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Volume 5 - Issue 10 (Cumulated No. 52, October 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-9865, Monthly
 
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0510
 

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

page

No.

1

Knowledge and Attitudes of People in Zanjan about Iodine Disorders

 

Moraveji M., MSc1 (Corresponding author), Farmanbar R., PhD2, soleimannezhad N., MSc3, Nori A., MSc4

 

1-Dept of Nursing, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

2-Assistant Professor of Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht (Iran)

3- Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran

4-Dept of Mathematics, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

 

Abstract: Introduction: Iodine is a trace and essential element for human health. Iodine deficiency disorders are a major problem and a health priority in Iran. In order to prevent and combat of this problem, it looks that the promotion of awareness of proper hygiene practices are essential. The most dangerous aspect of personal and social effects of iodine deficiency and the motivation for evaluation the knowledge of women attitudes about these disorders were done in this study in 2012. Method: With a multi-stage random selection, 72 women whom referred to health centers household in the winter of 2012 in Zanjan were studied by descriptive methods. After collecting data through face to face discussion and necessary statistical calculations, the knowledge and attitudes were assessed. Results: 73.6 percent of units have somewhat favorable awareness and 70.8% of them had the right attitude. Most awareness and increasing the knowledge of population about the disorders were done on the radio and television (29.2 percent). There are a significant relation between consciousness and awareness status, occupation, awareness and education, and education and awareness of spouses in catching a goiter. Also in attitude part except in marital status there wasn't any relationship between other cases. Conclusions: Low levels of Iodine Deficiency Disorders Awareness and attitudes are the most important health problems in the community which was studied, thus effectively improving training programs should be designed and implemented.

[Moraveji M., Farmanbar R., Soleimannezhad N., Nori A. Knowledge and Attitudes of People in Zanjan about Iodine Disorders. Researcher 2013;5(10):1-4]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.01

 

Key words: knowledge, attitudes, goiter, Iodine deficiency disorder, Iodine iodized

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Controlling Chaos Using Recursive Backstepping Technique And Synchronization Via Reduced-Order Method In A Tunnel Diode Chaotic Oscillator Circuit.

 

Ogabi C. O1., Madufor M. A2., Olusa T. V3.

 

1,2,3. Department of Physics, Lagos State University, Ojo, PMB 1087, Apapa, Lagos, Nigeria.

1Email address: kunleogabi@yahoo.com or cornelius.ogabi@lasu.edu.ng

 

ABSTRACT: This research work investigates the control and synchronization in a fourth-order chaotic system derived from a tunnel diode oscillatory circuit. The chaotic behavior was controlled using a recursive backstepping design, based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Reduced-order synchronization between the fourth-order chaotic system and a second-order Duffing oscillator, deduced from a tunnel diode, and a non-linear resistor circuit was achieved using Lyapunov stability theory. Numerical simulations are implemented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed approach ensured that global stability and exponential synchronization between the master and the slave systems can be achieved when the systems are of different order.

[Ogabi, C.O, Madufor, M.A, Olusa, T.V. Controlling Chaos Using Recursive Backstepping Technique and Synchronization via Reduced-order Method in a Tunnel Diode Chaotic Oscillator Circuit. Researcher 2013;5(10):5-15]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.02

 

Keywords: Lyapunov stability theory, recursive backstepping, reduced-order synchronization, fourth-order chaotic system, second-order Duffing oscillator, Tunnel diode oscillator circuit, global stability

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Geochemical fingerprinting of an oil-impacted site, Niger Delta: Source and weathering profile of aliphatic hydrocarbons.

 

Mark O. Onyema *, Leo C. Osuji, Samuel E. Ofodile

 

Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Research Group,

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323 Choba, 500001, Nigeria

onyemark@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aliphatic hydrocarbon fingerprints of oil residues extracted from oil-impacted soil samples were compared with the source crude oil in order to characterize the oil hydrocarbons and assess the extent of their degradation at surface and subsurface depths. Gas chromatographic analysis of the saturate fraction identified aliphatic hydrocarbon in the nC8 to nC35 range including pristane and phytane. Reduced abundance of aliphatic hydrocarbons characterized by unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) in the chromatograms were suggestive of degraded oil hydrocarbons, which was more at surface than subsurface depth. Compositional data of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as CPI, Pr/Ph, Pr/nC17 and Ph/nC18 revealed the following: typical Niger Delta crude oil as source of spill, the differential depletion of spilled oil hydrocarbons and weathering by biodegradation, which varied more at surface than subsurface depth. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) used to test for correlation of the aliphatic hydrocarbon components among the spill samples was based on compositional similarity with the source crude oil. The result showed the spill oil residue at surface had undergone significant alteration in its chemical composition and did not correlate with the source crude oil, the subsurface spill oil residue showed similarity with the source crude oil. This indicated extensive weathering of the surface spill oil, while the subsurface spill oil was only moderately weathered.

