Science Journal


ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online); doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9865; Monthly
Volume 6 - Issue 4 (Cumulated No. 58), April 25, 2014
            Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0604

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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Electrolytes Concentration In Patients With Heart Disease


Saira Baloch1, Tazeen Shah2, Amber Mahmood1, Saira Dars3


1Medical Research Centre, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

2Department of physiology, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

3Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Liaquat University Hospital, Sindh, Pakistan


Abstract: The purpose of study was to examine possible changes in electrolytes level of patients with heart disease. Serum electrolytes were determined by using appropriate techniques in fifty patients and controls. The result showed a significant elevation in the levels of sodium whereas, decreased concentration of serum calcium and potassium in patients compared to those of controls. Further investigations will clarify the scope of changes in these electrolytes, which may reliable diagnostic aid in heart disease.

[Saira Baloch, Tazeen Shah, Amber Mahmood, Saira Dars. Electrolytes concentration in patients with heart disease. Researcher 2014;6(4):1-3]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060414.01


Key Words: Electrolytes, Serum, Heart diseases, Flame photometer

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Business Intelligence as a Tool for Managers Decision Making in Organization


Soheyla Abdolahi


Department of Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Abstract: Business intelligence process is applying collection of facilities for enhancing decision making in organizational all levels which is easily implemented. Nowadays, it can be said for sure that applying business intelligence increases the competition power of an organization and distinguishes it from other organizations. Leading organizations do not speak about CRM, ERP … anymore. Organizational attitude is toward BI. They are looking for improving the process through evaluating and improving their own performance and dependent subsets. Nowadays, increasing efficiency has been more important.

[Soheyla Abdolahi. Business Intelligence as a Tool for Managers Decision Makings in Organization. Researcher 2014;6(4):4-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060414.02


Keyword: Business, managers, decision, organization, intelligence, efficiency

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Scanning Electron Microscopy of Antennal Sensilla of Goniocotes Species infesting Helmeted Guinea fowl, Numida meleagris (Galliformes: Numididae)


Aftab Ahmad1, Neelima Gupta1,*, Dileep Kumar Gupta2, Arun Kumar Saxena3


1.Centre of Excellence, Department of Animal Science, MJP Rohilkhand University Bareilly 243006, UP, India

2.Department of Zoology, Bareilly College, Bareilly 243005, UP, India

3.Department of Zoology, Government Raza Postgraduate College, Rampur 244 901, UP, India,,,


Abstract: Phthirapteran antennae are the principal sites of sensory structures. The antenna of ischnoceran Phthiraptera consists of three components viz. basal scape, a pedicel and the flagellum. The flagellum is further sub divided into three segments: first, second and third flagellomere.  SEM study revealed that the second and third flagellomere of Goniocotes species infesting Helmeted Guinea fowl, Numida melagris carry a placodean sensilla and a sensilla coeloconica. The scape, pedicel and I flagellomere carry 1-3 sensilla chaetica and tectile hair. The nature of sensory organ of both the sexes of adult and different instars of nymphs of Goniocotes species appear quite similar. The present report thus furnishes information on the nature of antennal sensilla of three instars of nymphs and the adult of an ischnoceran louse Gonicotes species infesting Helmeted Guinea fowl.

[Ahmad A, Gupta N, Gupta DK, Saxena AK. Scanning Electron Microscopy of Antennal Sensilla of Goniocotes Species infesting Helmeted Guinea fowl, Numida meleagris (Galliformes: Numididae). Researcher 2014;6(4):7-11]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060414.03


Key words: lice; Phthiraptera; Mallophaga; Ischnocera.

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[Researcher 2014;6(4):12-15]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060414.04


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A review of interaction of Financial Leverage and Investment Opportunities on Dividend Policy


Karim Rezvani Raz1, Amir Mahmoudzadeh (PHD)2


1.Department of Accounting, Abadan branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran

2.Department of Shakhespajouh, Essfahan University, Essfahan, Iran.

