Science Journal

 

Researcher
(Researcher)
ISSN 1553-9865; Monthly
Volume 6 - Issue 5 (Cumulated No. 59), May 25, 2014
            Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0605, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9865 
 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Comparative study of Misoprostol and Isosorbid mononitrate versus Misoprostol in induction of labour in full term pregnancy

 

Adel Elsayed Ibrahim, Abd Elmonsef Abdel Hamid Sedek, and Ahmed Hamza Soliman

 

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

Adel.sayed29@Gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background; different methods of cervical ripening have been used including non-pharmacological methods as Brest stimulation, membrane stripping and amniotomy,pharmacological methods including estradiol, oxytocin, prostaglandin and prostaglandin analogues have been used. Many trials have investigated the possible use of nitric oxide donor in induction of cervical ripening, Objective: to compare the effectiveness and safety of isosorbid mononitrate plus misoprostol versus misoprostol alone for induction of labour in the full term pregnancy. Sitting: Sayed Galal University hospital. Patients: 120 full-term pregnant women were recruited in the period from October 2010 to November 2011,the patients were divided into two groups; group A(60 patients) received 40 mg isosorbid mononitrate intravaginal plus 25 g misoprostol intravaginal.Group B received misoprostol 25 g intravaginal plus placebo. Oxytocin was used according to hospital protocols for induction of labour. Methods: the outcome measures were, preinduction bishop score, follow up of bishop score every 2 hours, time of initiation of active phase, time of labour, incidence and, indications of C/S,neonatal outcomes. Results: There were significant differences in bishops score recorded after 2,4,6,8 hours in the two studied groups being better in ISMO plus misoprostol group. There were no significant differences regarding the mode of delivery whether vaginal or Caesarean section in both groups, furthermore the time of delivery were significantly shorter in the ISMO plus misoprostol if compared with misoprostol alone. As regard maternal side effects, there were no significant differences between both groups, but there was high incidence of headache in the ISMO plus misoprostol, also there were no significant differences regarding fetal heart pattern in the both groups as regard neonatal outcome, there were higher Apgar score in the ISMO plus misoprostol if compared with misoprostol alone. Conclusion: Isosorbid mononitrate plus misoprostole was more effective and safer than misoprostole alone for induction of labour.

[Adel Elsayed Ibrahim, Abd Elmonsef Abdel Hamid Sedek, and Ahmed Hamza Soliman. Comparative study of Misoprostol and Isosorbid mononitrate versus Misoprostol in induction of labour in full term pregnancy. Researcher 2014;6(5):1-5]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.01

 

Keywords: cervical ripening, induction of labour, isosorbid mono nitrate, misoprostol.

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2

Approach of Supreme Court in Double Taxation Relief in India

 

Jamshed Ansari

 

Asstt. Professor (Guest Faculty), Faculty of Law, University of Delhi, Delhi (INDIA)

E-Mail- jamshedansari024@gmail.com

 

Abstracts: The author aims to examine the approach of Supreme Court in Double Taxation Relief in India. Further to see whether there is change of the view of the Supreme Court before and after the liberalization era. The author has taken the view whether the Double Taxation Avoidance agreement between India and Mauritius is being abused by the “treaty shopping” for the purpose of fiscal evasion. The Supreme Court has interpreted the DTAA and the Income Tax Act, 1961 as to encourage mutual economic relations, trade and investment between the contracting countries and tried to give the answers to the following framed questions: What is the position where there is a conflict between the provisions of the statute and the provisions of the applicable Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement? Which country is entitled to tax a particular income where there is DTAA and in case where there is no DTAA between Countries? Whether empowering central government to define by notification in the official gazette the terms not defined in the DTAA or the Income Tax Act is in violation of principles of treaty jurisprudence. What are the approaches of SC regarding relief in Double Taxation? Whether DTAA entered into between India and different tax haven countries is abused through “treaty shopping”.  Why Double Taxation Avoidance Treaties are bilateral, rather than multilateral such as the GATT. The research paper is limited to examine the approach of Supreme Court in Double Taxation Relief. For which the authors have to go in history of DTAA and the Indian Income Tax Law, case laws and the surrounding materials.

[Ansari, Jamshed. Approach of Supreme Court in Double Taxation Relief in India. Researcher 2014;6(5):6-12]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.02

 

Key Words: Double taxation relief, DTAA, treaty shopping, avoidance agreement etc.

