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ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), Monthly, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9865
Volume 5 - Issue 9 (Cumulated No. 51), September 25, 2013
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0509

 

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

page

No.

1

Biotyping and Molecular Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae Producing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase in Cairo, Egypt: A Multicentre Study.

 

Aisha Abu Aitta1, Manal El Said1*, Doaa Gamal 1, Amani El-Kholy2, Momtaz Omer3, Mohmoud Kamel 4, Hesham Mohamed4

 

1. Microbiology Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

2. Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

3. Laboratory Unit, United State Navel Medical Research Unit No.3 (Namru-3), Cairo Egypt.

4. Medical Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

manalmicrobiology@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) - producing Klebsiella pneumoniae have spread rapidly worldwide posing a serious threat in healthcare facilities. The epidemiology of K. pneumoniae producing ESBL is complex and varies among hospitals and countries. Objective: This study aimed to determine the biotype and molecular characterization of ESBL producing K pneumonia and their clonal relatedness by PFGE in Cairo, Egypt. Methods: Over 12-months, bacterial isolates were collected from clinical specimens of inpatients and outpatients of seven hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. K pneumonia isolates were identified and biotyped using API 20E. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 16 β-lactam and non-β-lactam agents was determined by disk diffusion test. K. pneumoniae isolates were confirmed phenotypically as ESBL producers by combined disc test. Selected K. pneumoniae isolates were further subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) tests to determine the ESBL genes (TEM and SHV) and their clonal relatedness. Results: A total of 50 out of 66 (67%) K. pneumoniae isolates were positive for ESBLs. blaTEM and blaSHV were detected in 70% and 80% of ESBLs positive K pneumoniae isolates respectively. All ESBLs producing K pneumoniae isolates were 100% susceptible to imipenem and 35 (53%) of them were resistant for equal or more than eight antibiotics of different groups. PFGE results showed diverse and unrelated clones. Conclusions: This study showed high prevalence of ESBL producing K. pneumonia (67%). BlaSHV was found as a predominant gene responsible for ESBLs production. Imipenem is still the most reliable and effective antimicrobial treatment option. ESBL producing K. pneumonia spread through the dissemination of a plasmid rather than the occurrence of a clonal outbreak in this study.

[Abu Aitta A, El Said M, Gamal D, El-Kholy A, Omer M, Kamel M, Mohamed H. Biotyping and Molecular Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae Producing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase in Cairo, Egypt: A Multicentre Study Researcher 2013;5(9):1-11]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.01

 

Key words: ESBL; K. pneumonia; PCR; TEM; SHV; PFGE

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2

Kashmir Tourism and Media Tools: A Study of Public Relation Techniques of Tourism Department

 

Asooda Ali

 

Employees in J & K Bank, India

Abstract: The study is important because it will help to study the communication strategy of tourism department to reach out to the tourists – both domestic and foreign. The study will also show how tourism department public relation notes the tourism or what the strategies of the department towards tourism are. Besides an attempt has also been made to know that how many tourists’ destinations were identified or throng open for the tourists. Besides how much Tourism Department of Kashmir is capable to enhance the tourism industry.

[Asooda Ali. Kashmir Tourism and Media Tools: A Study of Public Relation Techniques of Tourism Department. Researcher 2013;5(9):12-18]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.02

 

Keywords: Tourism, media, public relation, techniques

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3

A note on recent flowering in Thamnocalamus aristatus (Gamble) E. G Camus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in East Sikkim

 

Praveen Kumar Verma1*, K. K. Rawat2, Niren Das3, Alok Yadav4 and P. K. Kaushik5

 

1,3Rain Forest Research Institute Deovan, Sotai Ali, Post Box # 136, Jorhat -785001 (Assam), pkverma_bryo@yahoo.co.in, Phone No. +919435153557, Fax +91-376-2350274

2National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow-226 001 (Uttar Pradesh);

4 Environment Management Divisions, ICFRE, Deheradun (Uttarakhand), yadava@icfre.org.

5Centre for Forestry Livelihood and Extension, Agartala (Tripura), kaushikpk@icfre.org.