Corresponding author: Karim Rezvani Raz; Email:


Abstract: The aim of this paper is to discover the role and position of dividend policy in management decisions, and also to investigate the relation between financing sources and investment opportunities with dividend changes. According to the free cash flow theory, it is expected of the companies with high investment opportunities to implement anti inflationary dividend policy. The level of debt also plays an important and basic role in implementation of this policy and securing financing for investment in profitable situations. In this study, the relation between variables was tested and analysed using a sample of 184 companies in Tehran Stock Exchange with the correlation matrix, correlation coefficient and linear and multi regression methods. The results indicate an inverse significant linear relationship between financial leverage, investment opportunities and dividend policy. The reciprocity and joint relation between investment opportunities and financial leverage on determining dividend policy, is also inverse.

[Rezvani Raz, K. and Mahmoudzadeh, A. A review of interaction of Financial Leverage and Investment pportunities on Dividend Policy. Researcher 2014;6(4):16-20]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060414.05


Key words: Investment opportunities, financial leverage, dividend policy

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Synthesis of Tungsten oxide film by Spray Pyrolysis and Characterization of its Electrochromic


S Dei1*


Mahila College, Chaibasa, West Singhbhum, Jharkhand


Abstract: Peroxotungstic acid precursor solution was sprayed on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates to synthesize amorphous and crystalline phase tungsten oxide thin films by changing heating temperature. We could synthesize the amorphous phase at below 400 oC and the monoclinic crystalline tungsten oxide at above 400 oC. Electrochemical and in-situ optical transmittance analysis showed that amorphous phase tungsten oxide at 250 oC had a good electrochromic property with a large optical transmittance change between its bleached and colored states. The coloration mechanisms are due to polaron generation by inserting ions and electrons to change W+6 state to W+5 or W+4 state. 

[S Dei. Synthesis of Tungsten oxide film by Spray Pyrolysis and Characterization of its Electrochromic. Researcher 2014;6(4):21-25]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060414.06


Keywords: Peroxotungstic acid, Electrochemical, Electrochromic, Spray pyrolysis, Tungsten oxide

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Jurisprudential investigation in use of Drugs


Marzieh Seifipoor1 (Corresponding author), Dr. Masoud Raei2


1- MSc of Jurisprudence and Principles of Islamic Law, College of Law, Islamic Azad University of Najaf Abad Branch, Isfahan, Iran

2- PhD in International Law, Assistant professor and faculty member of Law group, Islamic

Azad University of Najaf Abad Branch, Isfahan, Iran


Abstract: The word of drug means all kinds of drugs, stimulants, hallucinogens mantle that are physical and psychological painful followed by one or more times after taking the drug. One of the important issues of drug sentencing jurisprudence examine contemporary mother, which do not require extensive jurisprudence. Drugs were not known at the time of Islam, so that the question of infallible Imams (PBUH) is not a sentence them to be expressed. General rules and principles of law that came to be known as the Book and the Sunnah and Tafrigh Al Forou Men Al Osoul principle to review the sentence. Islam is a way to access the drug seemed to consist of: Investigate the properties, characteristics and consequences or effects that may arise regarding drugs, such as being harmful to the body, John, corruption and lies, and... If Islam is clear about each of these features, we can sentence on the drug charge. It seems that the general rules of law and called the Book and Sunnah indicates that the use of prohibited substances that have a gross disadvantage is legitimate and rational prohibited.

[Marzieh Seifipoor, Masoud Raei. Jurisprudential investigation in use of Drugs. Researcher 2014;6(4):26-31]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060414.07


Keywords: drugs, self-destruction, Qhaedat Al Zarar

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Producing oil in water Nano-emulsion by ultrasonication for spray drying encapsulation


Atena Mazloom *, Nazanin Farhadyar **


* Address: Department of food science and technology, Varamin-pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran


** Address: Department of chemistry, Varamin-pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Pishva, Iran



Abstract: The purpose of this study was to produce oil in water Nano-emulsion by ultrasonication for spray drying encapsulation. β-cyclodextrin combined with Inulin at two ratios of 1:5 and 2:5 were used as the continuous phase, while dispersed phase consisted of the blueberry essential oil. Results showed that while on the one hand emulsion droplet size had a direct relationship with pH and surface blueberry oil content, on the other had an inverse relationship with encapsulation efficiency and total blueberry oil content. Also, the amount of blueberry essential oil and wall materials had effect on properties of the Nano-emulsions and the microencapsulated powders.      

