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Volume 6 - Issue 8 (Cumulated No. 62), August 25, 2014, ISSN 1553-9865
            Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0608; doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9865 
 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Quntative Analysis and Isolated Main Active Material of Convolvulus althaeoides and Convolvulus stachydifolius var. villosus

 

Fatma Aly Ahmed 1, Abd El-Monem M.A. Sharaf 2, Mahmoud R. Sofy 2* and Mohammed Hassan Elhaw 2

 

1.        Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Department, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2.        Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

*mahmoud_sofy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The percentage of total phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and alkaloids of Convolvulus althaeoides and Convolvulus stachydifolius var. villosus aerial parts (flower, leaf and stem) were calculated by specificity methods. Chromatographic methods revealed the separation of twenty eight biologically active constituents from Convolvulus althaeoides and Convolvulus stachydifolius var. villosus. Identification of the chemical composition as well as the physico-chemical properties of the twenty eight active substances was carried out using ultraviolet, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data , the separated compounds are; Gallic acid, Vitexin, Robinin (kamferol 3-O-Robinoside-7-O- rhamnoside, 7- hydroxyl flavone, 5- hydroxyl flavone, Alizarin, Chrysopharol, Emodin, Cumaric acid, 2-naphthalene carboxylic acid, Isorhamnetin 3-O-galactoside, P- coumaric acid, Apigenin 7-O- glucoside, 4\, 7- dihydroxy flavone, Apigenin, Ferulic acid, Querstein, Syringic acid, 3\- hydroxy 4, 4\, 6- trimethoxy aurone, Rutine, Coutaric acid, Benzoic acid, Baicalin, Rosmarinic acid, Isovitexin, Flavone, Syringetin 3- glucose, Luteolin -7, 3\, 4\ tri-O-glucuronate.

[Ahmed FA, Sharaf AMA, Sofy MR and Elhaw MH. Quntative Analysis and Isolated Main Active Material of Convolvulus althaeoides and Convolvulus stachydifolius var. villosus. Researcher 2014;6(8):1-10]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.01

 

Key words: Convolvulus althaeoides; Convolvulus stachydifolius var. villosus; total active constitutes; U.V.; 1H NMR; 13C NMR

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2

Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli among Children suffering from Diarrhea infections in Abeokuta, Nigeria

 

1, 2Akingbade O. A, 1Damola A. B., 2Shobayo B. I., 3Nwanze JC, 4Okonko IO

 

1School of Medical Laboratory Science, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

E-mail: a.olusola@yahoo.co.uk, olusola.akingbade@yahoo.co.uk, 08063529234

3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

4Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891

 

Abstract: A total of one hundred and fifty diarrhoea faecal samples were collected from children under 5 years old presenting with diarrhoea. Biochemically identified Escherichia coli isolates were subjected to the antibiotic sensitivity testing using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Of the 150 faecal samples collected, 81(54%) yielded growth of Escherichia coli. The distribution between feeding patterns and the number of Escherichia coli isolated were statistically significant (P<0.05) also, the distribution of mothers’ level of education to number of Escherichia coli isolated from their children were statistically significant. The antibiotic susceptibility showed that 81 Escherichia coli isolates tested, were not all susceptible to all the drugs used. The Escherichia coli isolates were resistant to cloxacillin 54(66.7%), cotrimoxazole 50(61.7%), erythromycin 48(59.3%), ampicillin 45(55.6 %) and tetracycline 44(54.3%). Twenty one (25.9%) of the Escherichia coli were resistant to more than two classes of antibiotics. In conclusion, monitoring and regulating the distribution and use of antimicrobial by government may be necessary to reduce the resistance to drugs.

