Science Journal


ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9865
Volume 6 - Issue 12 (Cumulated No. 66), December 25, 2014, Monthly
            Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0612

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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Quality of Service in Integrated Networking System at the Hospital Scenarios: A Review


Mustafa Almahdi Algaet1*, Zul Azri Bin Muhamad Noh1, Abdul Samad Shibghatullah1, Ali Ahmad Milad1, Aouache Mustapha2


1.  Department of Computer System and Communication, Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hanngtuha Jaya,76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia

2.  Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia


Abstract: The hospital networking system is progressing into a more unified method by connecting technology that utilizes wireless networking technologies into backbone networks. Even though multiple joined circumstances have been acknowledged in the published articles, a common medical facility has not been thoroughly studied and continues to be a difficult subject that is pending. The main challenge faced by networking consultants is the smooth unification of all the components in an all-in-one of healthcare delivery system. A perfect understanding of the functions of the unified networking is essential for effective designing and utilization of such knowledge in the medical backgrounds. This paper denotes the design and review of unified networking system circumstances in a hospital background. The effect of the type of traffic for example audio and visual, system loads, size and strength of the network line is studied by a test run. Three pilot test studies have been conducted in radiology A&E and ICU conditions. Each condition shows the requirements for a particular type of traffic which then becomes the definite system behaviour. In the case of a radiology requirement, email and FTP traffic are noted to function effectively within regular-to-big networking systems. In an A&E situation, VoIP circulations create very little jitters and missing data; it is linked with the prerequisites of QoS. In ICU situations the video conferencing function downgrades the size of the network. Therefore, a QoS enabled gadget is suggested to minimise the packet delay and data losses. This study gives an overall explanation of wireless telemedicine technology and QoS. The findings of this study are summarised and arranged. Besides, the quality of service which has to be studied through the wireless telemedicine technology has been indicated. The findings of this study will provide a useful perspective in the investigation of QoS in wireless telemedicine technology and serve as a foundation for any individuals who are intrigued in the research of “wireless telemedicine technology for e-healthcare services

[Mustafa Almahdi Algaet, Zul Azri Bin Muhamad Noh, Abdul Samad Shibghatullah, Ali Ahmad Milad, Aouache Mustapha. Quality of Service in Integrated Networking System at the Hospital Scenarios: A Review. Researcher 2014;6(12):1-10]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.01.


Keywords: Quality of Service, wireless telemedicine , Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Accident and Emergency (A & E), Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Wireless Fidelity (WiFi)

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Investigate the relationship between corporate standards and changes in accounting earnings


Seyed Ahmad Armakan1, Seyed Mostafa Dehghani Firoozabadi(corresponding author)2


1- Department of accounting, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran.

2- Department of accounting, Yazd science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran.


Abstract: Accounting information systems, have been the most important tools for providing information about the financial position and performance of the business units.This study examines the relationship between firm size and the quality of earnings with earnings volatility at the listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. In this regard, three research hypotheses were examined.. The first hypothesis stated that there is a significant relationship between the firm size and volatility of earnings,. In the current study it was investigated whether earnings quality leads to lower volatility in profit or not? For this study is used data from 168 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange In the period from 2007 to 2011 and multiple linear regression analyzes based on the combined data. The results indicate that there is a significant and negative relationship between firm size and earnings quality variables with earnings volatility (standard deviation of profit). In addition, the findings showed that at the Tehran Stock Exchange there is no significant relationship between variations of the yield bonds and stock return with volatility of earnings variable.So that larger companies with stable earnings and earnings quality also leads to a reduction in earnings volatility.

[Seyed Ahmad Armakan, Seyed Mostafa Dehghani Firoozabadi. Investigate the relationship between corporate standards and changes in accounting earnings. Researcher 2014;6(12):11-18]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.02.


Keywords: quality of accounting,earnings volatility, profit operations, quality of earnings and stock returns

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There is significant difference between human capital and suitable situation in Department of Finance and optimal condition


Mr. Mohamad Reza Golkariee1, Mis. Nahid Askarian (corresponding author)2


1- Executive Management, Deputy Refah Bank, Ebne Sina Branch, Yazd, Iran.

2- department of Public Administration, Yazd science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran.


