscosities 722-932 ml/g and brightness 27-44% when active alkalis charges 16-20%. ASAM pulping gave good to excellent physical properties, total yields 47.6-51.7%, screened yields 46.9-48.3%, viscosities 981-1032 ml/g, when active alkali charge 15-19% and methanol 15% were applied.

[Tarig Osman Khider, Safaa Hassan Omer, Osman Taha Elzaki, and Suhair Kamal Shomeina. Ecologically friendly alkaline pulping of pigeon pea stalks from Sudan. Researcher 2012;4(8):68-76]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 12

doi:10.7537/marsrsj040812.12

 

Keywords: Pigeon pea stalk; agricultural residue; alkaline sulphite; physical property

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from 8/6/2012. 

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