[Akingbade OA, Damola AB, Shobayo BI, Nwanze JC, Okonko IO. Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli among Children suffering from Diarrhea infections in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Researcher 2014;6(8):11-17]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.02

 

Keywords: Multi-drug, E. coli, Diarrhea, Children

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3

Blood Viscosity Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics In A Tertiary Hospital In Abakaliki, Nigeria

 

1, 2 Ezechukwu US, 1 Nwovu AI, 3Akingbade OA, 4Nwanze JC

 

1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

2Department of Haematology and Blood Serology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria, 08037389321

 

3Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

E-mail: a.olusola@yahoo.co.uk, olusola.akingbade@yahoo.co.uk, 08063529234

4Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

 

Abstract: Increase in blood viscosity has been associated with certain clinical outcome in pregnancy ranging from pregnancy induced hypertension to cardiovascular complications, both of which on the long run may indirectly affect the fetal performance in utero. In this study, 30 women (20 pregnant and 10 nulliparous controls), and aged between 28 – 35years were recruited from Federal Medical Centre, Abakaliki, Nigeria. The viscosity of their blood samples were indirectly measured using 1ml syringe to note the time taken to dispense. The results of the study (Mean+ SD; 21.70 +1.75 and 17.50 +1.72 for the pregnant women and the nulliparous controls respectively), showed that it took a significantly longer (P<0.05) time for the blood of pregnant women to be dispensed through the syringe than that of nulliparous subjects. This implies that the blood of pregnant women is much more viscous than that of the nulliparous women, hence, the need for the rheological factors to be closely monitored during pregnancy.

[Ezechukwu US, Nwovu AI, Akingbade OA, Nwanze JC. Blood Viscosity Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics In A Tertiary Hospital In Abakaliki, Nigeria. Researcher 2014;6(8):18-21]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.03

 

Keywords: Blood viscosity, pregnant women, hypertension, cardiovascular complications

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4

Comparison of personality and demographic characteristics in divorced women and married women in Isfahan

 

Mojahedeh Shams1, Mohammad bagher Kajbaf2, Nasrollah Iranpanah3

 

  1. M.A. in psychology, Isfahan Science &Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

  2. Associate professor of Education, University of Isfahan. Isfahan, Iran

  3. Assistant professor, University of Isfahan. Isfahan, Iran

mojahedeshams@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate and compare the Big Five personality traits and demographic characteristics among married and divorced women in Isfahan city by causal-comparative study. The numbers of samples that are available for selected groups, consisting of 120 patients in two groups of 60 women who were divorced and married women in Isfahan city that one day to five years of marriage have passed. In divorced women group that one day to five years after their divorce decree passed, to measure the Big Five Personality Questionnaire short form of the NEO (NEO-FFI) to assess demographic characteristics (age, education, economic, consanguinity, number of children) is used. After controlling for demographic variables, to compare the five personality factors between the two groups of married women, divorced women t-test for two groups (with homogeneity of variance test and review - Levin) is used. Analysis of variance was used to examine demographic variables for personality traits Neuroticism, Extraversion and Agreeableness significant differences between the two groups was achieved in openness to experience and conscientiousness are significant differences between the two groups. The results are described in demographic characteristics, education, age, marital status and numbers of children have a relationship with the father's family, demographic characteristics as well as their children and several children have no significant relationship with marital status and economic status. Between personality characteristics and age, education, socioeconomic status, a relative of the divorced women and married women was not statistically different.

[Mojahedeh Shams, Mohammad bagher Kajbaf, Nasrollah Iranpanah. Comparison of personality and demographic characteristics in divorced women and married women in Isfahan. Researcher 2014;6(8):22-30]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.04

                                                                                                                         

Key words: personality characteristics, demographic feature, divorced women, married women

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5

Optimal Path Selection in Ad Hoc (MANET) by Using Genetic Fuzzy Petri Net

 

Hussein Attya Lafta 1, Fadhil Mohammad Salman 2

 

