Science Journal


Volume 5 - Issue 7 (Cumulated No. 49), July 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-9865, Monthly
        Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0507

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Titles / Authors




Toward an integrated model of intuitive decision making


Minavand chal, Elham. MA of International Trade management. Shahid beheshti university, Tehran, Iran.

Mohammadipour Pamsari, Mojtaba – MA of marketing management, payam nor uoversity, rey branch, Tehran, Iran.

Mohammadipour pamsari, Masoome. MA of  International trade management. Shahid beheshti university, Tehran


Abstract: In nowadays complex and changing environment, one cannot expect that only the rational approach works as a panacea to all managerial problems. Actually, organizational decision-making sometimes requires other resources such ac intuitive thinking  or intuitive decision making when they do not fall in the scientific domain or are at least not labeled as belonging to it. In this paper, it is proposed that the best solution tends to embrace a complementary or integrated decision-making approach. An integrated view seems to gather the best of each theoretical stream and use them to develop a comprehensive model that embraces the features of both analytic and intuitive decision making methods.

[Minavand chal Elham; Mohammadipour Pamsari, Mojtaba; Mohammadipour pamsari, Masoome. Toward an integrated model of intuitive decision making. Researcher 2013;5(7):1-10]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 1



Key words: rational decision making, intuitive decision making, integrated model of decision making

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Ways to Internalize Quran and Ahl al-Bayt's Lessons in Fighting Extravagance


Khaksari iman1 , Ovladi Bashir2 *, Shafkheibari Nasibeh3


1Department of accounting, Esfarayen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfarayen, Iran


2Department of Accounting, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, Iran


3Department of Accounting, Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran


Abstract: Present article aims to first define extravagance, its harms and ways to internalize the lessons of Quran in fighting it and the extravagant fate. Then, a number of the innocent imams' (a) anecdotes and narrations in the area are discussed and it is expected that we ride theirs path and internalize it by accurately reading and modeling these great people's behavior and speech.

[Khaksari iman, Ovladi Bashir, Shafkheibari Nasibeh. Ways to Internalize Quran and Ahl al-Bayt's Lessons in Fighting Extravagance. Researcher 2013;5(7):11-15]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 2



Key terms: Quran, Ahl al-Bayt, extravagance, harms of extravagance, fighting extravagance

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Analyzing the Relationship between the Personnel’s Achievement Motivation and their Performance at the Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar branch


Masoud Ahmadinejad *, Omme Kolsom Gholamhosseinzadeh **, Mahmoud yaghoubidoust ***


* Management Department, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch, Shoushtar, Iran; ** Assistant Professor, Sari branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran; *** PhD student of sociology


Abstract: This study is mainly aimed at analyzing the relationship between the achievement motivation among the personnel and their efficiency of the Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch. This is a functional study, descriptive, correlative study. The subjects are all the personnel of the Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar branch, 100 people of whom are selected randomly through the tables of Morgan and Korgi. To analyze the data,, the analytical and descriptive analysis methods including percentages, frequency, variance, and standard deviation were used. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between the personnel’s achievement motivation and their performance. Furthermore, there was a significant positive relationship between the three elements of personnel’s hard-working, purposefulness, and responsibility and their performance; while there was merely a significant negative relationship between the personnel’s competitiveness and their performance.

[Masoud Ahmadinejad, Omme Kolsom Gholamhosseinzadeh, Mahmoud yaghoubidoust. Analyzing the Relationship between the Personnel’s Achievement Motivation and their Performance at the Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar branch. Researcher 2013;5(7):16-20]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 3



Keywords: achievement motivation, performance, competitiveness, hard-working, responsibility

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Thermoluminescence properties of lab-prepared CaSrS: Dy nanophosphors


H. S. Hafez a, Talaat.S. A.a, H. A. S.Alyb, Naglaa.Y.A a, Hosnia. M. A band Basyouni. A. Henaisha.


Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear ResearchCenter, Atomic Energy Authority.P. No. 13759.b. Physics Department, College for Women (Arts, Science and Education), Ain Shams University. P. No. 11775.


Abstract: In this work the thermoluminescence properties of Calcium Strontium Sulphide: Dysprosium (CaSrS:Dy) prepared by the solid state diffusion reaction have been studied and their feasibility for radiation dosimetry applications is discussed. Three different pre-irradiation annealing programs were examined and found that the best program is 450C for half an hour. The homogeneity of the Ca0.65Sr0.35S: Dy sample has been found as 12.1%, very good reproducibility of TL- measurements has been obtained. The TL characteristics have been examined through irradiation by gamma doses in the range 20mGy–10 kGy. The dose response was linear up to 10kGy without any observed saturation.