[Onyema M.O., Osuji L.C., Ofodile S.E. Geochemical fingerprinting of an oil-impacted site, Niger Delta: Source and weathering profile of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Researcher 2013;5(10):16-21]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.03

 

Key words: GC fingerprint, n-Alkane distribution, isoprenoid ratio, Niger delta, degradation, correlation

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A model for Quality of work life and Organizational Effectiveness - the Case of associate members of Tehran Medical University

 

Forozandeh Jannat1 (Corresponding author), Ghasem Ansari Renani2, Kazem chavoshi3

 

1. Master of Public Administration, DBA strategic management, supervisor training, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

2. PHD Management of Organizational Behavior, Associate Professor, Allameh Tabatabai University, Department of Management

3. PHD Business Administration, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economic Sciences

Forozandejannat@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Quality of work life is a new topic raised in the domain of behavioral management. Some studies have measured the impact of quality of work life on individual performance, while there is less about its impact on organizational performance. To study such an issue, faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected as research population and some 321 persons were chosen by Kukran formula. A researcher-developed 58-item questionnaire was used as data collection tool; and its validity was determined by inquiring the viewpoints of the experts and its reliability by Alpha Croanbach. The Alpha Croanbach of the questionnaire stood at 0.964, which admits a high degree of reliability. According to the findings of the proposed model, Friedman test showed the first rank of fair and sufficient compensation; good relations among colleagues ranked first in suitable working environment, and successful surgeries also achieved the highest point in relation to effectiveness constructs. Finally the findings, operational applications and recommendations for further studies are provided after a reference to the objective of the research.

[Forozandeh Jannat, Ghasem Ansari Renani, Kazem chavoshi. A model for Quality of work life and Organizational Effectiveness - the Case of associate members of Tehran Medical University. Researcher 2013;5(10):22-32]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.04

 

Keywords: quality of work life, suitable working environment, performance of faculty members, organizational effectiveness

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Investigation of qualified strategy from SWOT analysis using fuzzy group decision-making techniques in the appliance industry (case study: Doonar Khazar factory in Tabriz)

 

Vahid Mahmoudi1 (Corresponding author), Dr. Mehrdad Hosseini Shakib2, Dr. Mohsen Mohammadi3

 

1. MSc student of Industrial Management, Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Karaj, Iran

2. Assistant Professor and faculty member, Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Department of Management, Karaj, Iran

3. Assistant Professor and faculty member, Islamic Azad University of Shar-e-Rey, Department of Management, Shar-e-Rey, Iran

vahid.mahmoodi110@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This research aims at devising the key strategies, ranking and choosing the most appropriate strategies using SWOT Analysis for strategy-making and the combination of ANP and DEMATEL and Triangle Fuzzy for group decision-making techniques. The resulting strategies are used for ranking. The research method is practical that is implemented using field research. Interviewing 45 experts as samples, the weakness, strength, and the threats and opportunities related to the factory were detected and the key strategies for the firm were devised using SWOT Analysis. The weights of Paired Comparison Analysis between factors were attained by using a questionnaire and the most appropriate strategy for Donar Khazar Factory was ranked and chosen with the combination of ANP and DEMATEL Fuzzy. It is concluded that market expansion strategy in the available regions is the most appropriate strategy for the present time of Donar Khazar Factory due to profit increase in sales.