1.  Assistant Professor Doctor, En, Iraq, University of Babylon, Iraq 2014.

2.  Researcher, University of Babylon-College of Sciences, Iraq 2014.

hzazmk@yahoo.com, fadhilmohammad2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) is a dynamic multi hop infrastructure less wireless network established by a group of mobility nodes in which there is no central administration. Due to the absence of central infrastructure and mobility of nodes that led to dynamic network topology, therefore, the routing is one of the most important challenges in ad-hoc networks. This challenge led to the development of many techniques which deal with it, one of the most important techniques it’s a fuzzy logic. This paper focuses on finding the optimal path which using to transfer data, so two techniques ware used in this work. The first one is: The network simulator version 2 (NS-2) was used to build network system for study and evaluate the behavior of two routing protocols (AODV and AOMDV), in order to prove that path selected from this routing protocol is not optimal path, the performance metrics that used to evaluate the routing protocols are: the throughput, the dropped packets, average end-to-end delay, normalizes routing load, packet delivery fraction, and jitter. Therefore, we proposed model depended on second techniques Fuzzy Petri Net model, this model was proposed in order to mimic the route discovery mechanism in routing protocols with using a new parameters like (Number of hops, Local Battery level, Received Signal Strength Indicator) as the input to fuzzy inference system. Genetic algorithm has active role in the generating of fuzzy rules, where it used in this work to get the best number of generated rules, depended on training stage to generate fuzzy rules in offline, this fuzzy rules is very important in the reasoning processes to making a final decision about what is path most select.

[Hussein Attya Lafta, Fadhil Mohammad Salman. Optimal Path Selection in Ad Hoc (MANET) by Using Genetic Fuzzy Petri Net. Researcher 2014;6(8):31-44]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.05

 

Key words: MANET, AODV, AOMDV, NS-2, GA, FL, FIS, PN, FPNs

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6

‘Chakrata’: A Floristically Less Explored Pocket of Garhwal Himalaya

 

Jagbeer Cheema1, Aniket Bhattacharya2 and Ashok Aggarwal1*

 

1Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India

2 Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced Study, University of Calcutta, Kolkata

West Bengal, India

* aggarwal_vibha@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: Chakrata Forest Division, located in Garhwal Himalaya, harbors a rich floristic diversity due to great variations in its topography, altitude and climate. Although from the vary past, many workers have focused on the exploration of floristic diversity of different places of Garhwal Himalaya but only a few reports are available on ‘Chakrata’. The available reports about this area are mainly concerned with the ecological and ethnobotanical aspects. So a great lacuna is prevailing in the scenario of the floristic study of this region. The flora of this region is undergoing great stress due to anthropogenic disturbances mainly from the rapid urbanization and tourism, making the situation alarming day by day. So, floristic study and diversity assessments are obligatory to understand the present diversity status and conservation of biodiversity. The present review paper gives a brief idea about the previous and present picture of the floristic diversity of this study area.

[Jagbeer Cheema Aniket Bhattacharya  and Ashok Aggarwal. Chakrata’: A Floristically Less Explored Pocket of Garhwal Himalaya. Researcher 2014;6(8):45-50]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.06

 

Keywords: Chakrata, Garhwal Himalaya, Floristic diversity, Taxonomist, Ethnobotanical

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7

Mosquito species compositions in Oba, Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra state

 

Okonkwo, N.J., Obiechina, I.O., Ugha, C.N., Irikannu, K.C., Obianumba, S.N., Okoye-Uzochukwu, C.I., Iwuora, O.I., Chinweoke, J.O.