[H. S. Hafez, Talaat. S. A., H. A. S. Aly, Naglaa. Y.A, Hosnia. M. A and Basyouni. A. Henaish. Thermoluminescence properties of lab-prepared CaSrS: Dy nanophosphors. Researcher 2013;5(7):21-25]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 4



Keyword: Thermoluminescence, pre-irradiation annealing, dose response and reproducibility.

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Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin for the Control of Citrus Trees snails.


Sabha M. El-Sabbagh* Adayel, S.A. ** El-Masry, S.A. *** and Alazazy, H.M***


*Faculty of Science, Menofiya University, **Animal Health Research Institute, ***Plant Protection Research Institute, Zagazig, Egypt


Abstract: Land snails become the most important agricultural pest in the world. It caused large damage to the different crops this by feeding on its roots, stems, leaves and fruits. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) causing 100% mortality to Monacha cartusiana (M. cartusiana )in laboratory treatment. Using the morphological and biochemical tests B. thuringiensis was identified as B. thuringiensis Subsp. Kurstaki (ES+, Sa+, Le+, Su-) on whole isolate. Parasporal bodies of B. thuringiensis isolate had biological activity when assayed against M. cartusiana snails. The protein composition of parasporal bodies 140 Kilo Dalton (KDa) parasporal bodies caused mortality reached 100% to M. cartusiana snails by concentration 7.8 mg/ml. Field application of B. thuringiensis as toxic spray on citrus trees of infected parts with adults of M. cartusiana snails by using 2 x 103 c.f.u/ml showed that mortality reached 89% of snails within 21 day.

[Sabha M. El-Sabbagh, Adayel, S.A. El-Masry, S.A., and Alazazy, H.M. Bacillus thuringiensis toxin for the Control of Citrus Trees snails. Researcher 2013;5(7):26-32]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 5



Key words:. Preparation and evaluation - live bivalent infectious bronchitis vaccine - chicken.

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Serum cholinesterase activity helps to distinguish between liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic hepatitis C virus in Egyptian patient


El yamany EL Zwahry 1, Diaa Farrag Ibrahim Ahmed 1, Manal El Masry 2 and Nader A. Gad 1


1.       Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2.       Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt


Abstract: Cholinesterase (ChE) is synthesized mainly in hepatocytes and released into the blood. Serum ChE activity is reduced in liver dysfunction due to reduced synthesis; in contrast to other serum enzymes associated with the clinical assessment of liver function whose activities increases as the result of increased release from their cellular sources following cell membrane damage. So we can use ChE as a distinguishing enzyme in liver diseases. This study aimed to compare serum cholinesterase activities (ChE) of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (CHC), liver cirrhosis (LC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and control to determine if serum cholinesterase activity can help in distinguishing these groups of subjects. Materials and Methods: serum sample from 60 subjects (38 male; 22 female; the age ranged between 20 and 70 years) divided into four groups 15 patients in each, chronic hepatitis C virus (CHC), liver cirrhosis (LC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and control. Liver tests including cholinesterase AST, ALT, Albumin and AFP were done. Result: Cholinesterase activity is decreased in LC and HCC as compared to CHC and control. HCC and LC are very high significantly different as compared to control, but insignificantly different as compared to each other. These results suggest that the determination of serum cholinesterase activity is a cost-effective diagnostic means of differentiating between liver diseases. Conclusion: We can use ChE to distinguish between CHC and HCC and between CHC and LC but we cannot use ChE to distinguish between HCC and LC, so ChE consider a cheap and easy test for distinguishing.

[EL Zwahry E, Ahmed DFI, El Masry M and Gad NA. Serum cholinesterase activity helps to distinguish between liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic hepatitis C virus in Egyptian patient. Researcher 2013;5(7):33-37]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 6



Key words: HCV; Cholinesterase; Liver; Diseases; Egypt.

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The status of the Rights of Accused under Different Indian Laws


Dr. Ashish Kumar Singhal,1 Eakramuddin & Abroo Khan2


1. School of law, Sharda University, Greater Noida-201306 India

2.School of law, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut-250005 India