 

Abstract: The flowering in Thamnocalamus aristatus is generally gregarious flowering and it was gregariously flowered earlier in 1989-90. The species is much economically important especially for rural economy of Himalayan region. The gregarious flowering has been witnessed in recent survey (2011-12) from the middle hills of east Sikkim of India.

[Verma, PK, Rawat KK, Das N, Yadav A, Kaushik. A note on recent flowering in Thamnocalamus aristatus (Gamble) E. G Camus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in East Sikkim. Researcher 2013;5(9):19-21]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.03

 

Key words: Bamboo; Thamnocalamus aristatus; Gregarious flowering; Sikkim

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4

International responsibility of union forces in Iraq and occupaying from international laws views

 

Mohammad Talebi Sary 1, Fereshte Yadollahzadeh2

 

1. Payam-E Noor University, Tehran, Iran, Email: talebisary@yahoo.com

2. Islamic Azad University Shahre Rey Branch, Tehran- Iran, Email: f.yadollahzadeh78@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The subject of United Sates of America and its unions in invading to Iraqi regions cause chancing the landscape in management of world problems and cause to fake the international laws regulations. Evaluation of invading to Iraq has been analyzing by researchers already and there is a point of hopping now which everybody believes that invading to Iraq was without the permission of security council and it is a criminal point of war and the American state breaks the international law and its regulations and some the officials of this country abuse the law of legitimate defeat for these reasons so in this position that united states was put in obedient position and the united states of America as the most powerful country tries to use these regulations as tools for its leadership of the world although it knows in international law there is a significant difference between the countries. Depending on power is beneficial for powerful states and in this course the weak countries are failure.

[Talebi M., Yadollahzadeh F. International responsibility of union forces in Iraq and occupaying from international laws views. Researcher 2013;5(9):22-26]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.04

 

Keywords: International responsibility, legitimate defense, violation and applying force, the principle of non interaction and making the destiny, invading war, human rights laws, war crimes

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5

The Antimicrobial Potency of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves and Root Extracts

 

Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon*, Banke Christianah Adeyeri

 

Department of Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

adejuwon_ao@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The ethanol, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts of Neem (Azadirachta indica) at varying concentrations, were potent on pathogenic Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium and Yeast. The bacterial isolates were resistant to nalixidic acid, nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, cloxacillin, augmentin and erythromycin. They were however susceptibility to ofloxacin and gentamicin. The Neem extracts seem to compare favourably with ofloxacin and gentamycin.

[Adejuwon AO, Adeyeri BC. The Antimicrobial Potency of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves and Root Extracts. Researcher 2013;5(9):27-31]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.05

 

Key words: Neem; Azadirachta indica; Antimicrobial; Extract

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Incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance among Salmonella spp. isolated from poultry droppings and cow dung in Ado-Ekiti metropolis

 

1Oluyege, J.O and.*2Oyinloye, I.A.

 

1. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Microbiology, College of Science, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

dunnibright@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance has been observed among Salmonella species. The main objective of this study was to determine the multiple antibiotic resistance pattern in Salmonella isolated from poultry droppings and cow dung. Samples of poultry droppings and cow dung were randomly collected from poultry houses and abattoirs in Ado-Ekiti. Isolation was done using Salmonella-Shigella agar, after which the isolates were subjected to some biochemical tests. The isolates were also subjected to confirmatory test using Salmonella test kit. The confirmed Salmonella isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests using antibiotic discs such as Pefloxacin (5g), Ofloxacin (5g), Ciprofloxacin (10g), Norfloxacin (10g), Amoxicillin (10g), Nalidixic acid (30g) and Nitrofurantoin (300g) and their multiple antibiotics resistance (MAR) pattern were observed. Statistical analysis using student t-test was done to compare the mean resistance of Salmonella sp. isolated from different environment to the different antibiotics used. Eighty-seven isolates were recovered from the samples, forty six from cow dung and forty one from poultry droppings. When the isolates were subjected to confirmatory test using Salmonella test kit, sixty eight were found to be positive by showing agglutination within two minutes. The percentage resistance observed among Salmonella species isolated from cow dung and poultry droppings were amoxicillin (73.5%), nitrofurantoin (63.2%), nalidixic acid (60.3%), pefloxacin (52.9%), norfloxacin (36.8), ciprofloxacin (35.3%) and ofloxacin (20.9%). The highest resistance among the isolates was observed to amoxicillin and the least was to ofloxacin. The MAR patterns observed among the isolates include: PEF/OFX/AMX/CIP/NAL/NOR/NIT, PEF/AMX/NAL/NOR/NIT, PEF/AMX/NOR/NIT and CIP/NAL/NOR. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the resistance of Salmonella sp. from different sources to the different antibiotics used. It can be deduced from this study that those isolates showing multiple antibiotic resistance pose a threat to human population because if they find their way into the human population they can cause resistance to antibiotics in patients suffering from Salmonella infection.