 

Department of Parasitology and Entomology Nnamdi Azikiwe University P.M.B. 5025 Awka, Nigeria

E-mail: chibuzorugha@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Studies were carried out between November 2010 and June 2011 to determine the composition mosquito species in Oba, Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State. Two villages of Umumpamma-Aborji and Isu-Umuabu were surveyed using standard entomological procedures. A total of two thousand three hundred and nineteen (2319) mosquito larvae were collected and subsequently reared to adults. Nine hundred and sixty one (961) emerged as adults comprising four genera; Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, and Toxorynchites. They were identified up to eight species level including Anopheles gambiae (14.78%), An. funestus (0.94%), Aedes aegypti (27.99%), Ae. albopictus (18.11%), Ae. africanus (2.60%), Culex quinquefasciatus (32.99), C. tigripes (1.98%) and Toxorynchites viridibasis (0.62%). Umumpamma-Aborji and Isu-Umuabu contributed 55.02% and 44.98%, respectively to the total number of mosquito samples in Oba. It is interesting to note that An. funestus and T. viridibasis were present only in Umumpamma-Aborji but none in Isu-Umuabu. The continued presence of Anopheles sp. and Culex sp. would ensure endemicity of malaria and filariasis in Oba, while presence of Aedes sp. points towards the potential risks of yellow fever and arbo-virus diseases in the area.

[Okonkwo, N.J., Obiechina, I.O., Ugha, C.N., Irikannu, K.C., Obianumba, S.N., Okoye-Uzochukwu, C.I., Iwuora, O.I., Chinweoke, J.O. Mosquito species compositions in Oba, Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra state. Researcher 2014;6(8):51-56]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.07

 

Keywords: Species, larvae, endemicity, arbo-virus

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8

Constant Design in Hospitals and its Influence on Operation and Increasing their Efficiency

 

Saeed Mikaili Meykhosh (Corresponding author), Feridoun Nahidiazar

 

Department of Architecture, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

saeed.mikaili1979@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Hospitals include big buildings that consume abundant amounts of energy. So, extolling the constant design in the hospitals is a necessary affair. This paper, as a tool for decreasing environmental tension in hospitals, surveys the constant architecture in hospitals and medical centers, and declares its positive influences. Now, this question is posed that constant design in hospitals, with regard to their valuable role, how they can be in a way in order to achieve the improvement of results in these places, so that this will be by using the effective approach and constant design. So, extolling the design of remedial places is included in the priority of constant design. The researchers of this paper, with regard to analytical-descriptive method and library data and sources, finally indicates that it is possible for suggesting joint solutions for designing such places that will cause creating more suitable environment that will be compatible with constant architecture. The findings of this study shows that some joint solutions for constant design in the hospitals include: using natural light and day light, accessibility to the nature, suitable ventilating of fresh air, and choosing suitable and stable materials in the hospitals.

[Saeed Mikaili Meykhosh, Feridoun Nahidiazar. Constant Design in Hospitals and its Influence on Operation and Increasing their Efficiency. Researcher 2014;6(8):57-61]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.08

 

Key words: Spaces of the Hospitals, Suitable Environment, Stable.

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9

A Study of Communication Skill Training on Forgiveness Couples Who Live in Ahvaz

 

M. Rjabi Forootan1*, Y. Attari2, S. M. Safi3

 

1. MSc of Consulting and Guidance, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

2. Professor of Consulting and Guidance, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

3. MSc of computer Engineering, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

mrforoutan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research examined the effect of communication skill training on forgiveness among couples who live in Ahvaz. The sample included 30 couples (15 females and 15 males) who were selected randomly. The instrument used in this research to collect the data was Family Forgiveness Scale (Pallard, 1998). The results of analysis of data showed that Communication Skill Training increased significantly among couples in sub/Scale of Forgiveness such as realization, recognition, reparation, restitution and resolution. The level of significant on this study was α=0.0001. [M. Rjabi Forootan, Y. Attari, S. M. Safi. A Study of Communication Skill Training on Forgiveness Couples Who Live in Ahvaz. Researcher 2014;6(8):62-66]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.09

 

Keyword: Forgiveness, Communication Skill Training.