Abstract: An accused is a person against whom an accusation has been made for alleged commission of crime or for his alleged involvement in the commission of crime, which invites Punishment under penal laws of the country the accused also have got certain rights privileges and protections, which are laid down in criminal procedure code, 1973, Indian Evidence Act, 1872, and in the constitution of India 1950. A person accused of an offence is put under the peril of his life and liberty. Therefore it becomes necessary that certain safeguards should be provided to him. These protections are almost common to all civilized legal system of the world including that of India. Many procedural rights and privileges are laid down under the Indian evidence 1872, criminal procedure code, 1973, which are available to the accused. Some of them have been guaranteed and made available by The Indian Constitution too. These rights have been inherited in India from common law. (Varshney Anup, 'Rights of Accused', 'The Indian Journal of criminology and criminalistic volume XXVIII Issue No. 3, Sept to Dec 2007). Basically It is seen in every morning through the newspaper that in police custody. There is a violation of the rights of accused by the Police personals although there are various provisions in different laws (i.e. The criminal procedure Code 1973, The Indian Evidence Act 1872, etc) But still there is violation of their rights. The judiciary has given the guidelines in regard to the accused that how they will be treated but it is seen in day to day life that how the accused are treated for example we can see the recent incident of Ch. Charan Singh District Jail Meerut that how the police behaved with inmate prisoners. Cognizable offence without going to magistrate, so Court should be vigilant to see that theses powers are not abused for lightly used for personal benefits. No arrest can be made on mere suspicion or information. Even private person cannot follow and arrest a person on the statement of another person, however impeachable it is. Though the Code of Criminal procedure, 1973 is mainly procedural, yet it deals with three distinct but closely related subjects, the Constitution and powers of Courts, the conduct of criminal proceedings and the prevention of crimes by interference beforehand.

[Ashish Kumar Singhal, Eakramuddin & Abroo Khan. The status of the Rights of Accused under Different Indian Laws. Researcher 2013;5(7):38-47]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 7



Key Words: Penal laws,Offence,Accused,Court,Constitution of India,Human Rights.

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Technology acquisition and innovativeness and roles of R&D investment


Ali Reza Irajpour, Sajjad Jalalifar, Mohsen Heidari nezhad


Department of Industrial Management, Qazvin branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

Corresponding author: Sajjad Jalalifar


Abstract: As market competition intensifies, the importance of new product innovation for a firm to achieve competitive advantage is ever increasing. The pace of technological change is accelerating and the complexity of technological development is increasing. This paper use theoretical analyzes of the relationship between External technology acquisition and innovativeness and the moderating roles of R&D investment. This study, aims to fill this gap of knowledge by investigating the external technology acquisition-product innovativeness relationship and examining the moderating roles of R&D investment and configurational context on this link. External technology acquisition has a positive impact on innovativeness. R&D investment increases the effect of external technology acquisition on innovativeness.

[Irajpour A.R, Jalalifar S, Heidarinezhad M. Technology acquisition and innovativeness and roles of R&D investment. Researcher 2013;5(7):48-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 8



Keywords: technology, product innovativeness, R&D investment.

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Nigerians Usage Of Facebook During 2012 Occupy Nigeria Protests: Between Networked And Real Public Spheres


Bisallah Hashim Ibrahim


Department of Computer science, University of Abuja, Nigeria


Abstract: The 2012 Occupy Nigeria protests renewed Nigerians long agitation for good governance in all ramifications. On January 1st, 2012, the administration of President Goodluck Jonathan announced the total deregulation of oil downstream sector through the removal of fuel subsidy. The announcement generated a lot of controversy among the citizens, especially civil societies and workers’ unions which eventually led to public protests in the real public sphere and networked public sphere. It is on this basis that, this study investigates the nexus that exists between real public sphere and networked public sphere. The study found that there is a strong affinity between real public sphere and networked public sphere. This was established at the critical value: r = 0.576 and significant at 0.05 level of significance. Primarily, the study revealed that the socio-economic and political issues discussed by the online protesters motivated offline protesters during the protests. The findings of this study have, therefore, proved Facebook to be a potent new medium in connecting citizens during public protests. The study, therefore recommends, among others, that policy formulators in the country should always analyse the pros and cons of any policy critically before recommending such to appropriate governments and should involve relevant stakeholders in the formulation processes.

[Bisallah Hashim Ibrahim. Nigerians Usage Of Facebook During 2012 Occupy Nigeria Protests: Between Networked And Real Public Spheres. Researcher 2013;5(7):55-64]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 9



Keywords: real public sphere, networked public sphere, occupy Nigeria, Facebook, online protesters, offline protester.

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The Impact of The Board of Directors’ Structure on Tax Avoidance In The Companies Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange


* Mahboobeh Jalali, ** Fatemeh Jalali


Department of Accounting, Shahrood branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, Iran