[Oluyege J.O and Oyinloye I.A. Incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance among Salmonella spp. isolated from poultry droppings and cow dung in Ado-Ekiti metropolis. Researcher 2013;5(9):32-36]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 6

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.06

 

Key words: Abbatoir, Cow dung, Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR), Salmonella, Poultry droppings

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The Antibiotic Resistant Patterns Of Bacterial Flora Of Cultured Catfish Fed With Poultry Hatchery Waste From Selected Farms In Ibadan, Nigeria

 

Adedeji O.B. and Onwenefah M

 

Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Oluadedeji2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Microbial quality of poultry hatchery wastes from three selected commercial poultry hatchery units and catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed hatchery waste obtained from five purposively selected aquaculture farms in three local government areas in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria were studied using standard microbiological methods. The antibiotic sensitivity test of the isolated organisms was also carried out to determine their sensitivity to seven different antibiotics commonly used by livestock farmers. The antibiotics were Nitrofuratoin (F), Augmentin (AMC), Ciprofloxacin (CIP), Nalidixic acid (NA), Erythromycine (E), Chloramphenicol (C) and Gentamicine (CN). The results of the samples examined were compared using both descriptive and inferential statistics. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare means among the three different hatcheries and organs. The level of significance was set as p < 0.05. The total bacterial count obtained ranged from 1.2 x105 to 4.6 x 105 cfu/g and 1.2 x105 to 5.6 x105 cfu/g for the hatchery waste and catfish respectively. The Total enterobacterial count ranged from 6.0x10 4 to 3.0x 105 cfu/g and 4.0x104 to 3.0x105 cfu/g for hatchery waste and catfish respectively. The Bacteria isolated from hatchery waste were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Esherichia coli, Bacillus spp, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while those isolated from different organs (skin, stomach and intestines) of the catfish were Salmonella subspp1, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Bacillus spp, Klebsiella pneumonia, Eschericia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Salmonella arizonae subspp3A. There were frequent occurrence of Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, & Klebsiella in the samples (hatchery waste and catfish organs) analysed. E coli were sensitive to all the antibiotics except Erythromycine. Salmonella arizonae subsp.3 was also sensitive to all the antibiotics except Nalixidic acid, Erythromycine, and Augmentin. Erythromycine was not active against any of the isolated organisms while Bacillus spp was not sensitive to any of the antibiotics. Gentamycin showed highest level activity against all the isolates while Erythromycin showed no activity against any of the isolates. This level of resistance to antimicrobial agents is a reflection of misuse or abuse of these agents in the environment.

[Adedeji O.B. and Onwenefah M. The Antibiotic Resistant Patterns Of Bacterial Flora Of Cultured Catfish Fed With Poultry Hatchery Waste From Selected Farms In Ibadan, Nigeria. Researcher 2013;5(9):37-43]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.07

 

Key Words : Antibiotic Sensitivity Tests, Resistance

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8

A Comparative Study of Scientific Temper and Academic Achievement of Kashmiri and Pakhtoon Students

 

* Hafiz Mudasir, Ph.D Research Scholar, Dr C.V Raman University, Chhattisgarh

 

** Dilruba Syed Yatu, Research Scholar, University of Kashmir

 Natipora, Khalid Bin Waleed colony, Old Stadium Road, Srinagar, Kashmir, J& K, India-190015; Cell no; +91-9796595962

Hafizmudasir@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out to find out the scientific temper and academic achievement of Kashmiri and Pakhtoon students. Nadeem and Khalida’s Scientific Temper Scale (STPS) was administered on a group of 120 students. Mean, S.D and test of significance were calculated and the result revealed significant mean differences between the two groups under investigation. The investigator for the present piece of research followed the exact procedure as advocated by most of the imminent researchers in the field of education and psychology. For this purpose the data received from the above mentioned samples was analysed statistically using most widely used methods i.e., mean, Standard Deviation and t-test. All the calculated values shown at appropriate section were analysed later.