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3

Comparing Traditional and Networks-Based Education Systems on Learning English Language Course in High School First Grade Students

 

Motahareh Hosseini1, Mostafa Zamanian2

 

1. Ph.D. candidate, Department of Foreign Languages, Qeshm Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm, Iran

2. Ph.D. Department of Foreign Languages, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

m.hoseini580@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study is comparing traditional and networks-based education systems on learning the English language course in high school first grade students. Thus, 340 first grade female students were placed in the two experimental and control groups. English course was trained as lecture method and using information networks to the experimental group and the control group was only trained as lecture method. The experiment lasted for a semester and research tool was a researcher-made test as pre-test and post-test, which was used to evaluate the students learning. Data was evaluated using independent groups t-test. The data was analyzed in the 0.001 alpha levels and two-tailed t. The results of data analysis showed that there was a significant difference between applying information networks and progress in learning English language course. Furthermore, the results showed that there was a significant difference in the post-test of both control and experimental groups in various sections of the English language course such as writing, reading comprehension, words and phrases meaning, and grammar. The results showed also that there was a significant difference between the difference between pre-test and post-test scores of experimental and control groups and the course components.

[Motahareh Hosseini, Mostafa Zamanian. Comparing Traditional and Networks-Based Education Systems on Learning English Language Course in High School First Grade Students. Researcher 2014;6(5):13-18]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.03

 

Key words: Teaching, Information Networks, educational achievement, English Language

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4

The effect of CALL on EFL Intermediate learners’ achievement and attitude

 

Farid Ghaemi1, Motahareh Hosseini2

 

1.                     PH.D.Assistant professor in TESL/TEFL, Islamic Azad University- Karaj Branch

2.                     PH.D. candidate in TESL/TEFL, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm Branch

 

Abstract: Nowadays computers have become one of the most important teaching tools in universities, schools and institutes. In fact computers brought essential change in educational system. This study examined the effect of computer assisted language learning (CALL) on some EFL learners. Participants in the present study are 90 intermediate students with an age span of 20 to 30 years old. They are studying EFL in the Qeshm International Incubator. Participants' English language proficiency is intermediate as determined by language written tests conducted by the researcher and interview with them. This study was a pretest/posttest experiment/control group design. The questionnaire results revealed statistically significant differences between students who have computer technology training and those who have not in terms of their attitudes toward computers and the use of computer technology resources in language learning. The results also showed the positive effect of CALL in Language Learning Classes.

[Farid Ghaemi, Motahareh Hosseini. The effect of CALL on EFL Intermediate learners’ achievement and attitude. Researcher 2014;6(5):19-22]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.04

 

Key words: CALL, attitude, computer technology

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5

The trend of seasonal and annual precipitation stations Orumieh lake basin using the Mann Kendall

 

Kheshtkary Sani, sayyad

 

M.Sc of Climatology, Orumieh, Applied Meteorological Research Center

sany1348@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main aim of the current research was to investigate the seasonal and annual rainfall trends in the Orumieh Lake Basin. The most data sequences are observed as climatic series having non-linear behavior which do not follow a normal distribution. Consequently, a Mann- Kendall non-parametric statistical method was applied to analyze all data at hand. For this purpose eight major synoptic and climatic stations' observations (from 1970 to 2009, exactly 40 years) have been analyzed using different sort of graphic and analytic techniques. The final results show that, there are some negative significant decreasing trends in the most of the time series. It is also distinguished that the beginning of changes, regarding the all time series at the study area, started at 1990s. Since, significant trends cannot be detected in all stations data; the related spatial distribution maps were not created.

[Kheshtkary Sani, sayyad. The trend of seasonal and annual precipitation stations Orumieh lake basin using the Mann Kendall. Researcher 2014;6(5):23-26]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.05

 

Key words: dynamic simulation; model; composting; domestic solid waste

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6

The impact of cognitive therapy on depression and depressed teenage

 

Farnaz Dada

 

Lecturer in Payam-e-Noor University, Doolatabad, Isfahan

 

Abstract: meta-analyses overestimate the effects of psychological therapies and that those therapies may not work under clinically representative conditions. This meta-analysis of 70 studies found that therapies are effective over a range of clinical. The projected effects of an ideal study of clinically representative therapy are similar to effect sizes in past meta-analyses. To address this aim, the authors searched the published literature for effective interventions for children and adolescents and organized this review as follows: (1) prevention; (2) traditional forms of treatment, namely outpatient therapy, partial hospitalization, inpatient treatment, and psychopharmacology; (3) intensive comprehensive community-based interventions including case management, home-based treatment, therapeutic foster care, and therapeutic group homes; (4) crisis and support services; and (5) treatment for two prevalent disorders, major depressive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Strong evidence was found for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, anxiety, and disruptive behavior disorders. Guidance from the field relevant to moving the evidence-based interventions into real-world clinical practice and further strengthening the research base will also need to address change in policy and clinical training.