Abstract: In this study have been attempted to harmonistic evaluating of current situation of dimensions of intellectual capital in Department of Finance. For evaluating and using from intellectual capital at the first step we should recognize these kinds of assets and after that evaluate the value of these. Sort of his study is scaling descriptive and statistical society is employees. And for gathering data is used from library sources and questionnaire that was set based on Likret scale. The results of data analyses are showed that hypothesis of certificate of human intellectual capital has significant difference with desired situation.

[Mohamad Reza Golkariee, Nahid Askarian. There is significant difference between human capital and suitable situation in Department of Finance and optimal condition. Researcher 2014;6(12):19-24]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.03.


Keywords: intellectual capital, relation asset, desirable situation

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Examine the relationship between conscientiousness and versatility on the job performance


Nahid Askarian1, Mohamad Reza Golkariee (corresponding author)2


1- department of Public Administration, Yazd science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran.

2- Executive Management,Deputy Refah Bank, Ebne Sina Branch,Yazd,Iran.


Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between conscientiousness and versatility characteristics and impact of these two traits with job performance province Kerman's Department of Education. To perform this research evaluated extensive theoretical research in the field of personality and job performance. Special relationship took based on scientific literature and who opinion of experts and all the hypotheses of this study are based on established, The population of the study consisted of a total staff of education s Kerman is 330 people. Data was collected using questionnaires and by using SPSS software were analyzes through descriptive and inferential. Results showed a significant relationship between conscientiousness and versatility and also there is positively and directly relationship between personality traits variable and job performance.

[Nahid Askarian, Mohamad Reza Golkariee. Examine the relationship between conscientiousness and versatility on the job performance. Researcher 2014;6(12):25-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.04.


Keywords: conscientiousness, versatility, job performance, Education total directorate.

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Parasitic Contamination Of Fruits And Vegetables Sold At Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria


* Simon-Oke, I.A, Afolabi O.J Obasola O.P.


Department Of Biology, Federal University Of Technology Akure Nigeria.



Abstract: The parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables sold for consumption in Akure metropolis was assessed with respect to their contamination by ova and cysts of parasites. Microscopic examinations of the samples were carried out using standard Floatation techniques by (Cheesebrough, 2003). A total of six hundred (600) samples of fruits and vegetables were examined with five (5) varieties each, from four (4) different markets at Akure metropolis. High levels of contamination were recorded in both fruits (92.5%) and vegetables (76.5%) examined. The highest rate of contamination (22.5%) was recorded in African spinach (Amaranthus hybridus) while Jute mallow (Corchurus olitorious) was the least contaminated (12.5%). For fruits, Tomato (Lycoperisicon esculentum) was the most contaminated (37.5%) while the least contamination (5%) was recorded in Mango (Mangifera indica). The Protozoans and Helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides, Balantidium coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Hymenolepis nana and Ancylostoma duodenale. The most prevalent parasite encountered was A. lumbricoides (25.7%) while A. duodenale (8.5%) was the least parasite found. The study indicated high rate of protozoan and helminthes contamination of fruits and vegetables in the study area. The implications of the findings were discussed and preventive measures proffered.

[Simon-Oke I.A, Afolabi O.J, Obasola O.P. Parasitic Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables sold at Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria. Researcher 2014;6(12):30-35]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.05.


Keywords: Fruits, Vegetables, Contamination, Helminths, Protozoans, Zoonotic, Cysts.

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Cryptosporidium Infection Among Patients Presenting With Diarrhoea In Kaduna State, Nigeria


Ocheme J. Okojokwu*1, Helen I. Inabo2, Sabo E. Yakubu2, Oluseyi O. Okubanjo3


1University of Jos, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Microbiology

2 Ahmadu Bello University, Faculty of Science, Department of Microbiology

3Ahmadu Bello University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Parasitology

*Corresponding author:;