[Hafiz Mudasir, Chhattisgarh, Dilruba Syed Yatu. A Comparative Study of Scientific Temper and Academic Achievement of Kashmiri and Pakhtoon Students. Researcher 2013;5(9):44-48]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.08

 

Key Words: Scientific Temper, Academic Achievement, Kashmiri Student, Pakhtoon Student.

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9

On the main directions IMPROVE DRUG PROVISION OF REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

 

* Clara Dzholbarisovna Shertaeva, * Olga Victorovna Blinova, * Malik Myrzahanovich Sapakbay, * Galiya Zhanburbaevna Umurzakhova, ** Makhatova Adelina Baurzhanovna

 

* South Kazakhstan State Pharmaceutical Academy, Department of organization and management of pharmacy, Shymkent, Kazakhstan.

**Kazakh economic university named by T. Ryskulov, Almaty, the Master of Economy and Business in "Management", doctoral candidate in "Management"

malikmed@mail.ru, m_adelina@mail.ru

 

Abstract: This paper presents the results of marketing studies of drug provision of the Republic of Kazakhstan at the regional level, the example of JSC "Himfarm", located in South Kazakhstan region, Shymkent. To achieve the goal we have performed STEP-analysis, which revealed the social, technological, economic and political factors affecting the development of the regional pharmaceutical market.

[Clara Dzholbarisovna Shertaeva, Olga Victorovna Blinova, Malik Myrzahanovich Sapakbay, Galiya Zhanburbaevna Umurzakhova, Makhatova Adelina Baurzhanovna. On the main directions IMPROVE DRUG PROVISION OF REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN. Researcher 2013;5(9):49-51]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.09

 

Keywords: drug provision, the regional pharmaceutical market, STEP - analysis, environmental factors, generics, home preparations.

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Disposition of Livestock Farmers towards Agricultural Credit in Imo State.

 

1Tasie C.M.,1Wilcox G.I. and 2Uche F.B.

 

1Agricultural Science Department, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, P.M.B 5047, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

2Rivers State College of Arts and Science, P.M.B 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: The study evaluated the attitude of livestock farmers’ in Imo State towards agricultural credit. Primary data were collected through the use of a structured response type of questionnaire from 90 livestock farmers’ randomly selected (10 farmers’ each from the nine L.G. As that make up the study area). The primary data were complemented with secondary data from published and unpublished literature sources. The Likert scale was used to measure the disposition of farmers’ towards agricultural credit. The study revealed that livestock farmers’ in the study area have a good attitude towards agricultural credit. The livestock farmers’ agreed that agricultural credit will help them in increasing their farm output and income and help in the adoption of agricultural innovation and transforming the livestock business. Also, majority of the livestock farmers’ (44.4%) are involved in poultry enterprise. This is closely followed by goat enterprise(42.2%).The study also revealed that few livestock farmers’ (4.4% and 9.0%) are involved in piggery and sheep enterprises respectively. It is therefore recommended that all agencies (private and public; local and international) involved in credit delivery should extend credit facilities to livestock farmers’ in Imo State.