[Farnaz Dada. The impact of cognitive therapy on depression and depressed teenage. Researcher 2014;6(5):27-35]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.06

 

Key words: cognitive therapy, depression, teenage

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7

Investigation the relationship between types of organizational culture and job success in Kerman Maskan Bank

 

Mohammad Eskandarinasab Siahkoohi1, Mohammad Montazeri2

 

1. MSc of Public Administration, Islamic Azad University, Sirjan Branch, Kerman, Iran

2. Assistant Professor and Faculty Member of Islamic Azad University, Sirjan Branch, Kerman, Iran

 

Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between types of organizational culture and job success in Kerman Maskan Bank. It is clear that to achieve this objective; the bank managers will provide valuable information. The main purpose of the road for two standard questionnaires was used to collect data, such as corporate culture by using a questionnaire-based model of organizational culture and Harrison (1972) and Hindi (1978) has been measured. Organizational culture in the form of task-oriented dimensions, power-oriented, success-oriented and circuit-protection measures, and to measure job success, career success, Davenport questionnaire was used. The calculated reliability (Cronbach's alpha) for the scale of organizational culture and career success are 0.893 and 0841, respectively. To describe and analyze the collected data, descriptive statistics, descriptive statistics including frequency tables types mean and Charts and inferential statistics, Pearson and Spearman correlation test and regression analysis were used. Results of correlation and regression analyzes showed that, between culture and task-oriented and success-oriented and strength Kerman Maskan Bank employees, there is a significant relationship in reverse, so that a culture based on loyalty and strength, reducing the impact on their career success. Furthermore, the results suggest that the culture of success and the success of circuit and circuit protection Housing Bank employees directly, there is no significant relationship between the province, so that a culture of success and circuit protection circuit, a growing effect on their career success.

[Mohammad Eskandarinasab Siahkoohi, Mohammad Montazeri. Investigation the relationship between types of organizational culture and job success in Kerman Maskan Bank. Researcher 2014;6(5):36-42]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.07

 

Key words: culture, organizational culture, job success

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8

Tortious Liability Of State:  A New Judicial Trend In India

 

Jamshed Ansari

 

Asstt. Professor (Guest Faculty), Faculty of Law, University of Delhi, Delhi (INDIA)

E-Mail- jamshedansari024@gmail.com

 

Abstracts: The objective of this paper is to trace the journey of tortious liability of state in India. It evaluates current trends in recognizing liability and awarding compensation to the citizens especially by the judiciary in the event of legal injury. The scope of the paper is limited to assessing the extent of tortious liability before the Constitution and the gradual changes in judicial approach in post Constitutional era. The author proceeds with the hypotheses that the concept of tortious liability has undergone a major change and new dimensions of liability have been explored by the courts to afford remedies and compensate the victims of state action. The issues examined in the paper are what was the nature of State liability before the Constitution came into force? What are the requirements of liability in a modern Welfare State? What was the nature of liability after Constitution came into force? What is the nature of liability in case of violation of Fundamental Rights? What are the new techniques developed by the Courts in granting Remedies etc.

[Jamshed Ansari. Tortious Liability Of State: A New Judicial Trend In India. Researcher 2014;6(5):43-51]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.08

 

Key Words: Tortious liability, state liability, sovereign immunity, judicial trend etc.

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9

Classification of Jujube Fruits Using Different Data Mining Methods

 

Ali Rahimi, Ahmad Banakar*, Hemad Zareiforoush, Mehrdad Beygvand, Mehdi Montazeri

 

Deptartment of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran 14114, Iran

Email: ah_banakar@modares.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In the current study, the qualitative grade of jujube fruit was evaluated using machine vision and classifying techniques. Images from four different classes of jujubes (G1, G2, G3, and G4), representing the quality grades of jujube fruits, were acquired using a color CCD camera. After pre-processing and segmentation of images, 57 features including five from size and shape, four from texture, and 48 from color information were extracted. To select the best features for grading of the jujubes, correlation-based feature selection was used. It was revealed that 13 features surpassed the other features in quality classification. Afterwards, four different data mining-based techniques including artificial neural networks, support vector machines, decision trees and Bayesian Networks were used to classify jujubes. Results of validation stage showed that artificial neural network with 13-7-4 topology had the highest classification accuracy, 98.61%. After artificial neural network, support vector machine with polynomial kernel function (95.91%), Bayesian Network with Hill Climber search algorithm (95.22%), and decision tree with J48 algorithm (95.14%) had higher accuracy, respectively. Results of this research can be adapted for developing an efficient system for fully automated sorting of jujube fruits.