[Atena Mazloom, Nazanin Farhadyar. Producing oil in water Nano-emulsion by ultrasonication for spray drying encapsulation. Researcher 2014;6(4):32-36]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060414.08


Keyword: Blueberry, Emulsion droplet size, Microencapsulation, Encapsulation efficiency, Surface blueberry oil.

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Asceticism in Nahjolbalaghe from Imam Ali’s Point of View


Zahra Hosseini


Department of Educational Sciences, Payam Noor University, Tehran South Branch, Tehran, Iran


Abstract: Nahjolbalaghe is an excerpt from sermons, letters and aphorisms of Imam Ali (AS) and is an encyclopedia of Islamic culture. The great scholar of Shia, Seyyed Razi (died in 406 AH) collected Nahjolbalaghe and deep content of it are expressed in forms of words and eloquent statement which changed it into an immortal piece. As each every deep-thinking considers it over the speech of creations and lower than the words of God and the title of “Brother of Quran” is the most proper one for it. There is no doubt that Nahjolbalaghe is the most valuable and important Islamic heritage after Quran. It is a collection of the most beautiful and super lessons of a perfect human being for leading the individual and society; a human being who is the best and most complete after Holy Prophet.

 [Zahra Hosseini. Asceticism in Nahjolbalaghe from Imam Ali’s Point of View. Researcher 2014;6(4):37-39]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060414.09


Key words: Nahjolbalaghe, Imam Ali, Shia, Seyyed Razi

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Measuring the quality of after-sales services of automobiles in Iran based on SERVQUAL model (Case Study: Negin Khodro Co.)


Babak Pourbahrami1, Batol Hosseinmardi2, AmirReza Alizadeh Majd3


1Department of Accounting, Member of Scientific Board, Islamic Azad University, Parand Branch, Parand, Iran

2 Department of Accounting, Islamic Azad University, Parand Branch, Parand, Iran

3 Department of Accounting, Islamic Azad University, Parand Branch, Parand, Iran



Abstract: Considering the low experience of measuring the quality of after-sale services in companies and the need of Negin Khodro company to recognize the factors affecting the customer satisfaction and the effect of this recognition on improving the service qualities and lack of a fixed frame for increasing the quality of servicing, the main aim of this research is to determine the gap between the expectations and understanding of customers based on SERVQUAL model so that the company can increase its customers’ satisfaction. Research factors include concepts, reliability, response, guarantee and empathy which are compared in two dimensions of expectations and understandings. Methodology of the present research is practical and descriptive considering the goal and data collection method, respectively. The population of the research includes 1000 people and the sample is 278 customers who receive service of Negin Khodro Company. The data was gathered considering the informatics center, books and magazine and also using interviews and SERVQUAL questionnaire. Data was analyzed using t-test and it is determined that all the hypotheses of the research were not at 95 percent significance and so there is no difference between expectations and understanding of the customers of Negin Khodro Company in all dimensions.

[Babak Pourbahrami, Batol Hosseinmardi, AmirReza Alizadeh Majd. Measuring the quality of after-sales services of automobiles in Iran based on SERVQUAL model (Case Study: Negin Khodro Co.). Researcher 2014;6(4):40-44]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060414.10


Key words: SERVQUAL, quality, expectations, understanding, service quality

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Renewable Energy as a Sure Solution to Nigeria’s Perennial Energy Problems- an Overview

Oladeji, J. T.


Mechanical Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria



 Abstract: Energy is a basic necessity for human activities, economic and social development. However, in Nigeria, insufficient energy remains a strong barrier to technological and economical growth of the country. Incessant power outages have become order of the day. This has led to closure of many manufacturing outfits. The resultant effect of this is mass unemployment and under-employment. A larger population of Nigeria depends on fossil fuels for energy generation, which are not renewable and constitute hazards to both human and ecology. However, all hope is not lost as the country is blessed with a lot of natural resources, through which alternative forms of energy, which are renewable, could be generated. The renewable energy resources available in Nigeria and their capabilities are examined in this review. Also examined are various factors militating against effective utilization and harnessing of these vast and abundant energy resources. The study concluded that renewable energy resources were well abound in the country, but they were not effectively utilized and if properly harnessed will be a sure solution to perennial energy shortage in the country.