[Tasie C.M, Wilcox G.I. and Uche F.B. Disposition of Livestock Farmers towards Agricultural Credit in Imo State. Researcher 2013;5(9):52-55]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.10

 

Keywords: Disposition, livestock, credit, farmers, Imo State

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Studies on the isolation of enteropathogens associated with the intestines of Giant African land snails (Achatina and Archachatina) species sold in Gwagwalada, FCT, Abuja – Nigeria

 

Ugoh, Sylvanus.Chukwudi and Ugbenyo, Aisha John

 

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, P.M.B 117 Abuja FCT-Nigeria.

sylvaugoh@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Studies on the entero-pathogens associated with the intestines of Giant Africa land snail (Achatina and Archachatina species) was carried out. A total of 180 snail samples of three different species of Giant Africa Land Snail (GALS) (Achatina achatina (Giant Ghana tiger snail), Achatina fulica (East Africa land snail or garden snail) and Archachatina marginata (West Africa snail or big Black snail)) were obtained from Gwagwalada market, FCT Abuja were used. The snails were deshelled, homogenized in 10ml of distilled water and cultured on Nutrient agar, Mac Conkey agar, Salmonella-Shigella agar, and Eosine methylene blue (EMB) agar using spread plate method and incubated for 24 hours at 370C. The growth obtained on Mac Conkey agar was sub cultured on EMB to confirm Escherichia coli and biochemical tests on the isolates were carried out. Forty-five bacteria were isolated. They include Salmonella species and Shigella species both gave 3(6.6%) each. Aeromonas spp, Vibrio spp and Pseudomonas species gave 2(4.4%) each. Enterobacter and Klebsiella species are both 3(6.6%), Staphylococcus aureus gave 4(8.8%), Proteus spp 7(15.5%), Escherichia coli 8(17.7%) and Yersinia species 1(2.2%). Some of the bacterial isolates show resistance to most antibiotics tested and as such displayed multidrug resistance. Most of the bacteria isolated in this study have been shown to be involved in gastro-intestinal infections therefore, there is need for proper processing of snails before consumption.

[Ugoh, Sylvanus.Chukwudi and Ugbenyo, Aisha John. Studies on the isolation of enteropathogens associated with the intestines of Giant African land snails (Achatina and Archachatina) species sold in Gwagwalada, FCT, Abuja – Nigeria. Researcher 2013;5(9):56-60]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.11

 

Keywords: Giant land snail, Achatina, Archachatina, bacteria, antibiogram

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Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of the Leaves of Senna alata on Selected Bacteria

 

Ugoh, Sylvanus Chukwudi and Elibe, Ifeoma

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, PMB 117, Abuja, FCT Nigeria.

sylvaugoh@hotmail.com.

 

 Abstract: Powdered leaves of Senna alata were extracted with ethanol and water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity against four (4) clinical bacterial isolates, which include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Streptococcus pyogenes, using agar well diffusion method. The results of phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinone, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and glycosides in the two extracts. Results of the antibacterial activities revealed that ethanol fraction was active on Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the highest concentration of 500 mg/ml with zone diameter of inhibition of 9 mm, while the aqueous extract was active at the highest concentration of 500mg/ml against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pygogenes with zone diameter of inhibition of 11 mm and 10 mm respectively. The results provided evidence that leaf of Senna alata has the potential that can be harnessed to produce drugs that can be used to treat ailments caused by these pathogens.

[ Ugoh, Sylvanus Chukwudi and Elibe, Ifeoma. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Leaves of Senna alata on Selected Bacteria. Researcher 2013;5(9):61-65]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 12

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.12

 

Keywords: Phytochemical, antibacterial activity, extracts, bacteria, zone diameter of inhibition.

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Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Children with Diarrhea in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

 

1, 2 Akingbade OA, 3Akinjinmi AA, 4Ezechukwu US, 5Okerentugba PO, 5Okonko IO

 

1Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

E-mail: a.olusola @yahoo.co. uk, olusola.akingbade@yahoo.co.uk 08063529234

3Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

4Department of Haematology and Blood Serology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

5Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891

 