[Rahimi A, Banakar A, Zareiforush H, Beygvand M, Montazeri, M. Classification of Jujube Fruits Using Different Data Mining Methods. Researcher 2014;6(5):52-61]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.09

 

Key words: Image processing; Data mining; Jujube

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10

Separation of hydrocarbons from refinery wastewater using polypropylene membrane (PP) with membrane distillation method

 

Jafar Hamid Zadeh1,*, Prof. Muzafar Isabaev2

 

1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch, Gorgan, Iran

2. Department of Chemistry, Academi Sciences Tajikestan University, Dushanbe Branch, Dushanbe, Tajikestan

*Corresponding author: jafar.hamidzadeh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In chemical industries a huge portion of energy is employed for separation, concentration, and purification. As a result, significant works have been carried out in order to improve traditional processes and saving technologies in consuming energy. Because of complexity and high cost of current processes, membrane separation technology has been recently examined as a good alternative. Membrane distillation (MD) has been taken into consideration as a new membrane distillation process enables to separate particles as tiny and petite as 0.1-7nm. This process functions in low temperature between 30-90C that needs little source of energy besides high economic benefit. In membrane distillation (MD) process a hydrophobic membrane is utilized in contact with an input food solution. The base is on vapor-liquid equilibrium. In the present paper, alongside with membrane distillation (MD) the appropriate laboratory system will be examined additionally.

[Jafar Hamid Zadeh, Muzafar Isabaev. Separation of hydrocarbons from refinery wastewater using polypropylene membrane (PP) with membrane distillation method. Researcher 2014; 6(5):62-67]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.10

 

Keywords: membrane distillation (MD), hydrophobic membrane, nanometer particles, vapor-liquid equilibrium

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11

The relationship between capital structre and Company performance

 

1-Mojtaba Afshari, 2-Mohsen Rezaee Shoroki, Phd 3- Seyed Farshid Masoumi, M.S 4- Javad Azimi, 5- Naser Yazdanifar 

 

1 Department of Accounting , Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad university, Yazd, Iran. 2 student in accounting,university shiraz; 3 in financial management, International campus-kish Island,University of Tehran- Iran; 4 Master of Accounting; 5 Master of Accounting, Finance officer,mashhad, Iran

Coresponding Author(Mojtaba Afshari)

 

Abstract: The optimal capital structure, the satisfactory utilization of the financial resources and solvency are significant issues of managerial decision making. The present study selected 81 listed firms on the Tehran Stock Exchange during a six year period covering 2005 to 2010. The required information is gathered from the financial statements available in verified databases. Using the multivariate regression models, the hypotheses have been tested. The findings revealed that there is a negative significant association between the debt  and firm evaluation in the low performance firms.

[ Mojtaba Afshari, Mohsen Rezaee Shoroki, Phd  Seyed Farshid Masoumi, M.S  Javad Azimi,  Naser Yazdanifar. The relationship between capital structre and Company performance. Researcher 2014;6(5):68-71]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.11

 

Keywords: evaluation, Debt Ratio, Investment, Size.

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12

The relationship between financing as capital structure and economic value added

 

1-Mohamad Abdolahi, 2- Ali Fayaz, 3- Mohsen Rezaee Shoroki, 4- Abolfazl Mahmodi

 

1Master of accounting;2Master of accounting, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran (corresponding author);3Ph.d student;4Master of accounting

 

Abstract: What finance suppliers are encouraged to make use of their resources in certain activities, it is an activity optimum performance. Because optimal performance, to increase corporate value and therefore increase the capital of the owners of the resources are sought. Therefore, in order to increase shareholder capital, one of the major areas of decision managers is the financing of stock companies. To determine to what extent managers maximize the capital of the owners, who have been successful, EVA indicators are evaluated. In this research, evaluation of the financial performance of the two measures of economic performance, economic value added (EVA) is performed. In this present research in order to relationship between variables from the regression analysis and Correlation used EVIEWS software. The survey examined companies in the years 2005 to 2010, the following results were obtained: The companies-years surveyed, there isn’t Significant relationship Between external financing and EVA performance scales.

[ Mohamad Abdolahi, Ali Fayaz, Mohsen Rezaee Shoroki, Abolfazl Mahmodi. The relationship between financing as capital structure and economic value added. Researcher 2014;6(5):72-75]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 12. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.12

 

Keywords: Activities of finance, external financing, internal financing, economical performance.