Abstract: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in patients who presented with diarrhea in three major hospitals in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was a prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 600 diarrhoeic stool samples were collected and screened for oocysts of Cryptosporidium species using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis was 5.0%. Children under 5 years were found to have significantly (χ2 = 3.943, p = 0.047) higher prevalence (7.6%) than older patients (3.5%). Symptoms including abdominal pain (χ2 = 9.416, p = 0.002), fever (χ2 = 6.643, p = 0.010) and duration of diarrhoea (χ2 = 8.562, p = 0.036) were also demonstrated to be significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium infection in Kaduna State also had significant association (p ≤ 0.05) with place of residence (χ2 = 3.943, p = 0.047), where rural dwellers had 7.0% (18/257) prevalence and urban dweller had 3.5% (12/343); animal contact (χ2 = 6.558, p = 0.010), patients who admitted having contact with animals had 7.6% (27/357) prevalence as against 1.2% (3/248); and method of water treatment (χ2 = 18.844, p < 0.001), 7.9% (30/379) of subjects who did not treat their water before consumption had cryptosporidiosis. These findings therefore highlighted the presence of Cryptosporidium species infection among humans in Kaduna State. The study highlighted the significance of animal contact and methods of water treatment as possible risk factors.

[Okojokwu OJ, Inabo HI, Yakubu SE, Okubanjo OO. Cryptosporidium infection among patients presenting with diarrhoea in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Researcher 2014;6(12):36-42]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.06.


Key words: Cryptosporidium, cryptosporidiosis, diarrhoea, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining

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Theory of Islamic Awakening From the perspective of Imam Khomeini


Hemmatollah Shamoli salahchini, Hooshang Kiani dehkian


Department of Political Science, Shahreza branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza


Abstract: The perspective of   Imam Khomeini has two elements petrifaction and dogmatism Barrier to Islamic awakening. The main components of the Islamic Awakening Currently in the world, Approach consistently Imam Khomeini that promises to wake the poor nations of the world. No doubt the thought of Imam, which is reflected in his oral and written literature, is the main source of Islamic Awakening   Muslim nation of Iran   and other Islamic countries and even other non-Muslim nations in the contemporary era and later. He was the founding of the Islamic awakening in the world the perspective of   Imam Khomeini is the subject export of revolution. The practical steps to export of revolution   It is particularly important to realize this (export of revolution) is not necessary to use force, But also the emphasis are on awareness and Islamic Awakening. Awareness and integrity of the nation, Emphasis on Islam in the struggle against the powers of evil, Invitation to faith and Islamic unity Strengthen the spirit of faith, the full support of the Islamic Awakening And fulfill the requirements of Islamic wakening is the view of Imam Khomeini. This paper has reviewed and analyzed the Study Islamic awakening in the thought of Imam Khomeini, Strategies for the development of Islamic Awakening As well as obstacles to the awakening from Doctrines of Imam.

[Hemmatollah Shamoli salahchini, Hooshang Kiani dehkian. Theory of Islamic Awakening From the perspective of Imam Khomeini. Researcher 2014;6(12):43-48]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.07.


Key words: Imam Khomeini, Islamic Awakening, Poor nations, Faith, Alienation.

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Applying Perceptron neural network in predictive maintenance of thermal power plant industry


Mehdi Nakhzari Moqaddam1, Dr. Alireza Shahraki2


1. MSc of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Aazad University, Zahedan branch, Zahedan, Iran

2. Industrial Engineering, Faculty member of Sistan and Baluchestan University


Abstract: With the advent of predictive maintenance (maintenance) in 1980, dramatic changes were happened in maintenance planning of equipment. As predictive maintenance is depended on failure prediction of equipment in use, this approach requires using many tools and equipment, including Artificial Intelligence techniques such as neural networks. Thermal power plant activity is among industries that maintenance costs are important for them and using predictive maintenance has economic justification. Thermal power plant function is so that any failure in each subsystem will suspend power generation and will cause more costs. In this study, predicting failure in thermal power plant sub- systems is based on Perceptron multilayer network model with levenberg marquardt algorithm. For this purpose, thermal power plant 500 MW manufactured by Siemens Co, in East Iran has been considered as case study. Study results show that the model has prediction ability of MSE=0.1877 mean squared error in predicting failure time of equipment according to environment conditions that makes easy predictive maintenance planning in terms of visit numbers and required services and timely procurement of parts and storage costs.

[Mehdi Nakhzari Moqaddam, Dr. Alireza Shahraki. Applying Perceptron neural network in predictive maintenance of thermal power plant industry. Researcher 2014;6(12):49-55]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.08.


Key words: ​Perceptron multilayer neural network; predictive maintenance; thermal power plant.