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10

Effects of Physical Activity in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (T2D)

 

F. Mohamadi

 

MSc of biochemistry, Mashhad pnu. Iran

Mohamadi_1028@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a common disease is contributing to hyperglycemia. There are several types of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2D) is the most important. 90% of all types of diabetes are included. Statistics show that the number of diabetic patients are increasing day by day, until the 21st century epidemic called diabetes. T2D is the main cause of obesity and inactivity. The treatment of this disease, lifestyle changes, weight loss, physical activity and dietary change is. In between daily physical activity and consistently can be very important. Continuous light and heavy physical activities, but the short-term activities are very effective. The main weakness in the treatment of diabetes, physical activity, increased body sensitivity to insulin. Leading to control blood sugar metabolism. In addition to physical activity, diabetes causes cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention or postponement too.

[F. Mohamadi. Effects of physical activity in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2D). Researcher 2014;6(8):67-68]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.10

 

Keywords: physical activity, diabetes, hyperglycemia, insulin.

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11

 Dyes and Bacterial Degradation in Waste Water in River Nile (Review)

 

1Mona, S. Zaki; 2olfat Fawzy; 3Samy I Shalaby; 3Hammam M. H. and 4Nagwa, S. Ata

 

1Hydrobiology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

2Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

3Reproduction Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

4Microbiology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

Dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Throughout the dyeing progression, about 10-15% of the dyes used are released into the wastewater. The presences of these dyes in the aqueous ecosystem are the cause of serious environmental and health concerns. In particular, systems based on biological processes using a large variety of bacterial strains, allow for degradation and mineralization with a low environmental impact and without the use of potentially toxic chemical substances, under mild pH and temperature conditions.

[Mona, S. Zaki; olfat Fawzy; Samy I Shalaby Hammam M. H. and Nagwa, S. Ata. Dyes and Bacterial Degradation in Waste Water in River Nile (Review). Researcher 2014;6(8):69-70]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.11

 

Keyword: Fish, dyes, Bacteria.

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12

Shift in Cropping Pattern of Food and Non-Food Crops in Jammu and Kashmir State (1981-2011)

 

Bilal Ahmad Sheikh

 

Research Scholar (Ph.D), Department of Economics, University of Kashmir

 

Abstract:  The present paper focus on shift in cropping pattern of food and non-food crops in Jammu and Kashmir State (1981-2011). In this paper, structural change from food to non-food crops has been investigated through the technique of Structural Change Index(SCI). It has been dipicted clearely that a mild shift has taken place from food to non-food crops in the state economy during the period of analysis.

[Bilal Ahmad Sheikh. Shift in Cropping Pattern of Food and Non-Food Crops in Jammu and Kashmir State (1981-2011). Researcher 2014;6(8):71-73]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 12. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.12

 

Keywords:  Cropping pattern, food and non-food crops, Structural Change Index (SCI) and Jammu and Kashmir State

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13

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen [HBsAg] Co-infections among HIV Positive Individuals.

.

Edith A.Onwuliri 1 James A.Ndako2 Moses Y. Dimlong3

 

1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Jos, Nigeria.

2Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Unit, Landmark University Omu aran,-Nigeria.

3 Department of Medical Laboratory Services, General Hospital Mangu- Nigeria.

Corresponding e-mail: edithonwuliri@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Confection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV is common, with 70-90% of HIV-infected individuals in the United States having evidence of past or active infection with HBV.However, in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where vertical and early childhood exposure are the most common modes of transmission, respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of HBV among HIV-infected individuals is higher at an estimated 20-30%. One hundred and eighty- eight (188) HIV confirmed subjects on Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy (HAART), attending General Hospital Pankshin, Plateau state Nigeria, were enrolled for the study. Consent of the volunteers was sought after which a well-structured questionnaire was issued to volunteers to obtain social and demographic data. Overall result showed that, sixty-six 66(35%) were positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).Gender distributions showed that 18(9.6) were males compared to 48 (25.5%) females. The mean value for CD4+ cell absolute count and values of alanine transaminase value for HBsAg positive subjects were determined with values ranging between 211-361 cells/l and 25.0-27.3 I.u respectively, this is in contrast to the CD4+cell absolute count, and alanine transaminase values for HBsAg negative subjects whose values ranged from 181-472 cells/l and 14.3-28.3 I.u respectively. Similarly, the CD4+ count of HIV/HBV co-infected subjects, who were noted to respond to HAART recorded a better outcome. It is therefore needful that all HIV positive patients be screened for HBsAg, while patients who lack the HBsAb and do not have the HBsAg positivity or occult HBV should be vaccinated against HBV so as to influence the clinical management of subjects on HARRT.