Abstract: Intestinal parasitic infections have always been an important public health problem in the tropics, particularly in developing countries. In this study intestinal parasites were investigated in 120 diarrheal stool samples collected from children aged under 5years in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples were collected from Sacred Heart Hospital, Lantoro, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. The intestinal parasites were detected using saline and iodine wet mount preparations. Of the 120 stool samples examined, 31(25.8%) had intestinal parasites. It showed that the prevalence of intestinal parasites was higher in females (26.6%) than males (25.0%). However, this difference is statistically significant (P>0.05). It showed that the prevalence of intestinal parasites was higher among children ages 4 to 5 years old (38.2%) than their counterparts in age group <1 to 3 years (15.4%). There was significant difference (P<0.05) between enteric parasitosis and age. A total of three parasite species were observed (two protozoa and one helminth) from the diarrhea stool samples. The frequency of occurrence of intestinal parasites from the diarrheal stools showed Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant (54.8%). This was followed by Entamoeba coli (25.8%) while Entamoeba histolytica was least predominant (19.4%). Mixed infection was not observed. This study indicates that parasites are important cause of diarrhea, especially among children. Though usually not life threatening, chronic parasitic infestation can impair physical and mental growth and general development of children. This study has shown that intestinal parasites are still highly prevalent among children under 5 years of age in Nigeria. The presence of these three parasitic intestinal parasites among children with diarrhea in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria supports the earlier observations that parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem in the country. The study also provides data for understanding the epidemiological status of the human gastrointestinal parasites in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Therefore, there is need for regular awareness programs on sanitary and good hygiene among children.

[Akingbade OA, Akinjinmi AA, Ezechukwu US, Okerentugba PO, Okonko IO. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Children with Diarrhea in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Researcher 2013;5(9):66-73]. (ISSN: 1553-9865) http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 13

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.13

 

Keywords: Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Epidemiological status

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Analysis Mental Element of the Crime

 

Hoshang Razmdideh (M.A)

 

Department of Theology and Arabic Literature, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: Hoshang.Razmdide@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Discussion of the elements of the offense are very complicated. Mental element has been discussed in law and criminal books under the various titles of deliberate, bad faith, intent etc. Mental element of the crime is considerable in intentional, unintentional, and material crimes. In intentional crime, presence of criminal intent is necessary for mental element of the crime. A purpose of mental element of the crime in unintentional crimes is actions that are occurred without considering their result. There are some crimes that are neither intentional nor wrong which are called mere material crime. It is required three legal, physical, and mental elements for realizing each crime. we're here to examine the mental element.

[Hoshang Razmdideh. Analysis Mental Element of the Crime. Researcher 2013;5(9):74-77]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 14

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.14

 

Key words: Analyze, Offense, Law element, Material element, Mental element, Crime.

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Criminology of person hysterical

 

Hoshang Razmdideh (M.A)1, * Ghobad Naderi (M.A) 2

 

1. Department of Theology and Arabic Literature, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: Hoshang.Razmdide@yahoo.com

2. Department of law, Payam noor University, Kermanshah, Iran

 

Abstract: patients Hysterical disorders can cause organ disease, social and environmental factors, the role of religion, incidents and accidents, including heredity and genetics. Innocent person of criminal responsibility and returns to Security and Educational judgment on the perpetrators of these patients can be looked at; Keywords: criminology disorders, neurosis, hysteria, criminal responsibility, scientific study of criminology and criminal phenomena in science to determine the cause, prevention and treatment. Emotional outbursts and severe neurological disorder that is characterized by the disruption of motor and sensory function called hysteria. "Bound" or "having" to endure the consequences of individual criminal responsibility for his criminal conduct are called criminal.

[Hoshang Razmdideh and Ghobad Naderi. Criminology of person hysterical. Researcher 2013;5(9):78-81]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 15

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.15

 

Key words: Criminology, person hysterical, religion, judgment, responsibility.

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Nemesis in abortion intentionally in Jurisprudence and Law

 

 Jamal Rezaei (PH.D) 1, *, Ali Jahankhah (PH.D) 2, Zeynabe Ebrahim Shahraki (M.A)3

 

1. Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

E-mail: Jamal-rezaei@yahoo.com

2. Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

E-mail: Jahhankhah-a@yahoo.com

3. Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

 