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Content comparison between two tales: "Gol & Nowrouz" and "Jamshid & Khorshid"


Ali Asghar Jabari1, Maryam Mirfendereski2


1. Assistant Professor of Persian Language & literature, Non-governmental high education center, Hakim Jorjani, Gorgan, Golestan province, Iran

2. MA in Persian language & literature, Golestan University, Gorgan, Golestan province, Iran


Abstract: These two torch song "Gol & Nowrouz" and "Jamshid & Khorshid" are from eighth century AH. Both works, had been created in a same century with a short time distance and have a same theme that is "love". Surely they have many shared content. Main core of tale, in both works, is two eastern princes who love girls of Roman Emperors. But, what is so manifest in these works, is content differences between them, which appears derived from their poet life style and thoughts. Women role, for example, in "Gol & Nowrouz" by Khajoo Kermani is so poor and pallid, while in "Jamshid & Khorshid" women have especial place and effectiveness so that Roman Queen(Caesar wife), is important personage who proceeds tale. Naturally, this difference can be attributed to presence of Salman Savaji in Sheikh Hassan Ilkhani court and seeing effects of Delshad Khatoon (Sheikh Hassan wife) in the country affairs. In this paper, similarities and differences between these two tales have been investigated which indirectly have pointed to Iranian habitude and culture in eighth century and sociology of court, in that century.

[Ali Asghar Jabari, Maryam Mirfendereski. Content comparison between two tales: "Gol & Nowrouz" and "Jamshid & Khorshid". Researcher 2014;6(12):56-60]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.09.


Key words: Khajoo Kermani, Salman Savaji, Gol & Nowrouz, Jamshid and Khorshid.

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Investigation on the trypanocidal effects of aqueous extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Nauclea latifolia in albino rats


Comfort A. Olanrewaju1, Halima S. Idris1, Simon K. Okwute2


1.  Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, 900001, Nig.

2.  Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Abuja, 900001, Nig.


Abstract: An evaluation on the efficacy of aqueous extracts of Nauclea latifolia and Vernonia amygdalina in the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in Wister albino rats was carried out. Parasite population after infecting 27 rats was determined using Herbert and Lumsden’s rapid matching methods. Concentrations of 1000 and 2000mg/kg were administered orally to the respective groups. Both the T-test and two -way ANOVA carried out on the effect of the treatments and parasite and on the weights and blood parameters analyzed showed no significant difference (P> 0.05). The screening showed that the two different concentrations (2000 and 1000mg/kg) of Vernonia leaf extract and 2000mg/kg of the stem bark extract had the capacity to clear the parasites from the rats’ blood for some days and also prolonged their life span after treatment. The N. latifolia leaf extract irrespective of the concentration had no effect on the number of parasites (parasitaemia) in the infected rats. The Nauclea latifolia stem bark, however, showed some trypanocidal activities by reducing the parasitaemia level from 8.4 million per ml to 5 thousand per ml on the 5th day; although the level of parasitaemia began to increase again from the 6th day until the day the animals died. Prepared sections of the liver and kidney tissues showed no major morphological abnormalities in those rats administered with the plant extracts when compared to the controls. This study suggested that the aqueous extracts of V. amygdalina plant and N. latifolia stem bark has antitrypanosomal activity and the capacity to prolong the life span of the experimental rats after treatment.

[Olanrewaju CA, Idris HS, Okwute SK. Investigation on the trypanocidal effects of aqueousextracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Nauclea latifolia in albino rats. Researcher 2014;6(12):61-69]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.10.


Keywords: antitrypanosome, Nauclea latifolia, parasitaemia Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Vernonia amygdalina.

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The prevention of radicalization and extremism among youth


Nasiba Sadykova


Abstract:Radicalization or radicalization is a process by which an individual or group comes to adopt increasingly extreme political, social, or religious ideals and aspirations that reject or undermine the status quo; these procedures can be found in the different forms that teach itself with the group Political, religious and social teachings, Therefore, Not only the prevention of radicalization and extremism is duty of the government but also should prevent such negative tendency before the development of this kind of extremism and radical opinions to the economic and political issues.

[Nasiba Sadykova. The prevention of radicalization and extremism among youth. Researcher 2014;6(12):70-72]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 11. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.11.


Key words: Prevention, extremism, radicalism.