[Oladeji, J. T. Renewable Energy as a Sure Solution to Nigeria’s Perennial Energy Problems- an Overview. Researcher 2014;6(4):45-50]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 11. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060414.11


Keywords: biomass, renewable energy, growth, solution, energy resources

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Quantitative Assessment and Urinary Biochemical Parameters of Schistosoma haematobium   Infections in Schools in Ebonyi State


1Elom, Michael Okpara, 2Ugah, Uchenna Iyioku and 1Nwuzor, Felix O.


1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki.

2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike, Ikwo.

Corresponding author: e-mail:, Mobile: +2347062154353


Abstract: Schistosoma haematobium is the only known agent of urinary schistosomiasis which is a chronic water-borne infection caused by digenetic trematodes that belong to the genus Schistosoma. Urinary schistosomiasis is noted to be more prevalent in Nigeria than intestinal schistosomiasis, due to the wider distribution of its snail hosts, Bulinus species as well as other socioeconomic factors. Ten (10 ml) of urine sample was collected from each of the informed and consenting pupils and secondary school students between 10am and 2pm. The biochemical parameters were analyzed using Combi – 9 test strips. Egg count per 10 ml of urine was performed using 10x and 40x objective lenses. A total of 485 urine specimens were collected from five different schools.  Among the population studied, the overall prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection was 38.14% (185 of 485). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among males was 40.74% (110 of 270) while that of females was 34.88% (75 of 215). The overall prevalence of the infection among the study population was statistically significant (p˂0.05). Three biochemical parameters were observed among the positive cases. They are proteinuria, ketonuria and Ascorbic acid, with prevalence of 87.57% (162 of 185), 35.14% (65 of 185), and 40.54% (75 of 185) respectively. The prevalence of proteinuria among the positive cases was statistically significant (p˂0.05), whereas those of ketonuria and ascorbic acid were statistically non – significant (p˃0.05). The mean quantitative egg count was 17.2eggs/10ml of urine.

[Elom, Michael Okpara, Ugah, Uchenna Iyioku and Nwuzor, Felix O. Quantitative Assessment and Urinary Biochemical Parameters of Schistosoma haematobium   Infections in Schools in Ebonyi State. Researcher 2014;6(4):51-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 12. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060414.12


Keywords: Urinary Schistosomiasis, Quantitative assessment, Biochemical parameters.

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THE “TRI-TRONIC” UNIVERSE? (A new theory on “Plate-Tritronics”)


M. Arulmani, B.E.


V. R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.



Abstract: This scientific research article focus that the “Material Universe” shall be considered as the integral part of “COSMO UNIVERSE” and considered as having “definite shape” where all life, matters, planets consider exists. The Tritronic Universe (material universe) shall be considered like “TRIPOD” like structure composed of Triangular “BASE PLATE” and “TRI-TRONIC PLATES” as super structural members. This research further focus that in the “Cosmo Universe”, SUN, EARTH, MOON shall be considered as the “TRIO-SPHERES” of the universe rather than “PLANETS” of the “Solar System”. “MARS” shall be considered as the “CENTRO SPHERE” of the material universe connecting the “Base Plate” through “TRI-TRONIC PLATES” with “Three directional”  “EXPANSION JOINTS”.

[M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. THE “TRI-TRONIC” UNIVERSE? (A new theory on “Plate-Tritronics”). Researcher 2014;6(4):55-69]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 13. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060414.13


Key Words:

a)                  Philosophy of Dark Hole and White Hole?...

b)                  Philosophy of “Prism eye”?...

c)                   Philosophy of “Tri-Tronics and Tectonics”?...

d)                  Philosophy of “J-Radiation”?...

e)                  Philosophy of “Plasma Zone”?...

f)                    Philosophy of “3G Radiation”?...

g)                  Philosophy of “Lightning?...

h)                  Philosophy of White Rainbow?...

i)                    Philosophy of Colour spectrum?...

j)                    Philosophy of Three dimensional joint?...

k)                  Philosophy of “Thirani-e”?...

l)                    Philosophy of “Crop Circles”?...

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from April 6, 2014. 

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