[Vahid Mahmoudi, Dr. Mehrdad Hosseini Shakib, Dr. Mohsen Mohammadi. Investigation of qualified strategy from SWOT analysis using fuzzy group decision-making techniques in the appliance industry (case study: Doonar Khazar factory in Tabriz). Researcher 2013;5(10):33-45]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.05

 

Keywords: Main Strategy, SWOT analysis, Group decision-making

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Academic Achievements Of Kashmiri, Dogri And Ladakhi Adolescent Girls

 

Gulshan Wani

 

Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir (India)

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken academic achievement of Kashmiri, Dogri and Ladakhi adolescents girls of 12th standard in Jammu and Kashmir State (India). Random sampling technique has been used to select the Kashmiri, Ladakhi and Dogri adolescent girls from different higher secondary institutions of J&K state. The sample taken for the purpose consists of 200 Kashmiri, 200 Dogri and 200 Ladakhi adolescent girl students. Academic achievement of the selected sample has been taken as the percentage of aggregation marks in 10th and 11th standard. Mean, S.D and t test has been used to analyse the data. It was found that the Ladakhi girls are much below in their Academic Achievement scores as compared to Kashmiri and Dogri adolescent girls.

[Gulshan Wani. Academic Achievements Of Kashmiri, Dogri And Ladakhi Adolescent Girls. Researcher 2013;5(10):46-49]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 6

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.06

 

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Kashmiri, Dogri, Ladakhi, Adolescent Girls

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7

An Optimization Procedure In A Production Line Of Sokat Soap Industry, Ikotun, Lagos State.

 

1O.S. Balogun, 2A.A. Olatunji and 3A.A. Momoh

 

1Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

2Department of Statistics, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria.

3Department of Mathematics, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

Email: stapsalms@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract: This research work has been used to demonstrate the application of linear programming in optimizing the profit in a production line using SOKAT Soap Industry, Ikotun, Lagos State. Available to us are the units of profit of all the products as well as the stocks available for the production line. Using these, the objective function is formulated subject to a number of constraints based on their practices. Optimization (maximization) was obtained employing a linear programming technique. It was observed from the analysis of the data that the product which contributed mostly to the profit earned was the 1kg Salem soap. However, the establishment needed to produce others because of the need of their numerous customers (the hotels and other institutions) that needed the other smaller sizes such as the 10kg, 5kg and 2kg soap.

[O.S. Balogun, A.A. Olatunji and A.A. Momoh. An Optimization Procedure In A Production Line Of Sokat Soap Industry, Ikotun, Lagos State. Researcher 2013;5(10):50-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.07

 

Keywords: Optimization, Linear programming, Objective function, Constraints.\

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8

Modeling Two Binary Response Models On Road Accident In The North-Western Region Of The Federal Republic Of Nigeria.

 

1O.S. Balogun and 2D.E. Bright

 

1Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

2Michael Imoudu National Institute for Labour Studies, Kilometer 7, Olunlade Village Ajase-Ipo Road, P.M.B. 1524, Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria.

Email: stapsalms@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In any country where there are bad roads, motor accidents of any form are highly visible or expected. To this effect, certain agencies or organization has been set aside to control and reduce this accident from happening. In this work, we model two binary response models (logit and probit models) to data collected from these organization or agencies. We observed that activities in most of the months in the year contribute significantly to the rate of accident.

[O.S. Balogun and D.E. Bright, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Modeling Two Binary Response Models On Road Accident In The North-Western Region Of The Federal Republic Of Nigeria. Researcher 2013;5(10):55-61]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.08

 

Keywords: Probit, Logit and Log linear model

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9

Some additions used to increase the toxicity of Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) against three rodent species under laboratory conditions, Egypt

 

*Saudi A. S. and ** Abd El-Aleem S.S. Desoky

 

* Agric. Zoology and Nematology Dept., Faculty of Agric., Al-Azhar University.

** Plant Protection Dept., Faculty of Agric., Sohag University.

Saudi_Elkayal@yahoo.com, abdelalem2011@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The work here in aims to use three concentrations (1,2 and 3%) of neem seed extracts adding to 4% Paraphenylenediamine (PPD), the previously recommended dose (Saudi, 2012) in order to improve of PPD against three rodent species: white billed rat, Rattus rattus frugivorus, nile grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus and house mice, Mus musculus under laboratory conditions. The results showed a high rate of consumption of the bait when using with the low concentrations of neem seed extract compared with the lowest one. While the 4% PPD without additions was the first in bait consumption. Rodent females increased high rate of baits as compared with males. The consumption were (53.40 and 39.35), (80.90 and 57.15), (32.70 and 21.55 g/animal) for females and males of white billed rat, R. r. frugivorus, nile grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus and house mice, Mus musculus respectively. Mean of consumed baits were: 69.03, 46.37 and 27.13 g/animal nile grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus, white billed rat, R. r. frugivorus, and house mice, Mus musculus respectively. The results also indicated that the period of stay alive of tasted animals increases gradually with an increasing of neem seed extract (carried on crushed maize) compared to using also control bait. Females were most durable and lasted the longest life span of males for all rodent species tested. These periods were (9.0 and 14.35), (9.50 and 15.10), (7.75 and 13.05 day) for white billed rat, R. r. frugivorus, nile grass rat, A. niloticus and house mice, M. musculus, respectively. Also the nile grass rat, A. niloticus showed a longer period of survival than the other two species( i.e. the norway rat, R. norvegicus and the house mouse, M. musculus). On the other hand, the reduction in weight in the males of the three tasted rodent species, was less than the reduction in weight of females were using neem seed extract concentrations carried on crushed maize.