E-mail:, Tel: +98-912-3734764

** Department of Accounting Shahrood, Payame Noor University

E-mail:, Tel: +98-930-5478145


Abstract: The aim of the present study is to examine the impact of board of directors’ structure on firm tax avoidance. For tax avoidance, the existence of an audit provision regarding tax status in an independent audit report was investigated which is called aggressive tax policies. For Board of Directors structure, the ratio of executive members of the Board of Directors (BD) and the ratio of their change and their independence were studied. The population of the survey was all the firms listed on the Stock Market of Tehran during the period of 2010 to 2012 (three years). Testing of principal hypotheses was performed by logistic regression method in order to evaluate the effect of a number of factors on the possibility of applying aggressive tax policies by companies. This model included 3 principal independent variables and 3 control variables. First, the research variables were examined one by one and from among the three principal independent variables, the independence of the BD had a significant relation with the aggressive tax policies. However, the ratio of non-executive members of the BD did not show a positive and significant relation with tax avoidance policies. Moreover, BD change cannot formulate the tax avoidance policies. Next, all three principal independent variables were incorporated in the model. The complete model included all principal predictors which were statistically significant, showing that this model has almost been able to identify the firms applying the aggressive policies. The model formulated the status of these policies before entering control variables of R2=.391. In general, 80.6% of cases were correctly classified. After entering the control variables of R2=.391, the variance of aggressive tax policies were explained. Next, based on forward method, and after entering the control variables, 82.1% of cases were correctly predictable. According to coefficient tables, before entering the control variables, two independent variables had a significant statistical relation with the model. In total, the principal independent variable explained the dual role of the Board of Directors – Chairman with a significant relation. The ratio of non-executive members and their changes showed a control variable of the financial lever and the aggressive tax policies with no significant relation.

[Mahboobeh Jalali, Fatemeh jalali. The Impact of The Board of Directors’ Structure on Tax Avoidance In The Companies Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. Researcher 2013;5(7):65-71]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 10



Keywords: Tax Avoidance, Board of Directors, Structure.

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Practical Approach to Solve the Nonlinear Programming Problems


Rohit Sarin1, Mayank Pawar2, Dr. S. Rajan3


1Research Scholar IFTM University, Moradabad

2Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad

3Hindu College, Moradabad


Abstract: In this research paper we introduce the some solutions of the applications to non-linear programming problems.

[Rohit Sarin, Mayank Pawar, S. Rajan. Practical Approach to Solve the Nonlinear Programming Problems. Researcher 2013;5(7):72-75]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 11



Key-words: Optimization, Constrained optimization, Unconstrained optimization, Nonlinear programming.

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A Comparative Review with respect to Estimating the Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations on Jointed Rock Masses in Hoek-Brawn and Non Hoek-Brawn Rocks


Seyed Ramin Haghighizade


MS at Civil Engineering, Soil and Foundation, Faculty of Technical and Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Arak


Abstract: One of the main issues regarding the design of foundations is how to determine their bearing capacity. So far, the bearing capacity of the foundations constructed on various soils has widely been studied, yet few studies have been conducted concerning the bearing capacity of rock foundations. However, in many civil projects across the world, structures foundation is constructed on joined rock masses. The bearing capacity of such rock masses are mostly estimated either using quasi-empirical equations or based on local codes. Amongst the studies carried out on the bearing capacity of the joined rock masses, still no comprehensive applied studies has not been considered in executive works for such rocks. In the present article, different methods are collected with regard to the estimation of the bearing capacity of shallow foundations built on jointed rock masses by conducting comprehensive literature reviews, and the hypotheses and equations related to each one are examined in applied terms. Accordingly, first, the whole methods were classified in two groups (i.e. Hoek-Brown & Non-Hoek-Brown) after dividing all existing equations, and the formulation of each method was generalized in the same way so that a logical framework could be gained for comparing between different methods and determining the optimum one in the estimation of the bearing capacity of foundations on joined rock masses. In the end, employing the generalized new equations gained, the bearing capacity of rock masses with known characteristics was calculated for a certain example using various methods and results were compared.

[Haghighizade S. R. A Comparative Review with respect to Estimating the Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations on Jointed Rock Masses in Hoek-Brawn and Non Hoek-Brawn Rocks. Researcher 2013;5(7):76-82]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 12



Key words: Bearing Capacity, Shallow Foundations, Rock Masses, Hoek-Brown

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The Age of Criminal Responsibility


Hamed Mahtabi 1, Vahab Karampoor 2, Keyvan Azizi 3


1.Islamic Azad University, Branch of Khoramabad,  Khoramabad, Iran, Email:

2.Islamic Azad University, Branch of Khoramabad,  Khoramabad, Iran, Email:

3. Islamic Azad University, Branch of Malayer,  Arak, Iran, Email:


Abstract: This study offers a comprehensive analysis of the minimum age of criminal  responsibility (MACR) from an international children’s rights perspective. An international standard on the minimum age for criminal responsibility has yet to be established. The Convention on the Rights of the Child does not stipulate any specific minimum age to the signatory states on this issue but only states the obligation to designate such an age. The recent decision of the Appeals Chamber of the Special Court for Sierra Leone in Prosecutor v Samuel Hinga Normanmakes it clear that the recruitment or use of children under fifteen years of age to participate actively in hostilities is a crime under international law.

[Hamed Mahtabi, Vahab Karampoor, Ghebad Naderi. The Age of Criminal Responsibility. Researcher 2013;5(7):83-86]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 13



Keywords: Age; Criminal; Responsibility

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from May 18, 2013. 

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