[Edith A.Onwuliri, James A.Ndako and Moses Y. Dimlong. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen [HBsAg] Co-infections among HIV Positive Individuals. Researcher 2014;6(8):74-79]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 13. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.13

 

Key Words: HIV,HBV,Co-infection, HARRT.

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Extraction and Characterization of Mackery (Scomber scombrus) Oil for Industrial Use

 

T. Bako1, V.I. Umogbai2 and S.E. Obetta3

 

1Taraba State House of Assembly, Jalingo, Nigeria

2 and 3Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

 

Abstract: Fish oils have been recognized as good sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which are widely used for pharmaceutical purposes and as food supplements. It has been reported that fishes are rich in arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These fatty acids have been recommended as infant food supplements by health agencies. In this study fish oil from mackery (Scomber scombrus) was extracted using a mechanical screw press system. The total percentage oil yield using screw press extraction was 18.7 %. Characterization of the fish sample was done. From the results of the characterisation of the fish sample, moisture content was found to be 55.7%. The protein content and ash content were 15.6 and 1.5%. Carbohydrates composition estimated in the samples analysed was 0.4% and the lipid content was found to be 26.8% in this study. The analytical properties and microbiological status of the crude and the refined oil were evaluated. It was observed that the crude oil consist of: free fatty acids (FFA) value 2.3 %, peroxide 11.4 meq/kg, saponification value 187 mgKOH/g, iodine value 168 I2 /100g, refractive index 1.485 and reddish brown colour. The refined oil was also evaluated as follows: free fatty acid value 0.28 %, peroxide 2.5 meq/kg, saponification value 132 mgKOH/g, iodine value 105 I2 /100g and golden brown colour.The results of the microbiological analysis of fish oil showed that the total viable counts (TVC) was 2.0 101 CFU/mL of oil, the total coliforms count was 0.4 101 CFU/mL of oil and the faecal coliforms count was 0.25 CFU/mL of oil. These values fall within the acceptable standard values. The refining of the oil brought about a notable improvement in the analytical properties of the oil. Thus, leads to a high quality fish oil in terms of the taste, colour, odours, shelf life and market value. Based on the characteristics of the oil, it could be suitable for applications in pharmaceutical and food industries.

[T. Bako, V.I. Umogbai and S.E. Obetta. Extraction and Characterization of Mackery (Scomber scombrus) Oil for Industrial Use. Researcher 2014;6(8):80-85]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 14. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.14

 

Key Words: Extraction, Characterisation, Mackerel, Scomber Scrumbus.

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Interactive effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and potassium on growth and yield in Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) under water stress

 

Nisha Kadian, Kuldeep Yadav and Ashok Aggarwal

 

Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University, Haryana 136119, India

nishakadian4@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Water stress is one of the most important limiting factors affecting the growth and yield of field crops particularly in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. In the recent years, the use of soil microorganisms have generated great interests in agriculture, by reducing the damage from drought stress and providing sustainable solutions for crop production in such climates. A pot experiment was conducted to examine the consortium impact of two different Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) i.e. Glomus mosseae and Acaulospora laevis along with Potassium fertilizer on growth enhancement and drought tolerance of Cyamopsis tetragonolobla (L.) under two different water treatments. Different plant growth (including plant shoot and root weight, Pod number and pod weight) were higher for well-watered than for water-stressed plants. Results also showed that the imposed water stress and well watered conditions significantly improved the different physiological attributes like total chlorophyll content, acidic and alkaline phosphatase activity and protein content in mycorrhizal and Potassium treated plants in comparison. AM spore number and percent root colonization was higher in AM-treated plants than non-AM-treatment regardless of potassium concentration. This study confirms that AM colonization and Potassium fertilizer can mitigate the deleterious effect of water stress on growth and yield in cluster bean.