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13

Review of technology management and technology management models and the role of technology spillover in the growth of Iranian fisheries products market

 

Seyyed Amirmohsen Fazeli

 

Department of Aquaculture, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr branch, Azadshahr, Iran

 

Abstract: Given that Iran is among the developing countries and has set the industrial development strategy as its top priority, this country requires massive imports of intermediate and capital goods that technology also comes with them. It is obvious that specification the dimensions of technology management and also the effects of international technology spillover resulting from the import of these goods into the country on economic growth are of great importance. Since technology, technical expertise, and human capital are considered key factors for the development of countries in recent decades, the factors affecting the increase in knowledge and technology as variables affecting the economic growth are necessary to be specially analyzed and evaluated which the objective of the present study.

[Seyyed Amirmohsen Fazeli. Review of technology management and technology management models and the role of technology spillover in the growth of Iranian fisheries products market. Researcher 2014;6(5):76-83]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 13. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.13

 

Key words: Technology management; Executable models of technology management; Technology spillover; Economic growth

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The impact of group therapy scheme on early maladaptive schemas of depressed women undergoing hemodialysis in 22nd of Bahman hospital in Nishabour

 

Ahmad Sharifnezhad1*, Hasan Toozandejani2, Hamid Porsharifi3, Anis Kamyar4

 

1M.A. Department of Psychology, University of Medical Sciences of Neyshabur, Neyshabur, Iran

2Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur Branch, Neyshabur, Iran

3Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran

4M.A. Counseling rehabilitation, Islamic Azad University, Ghoochan Branch, Ghoochan, Iran

 

Abstract: Background: due to the incidence of renal failure and recognition of depression as one of the main problems in hemodialysis patients and since depression has emotional components which are more dealt in cognitive behavior therapy, this study aimed to determine the effect of group therapy in modifying primary incompatible patterns in depressed dialysis patients. Method: This is a semi-experimental study (pre-test and posttest and tracking with the control group). Therefore, 20 hemodialysis patients were chosen as the participants out of the 125 patients on hemodialysis at 22nd of Bahman hospital in the city of Nishabour. Yung and Depression Questionnaires were used to collect data. Then the participants were randomly selected and randomly divided into control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10) groups. Then the therapy was performed for  12 sessions (weekly) for experimental group but control group did not received any education. Findings: The results indicated that group therapy has been effective and significant in reducing depression in patients undergoing hemodialysis (p< 0.05). Conclusion: The results indicated that group therapy has been effective in reducing depression in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

[Ahmad Sharifnezhad, Hasan Toozandejani, Hamid Porsharifi, Anis Kamyar. The impact of group therapy scheme on early maladaptive schemas of depressed women undergoing hemodialysis in 22nd of Bahman hospital in Nishabour. Researcher 2014;6(5):84-88]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 14. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.14

 

Keyword: experimental therapy, pain, hemodialysis.

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15

Prediction of Air Pollution Concentration Using a Fixed Box Model

 

Yannawar Vyankatesh B1, Bhosle Arjun B2, Yannawar Sonali B3

 

1,2School of Earth Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University,  Vishnupuri, Nanded- 431606, Maharashtra, India

 3 School of Chemical Earth Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Vishnupuri, Nanded- 431606, Maharashtra, India

 

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to present a fixed-box model method easy-to-use for evaluating the presence of air pollutants in Nanded city, and the potential exposure of frequents to that risk. A fixed-box model has been used to compare the burdens, optical depths and direct radioactive forcing from anthropogenic PM2.5 aerosol constituents over the Nanded city. We have developed a modeling system for evaluating the traffic volumes, emissions from stationary and vehicular sources, and atmospheric dispersion of pollution in an urban area. This paper has described a detailed model for studying the urban air pollution. However, the acquired results point out that air pollutant concentration could significantly swerve and, consequentially, the evaluation of results tolerates pollutants attentions towards city. Thus, the described method represents a useful tool for local administrations to plan best practices and the use of the final goal of reducing air pollution in the city. Validation of the results from this study for urban air pollution would be highly beneficial.

[Yannawar Vyankatesh B, Bhosle Arjun B, Yannawar Sonali B. Prediction of Air Pollution Concentration Using a Fixed Box Model. Researcher 2014;6(5):89-92]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 15. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060514.15

 

Key words: Air quality guidelines, exposure assessment, modeling, road traffic, urban air pollution.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from May 10, 2014. 

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