Abstract: The abortion intentionally has a long literature in the history of different human societies. The crime of abortion intentionally including: bring the embryo out as intentional, before its normal born time, especially if it is brought out of Mother’s womb as dead or not livable, this is a kind of crime which related to women and all of populous countries involve with it. Religions divine like Islam are also precursors of human dignity by Holy God, and they know that the live right for embryo is Godsend and any offensive to this creature, counted as big sins which deserve to be punished. Before blowing soul to the embryo, it has a vegetable life. After blowing soul to embryo in fourth month, it enjoys of human or animal life. Same vital transforming in embryo’s life caused to change legal and religious orders taking away of embryo’s life before or after blowing soul to it is per se unlawful but maybe this respect in some assumptions in Contention with more important rights as mother’s life right may be ignored and other rights would be preferred on it. The Shiite jurists and Sunnis in the field of taking life away of fetus in different stages of its life, considered some particular blood money, but none of them announce a particular nemesis for murder in abortion intentionally before blowing soul to the embryo. But nemesis for abortion intentionally after blowing soul to fetus counted (as one of the most important stages of human life) that has been changed to dispute argument subject between jurists. Some believe that the murder in this situation should deserve to be punished and others cancelled the nemesis order for murder. No doubt, second group idea, it is not associated with deprivation any penalties except paying blood money from murder but according this idea the murder committed a kind of crime and unforgiving sin for the reason she deserves to be punished. But from this groups’ idea, some jurists say that “the murder cannot be punished to death only for killing her embryo whose blown soul in it.

[Jamal Rezaei,Ali Jahankhah. Zeynabe Ebrahim Shahraki. Nemesis in abortion intentionally in Jurisprudence and Law. Researcher 2013;5(9):82-87]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 16

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.16

 

Key words: fetus (embryo) abortion, nemesis, intentionally, blood money and punishment. 

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Women Judgment in Quintet Religious

 

Jamal Rezaei (PH.D)1, *, Ali jahankhah (PH.D)2, Fereshteh khaleseh Ranj bar (M.D) 3

 

1. Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. E-mail: Jamal-rezaei@yahoo.com

2. Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. E-mail: Jahhankhah-a@yahoo.com

3. Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. E-mail: Fkh.ra66@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Between Islamic religions including (Gaphare, Male key, Hanafee, shafee, Hanbalee) in particular of women Judgment, There are three viewpoints: a group believes that being a man is the judgment conditions and they think women cannot be a Judge. Other group also believes that, being a man is not the Judgment conditions. In this area, there is not any difference, between man and woman. Other group attached to the detail which means, where the woman’s testimony is acceptable, her Judgment would be dominant too. In this writing, due to the importance of this issue, we accurately intent to review the reasons and different documents each group. From the sum of these arguments and discussions, the citation reasons come out for the first group as they claimed this matter can be a positive prohibition in woman judgment and for this matter their reasons rejected or damage to it. Therefore, the acceptance of this view point that women can be judge as men sounded true.

[Jamal Rezaei,Ali jahankhah, Fereshteh khaleseh Ranj bar. Women Judgment in Quintet Religious. Researcher 2013;5(9):88-93]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 17

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.17

 

Key words: Women, Judgment, Quintet Religious, Islamic.

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Comparative Analysis Of Fertilizer-Use In Imo State: 1990-1999 And 2000-2009

 

Ndubuisi Steve Chukwukere1*, Juliet Akudo Okafor2, Felix Iruo3

 

1Department of Agricultural Economic, Extension and Rural Development, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

2School of Crop Science, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

 3Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State

zoelyfinme@gmail.com*, akudo.okafor@gmail.com, iruofelix@gmail.com

 

Abstracts: The work aimed at comparing fertilizer use level in Imo State from 1990-1999 and 2000 – 2009. Data used for this study were collected from National Bureau of Statistics, Imo Agricultural Development Programs and Federal Fertilizer Department. Student t-test was used to analyze these data. Time series data collected on fertilizer use showed that the average fertilizer use levels for before 2000 era, is higher than average fertilizer use level after 2000 era; the trend analyses showed decreases in the fertilizer use before 2000 and increases after 2000; result of the t-test statistics shows significant difference in the level of fertilizer use before and after 2000. It is recommended that effort to make fertilizer readily available and accessible to farmers be emphasized.

(Chukwukere N.S, Okafor J.A, Iruo, F. Comparative Analysis of Fertilizer-Use in Imo State: 1990-1999 and 2000-2009. Researcher 2013;5(9):94-98]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 18

doi:10.7537/marsrsj050913.18

 

Key words: fertilizer, fertilizer use, subsidy, average fertilizer.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from July 22, 2013. 

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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