[Nisha Kadian, Kuldeep Yadav and Ashok Aggarwal. Interactive effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and potassium on growth and yield in Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) under water stress. Researcher 2014;6(8):86-91]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 15. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.15

 

Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi; Potassium; Cyamopsis tetragonolobla L.; Water stress; yield.

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Collective Administration of Copyright: Recent Issues and Solution

 

* Eakramuddin, ** Mohd. Zeeshan Chand

 

* Asstt. Prof. (Faculty of law) University of Delhi, India

** Researcher Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi, India

Author mail: ekrammalik@gmail.com  Ph. 09758756032

 

ABSTRACT: Creativity is one of the significant assets of human kind. It is said to be an inner engine of innovation. Human creativity is a never ending process & the emergence of copyright law has been largely in the form of response to this creativity phenomena. In other words copyright laws follow the technological development. For example as newer modes of copying emerged we had to evolve new rights. Right to print & reprint changed into right of reproduction. In a similar fashion newly evolved “Digital Copying” raises a lot of concerns as computers can generate unlimited replicas of the copyrighted works economically without losing its quality while in case of analog media quality get reduced with subsequent copying.[1] In response to this growing threat and to make best use of opportunities provided by the digital world, the DRM technologies evolved. Further, in the arena of IP laws administration of right is as important as the evolution of right. Evolving new rights of no use or futile unless there is a sound mechanism of administration of those rights. States are, at national or international level, attempting to evolve rights relating to expressions of folklore. There are several options regarding administration of newly evolved rights. CS is being considered as one of the best option to administer the rights relating to expressions of folklore. [Eakramuddin, Mohd. Zeeshan Chand. Collective Administration of Copyright: Recent Issues and Solution. Researcher 2014;6(8):92-98]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 16. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.16

 

Keywords: Creativity; asset; human; copyright; law

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Develop a mother – child relationship model, based on "Attachment style, communication skills, personality traits, sexual satisfaction," and spouses' communication

 

Robabeh Ataeifar1 (Corresponding author), Sholeh Amiri2, Karim Asgari3, Mohammad Ali Nadi4

 

1. PhD Student in Educational Psychology, Department of psychology, Isfahan Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2. Associate Professor in Psychology, Department of psychology, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran

3. Assistant Professor in neuropsychology (Pharmacological Treatment), Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran

4. Assistant Professor in Educational Sciences (Measurement and Statistics), Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran

ataeefarr@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is investigation the effective communication relationship between spouses and also between mother-child based on mediating role, attachment style, personality characteristics, communication skills and sexual satisfaction among spouses. Accordingly, 260 patients (mother and child) were selected by random sampling method based on contributions. Subjects were tested by model questionnaires related to spouses' relationship, adult attachment styles, communication skills, five personality factors, sexual satisfaction and relationship of the mother-child. With the implementation of structural equation model to test the relationship among spouses and also relationship of mother-children through intermediary variables were identified that the proposed model enjoys a good fit to the data and the relationship between mothers - child is predicted and explained by effective relationship of spouses and mediator variables.

[Robabeh Ataeifar, Sholeh Amiri, Karim Asgari, Mohammad Ali Nadi. Develop a mother – child relationship model, based on "Attachment style, communication skills, personality traits, sexual satisfaction," and spouses' communication. Researcher 2014;6(8):99-106]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 17. doi:10.7537/marsrsj060814.17

 

Key words: effective relationship of spouses, mother – child relationship, attachment style, personality characteristics, communication skills and sexual satisfaction

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from July 27, 2014. 

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