[Saudi A. S, Abd El-Aleem S.S. Desoky. Some additions used to increase the toxicity of Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) against three rodent species under laboratory conditions, Egypt. Researcher 2013;5(10):62-67]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.09

 

Keywords: Paraphenylenediamine, Rattus rattus frugivorus, Arvicanthis niloticus, Mus musculus

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Reviews of diversity, density and frequency of Macro benthos on Karun River in both cold and warm seasons, 2012 (Khuzestan Province)

 

Rezvan Raajabi Babahmadi1, Maryam Mohammadi Rouzbahani2, Ebrahim Rajabzadeh ghatrami3

 

1 Graduate School of the biodiversity, Environmental Science Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khoozestan, Iran

2Environmental Science Department, Graduate School of the Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khoozestan, Iran

3PhD of marine biotechnology faculty of aquatic marine natural resources marine science and technology university, Khoramshahr University

 

Abstract: Karun River is the longest and the most watery rivers in Iran. It is located in the main body of the Khuzestan Province. Karun River is 950 km long and its extent of the catchment area is 60,000 sq. km. This study was performed in 2012 on the Karun River in both winter and summer. Samples were taken at 11 stations with three determined replicates by using Peterson grab and with Surber cross section 225cm2. During two seasons of sampling, the Annual density of Macrobenthos identified and counted the average of 50,308 individuals per square meter per year. Between the identified classes, the highest frequency percentage corresponds to category of Oligochaeta 56.64% and the average density of 28493 individuals per square meter; then were considered insects with frequency 11.8% and a density of 5574 individuals per square meter, Gastropod with a frequency of 02/11% and a density of 5,546 individuals per square meter bivalve with a frequency 10.39% and a density of 5226 individuals per square meter, Polychaeta with a frequency of 8.19% and a density of 4122 in individuals per square meter, crustacean frequency 2.65% and a density of 1334 individuals per square meter and leech with a frequency 0.3% and a density of 13 individuals. The Total frequency of Macro benthos is indicating Station 3 has the highest frequency 13,640 individuals per square meter and Station 5 has a minimum frequency with 293; also have had annually density of 31993 persons per square meter in summer and 18315 individuals per square meter in winter which their difference was significant. In entire period has been recorded the highest of Shannon diversity index at station 9 (1.811 0.21) and the lowest at station 6 (0.427 0.36) in the winter; also was Highest rate of Simpson's dominance index, at Station 6 (0.865 0.16) and the lowest at station 9 (0.338 0.14) in winter. The highest of Camargo's index has seen in the summer (0.419 0.08) and the lowest in winter (0.168 0.6). The highest of Berilion index has been recorded (1.622) and the lowest (0.4190.37) in summer.

[Rezvan Raajabi Babahmadi,Maryam Mohammadi Rouzbahani, Ebrahim Rajabzadeh ghatrami. Reviews of diversity, density and frequency of Macro benthos on Karun River in both cold and warm seasons, 2012 (Khuzestan Province). Researcher 2013;5(10):68-74](ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.10

 

Key words: Karun River's, macro benthos, density, diversity.

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Empirical Analysis of determinants of Labour Use by Selected Food Crops’ Farmers in Oyo and Ondo States, Nigeria.

 

Adejare Grace Taiwo 1, Arimi Kayode 2

 

1. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo States, Nigeria.

2. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo States, Nigeria

arimi2009@yahoo.com, taiwograceu@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Despite the wide belief that manual labour is a fundamental input in agricultural production in Africa, very few studies have been conducted to empirically substantiate this claim. Likewise, the determinants of manual labour use among food crops farmers in Nigeria have not been validated. Hence, this study examined determinants of labour use among selected food crops’ farmers in Oyo and Ondo States, Nigeria. Sources of labour used by food crop farmers were self (9.6%), family (11.6%), hired (65%), informal/exchange (3.3%) and mechanical (10.4%). Majority, (90.0%) of them did not have enough labour for production. Average annual labour used was 87.9 21.2 man-days. Predictors of labour used by food crop farmers in Oyo state were use of labour saving devices, education and contact with extension agent. However, predictors of labour used by food crop farmers in Ondo state were family size, farm location, use of labour saving devices, number of dependants, farm size, years of experience, and contact with extension agents. Extension contact is a panacea for labour utilisation.

[Adejare G, Taiwo, Arimi K. Empirical Analysis of determinants of Labour Use by Selected Food Crops’ Farmers in Oyo and Ondo States, Nigeria. Researcher 2013;5(10) 2013;5(10):75-83]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.11

 

Keywords: Empirical-analysis; labour-use; food crops; farmers; Nigeria.

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Feeding alternative source of fat to broilers

 

Alaeldein M. Abudabos*

 

Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences

King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

alabudabos@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate the effect of replacing typical soybean oil in broiler’s diet with a less expensive commercial blend (kofat) on the performance of one strain of broilers. A total of 480-1d old lohamn chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and were placed in 8 pens. Two corn-soybean diets were introduced, one contained soybean oil while the other contained kofat as a source of fat in the diet. Each diet was assigned to 4 pens with 60 chicks in each pen for six week. Analysis of variance was performed using GLM procedure for a randomized complete block design. Feed efficiency, average daily gain and feed consumption were not significantly affected by fat source (P>0.05). On the other hand, parts yield, abdominal fat and cooking loss were not significantly affected by the treatment (P>0.05). Including kofat as the fat source of the broiler diets resulted in the same performance as in soy oil but the lower cost of kofat makes it an excellent fat source for broilers.

[Alaeldein M. Abudabos. Feeding alternative source of fat to broilers. Researcher 2013;5(10) :84-87]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 12

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.12

 

Keywords: Kofat, soybean oil, performance, broilers.

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13

Balanced Scorecard Implementation: Case Study of COMSATS Abbottabad, Pakistan

 

Syed Touseef Ahmad, Syed Amjad Farid Hasnu

 

Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

tauseef@ciit.net.pk

 

Abstract: Balanced Scorecard addresses the measurement of performance in two aspects of Hard (Financial) measures and Soft (operational) measure. The soft measures comprise of customers’ perspective, internal process perspective and learning and growth perspective. This research is about CIIT Abbottabad, evidence regarding implementation of Balanced Scorecard shows that this measure is comprehensive for strategic purposes. For this work primary data from 15 strategic positions was collected and in this research it is concluded that balanced scorecard can be implemented on campus with little effort as majority of the process and systems are in line with the Balanced Scorecard Perspectives. Some gaps in Learning and Growth and Internal Process was identified.

[Syed Touseef Ahmad, Syed Amjad Farid Hasnu. Balanced Scorecard Implementation: Case Study of COMSATS Abbottabad, Pakistan. Researcher 2013;5(10):88-109]. (ISSN: 1553-9865) http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 13

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.13

 

Keywords: Performance Measures, Balanced Scorecard, CIIT ATD, Strategic Purposes.

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The Role of Repentance in Decrease or forgive prosecution, in Iran Criminal Law

 

Mohammad Hassan Madahian

 

University Kebangsaan Malaysia the national university of Malaysia,

 Email: madahaian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In human internal there is the power of coming back ( The clean road) and the God also opens the doors of coming back and never close it and never rejected his son and this is forever and lasting. In this article in two parts it was investigated the role of repentance in forgiving the sins which their punishment were defined before. In the first part we analyze the role of repentance in decreasing the punishment some sin such ( Rape, Sexual relation, Drinking alcohol) and in the second part the role of this affair in Taazirat affairs and consequently we reach to conclusion.

[Madahian, M. H. The Role of Repentance in Decrease or forgive prosecution, in Iran Criminal Law. Researcher 2013;5(10):110-112]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 14

doi:10.7537/marsrsj051013.14

 

Key words: Repentance; model; prosecution; Criminal Law

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from August 17, 2013. 

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