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Knowledge Sharing Prominence and Role in the 21 Century Organizations


Syed Muhammad Ali 1, Usman Saleem 2, Syed Muhammad Sikandar 3


1. School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, China

2. School of Public Affairs, University of Science and Technology of China, China

3. Faculty of Economics, International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan


Abstract: Knowledge sharing is very important resource for almost every type of the organization but there are many people existing in the world who still did not recognize the significance of the sharing of knowledge. The goal of this study is to describe some of the significance of knowledge sharing, focus on the previous literature and bring it together to illustrate the importance of knowledge sharing and its linkage with other factors. We studied different published papers and then select those literature which give the prominence and role of knowledge sharing in the organizations. This paper presents basic types of knowledge sharing which portrays the strength of the sharing of the knowledge and clearly shows that how visibly knowledge sharing plays role in the organizations. Existing literature generally emphases on the broader context of knowledge sharing but in this paper we discussed the vital role of knowledge sharing with some specific variables.

[Syed Muhammad Ali, Usman Saleem, Syed Muhammad Sikandar. Knowledge Sharing Prominence and Role in the 21 Century Organizations. Researcher 2014;6(12):73-79]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 12. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.12.


Keywords: Knowledge Sharing, Innovative Behavior, Leadership, Individual Attitudes

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Investigation the effects and side effects of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer


Golpar Golmohammadzadeh


Faculty of Pharmacology, Sari University, Sari, Iran


Abstract: In order to investigate the effects and side effects of chemotherapy before and during this action for breast cancer women, sixty three patients younger than or equal to 45y old were chosen through a randomized selection. Patients were assigned randomly to receive chemotherapy. The first injection was administered at least 2 weeks before the first chemotherapy cycle, continuing at 3.6 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks until the end of the last cycle. In this study group, 81.2% resumed menses and 71.8% resumed spontaneous ovulation within 3–8 months of termination of the GnRHa/chemotherapy co-treatment; 18.8% experienced hyper-gonadotrophic amenorrhoea and ovarian failure 12 months after treatment. In the control group (chemotherapy without GnRHa), 54.8% resumed menses and 45.1% resumed normal ovarian activity. The mean FSH concentrations, 6 months after completion of the GnRHa/chemotherapy co-treatment group, were significantly less than the control group. During the GnRHa/chemotherapy co-treatment, the concentrations of FSH, LH, and P (progesterone) decreased to almost pre-pubertal levels. However, within 1–3 months after the last GnRHa injection, an increase in LH and FSH concentrations was detected, followed several weeks later in by an increase in progesterone  concentrations to within normal levels. The median Time to restoration of menstruation was 178 days with goserelin compared to 220 day without goserelin with statistical significant difference (p>0.00). GnRHa administration before and during combination chemotherapy for breast cancer may preserve post-treatment ovarian function in women <45 years. However, Long-term studies are required.

[Golpar Golmohammadzadeh. Investigation the effects and side effects of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. Researcher 2014;6(12):80-86]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 13. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.13.


Keywords: chemotherapy, premature, women, breast cancer

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A Study of Self-Concept, Mental Health and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Boys & Girls of District Pulwama


M.Y Ganaie1, Hafiz Mudasir 2


1.  Associate Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir

2.  Ph.D Research Scholar, Dr. C.V Raman University, Chhattisgarh, India.


Abstract: The present study was conducted by the investigator to Study of Self-Concept, Mental Health and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Boys & Girls of District Pulwama. For this purpose the samples were selected on the basis of random sampling technique which consisted of 200 Students randomly selected from various Higher Secondary Schools. The variables included for the study includes Emotional Stability, Overall Adjustment, Overall Adjustment, Autonomy, Security- Insecurity, Security- Insecurity, Self-Concept and Intelligence A standardized questionnaire developed by Sagar Sharma, A.K Singh & Alpana Sengupta was administrated for this purpose. Proper statistical treatment was applied in order to obtain the results. The study revealed that on the overall Self-Concept, the Male students have better Real-Self and Ideal-self than the Female Students. It further revealed that Shopian Higher Secondary Students are Emotionally Stable, Highly Adjusted, Autonomous, Secure and more Intelligent than Pulwama Higher Secondary Students. However, Shopian higher secondary Girls are Emotionally Stable, Better Adjusted, Autonomous, Secure, and more Intelligent and have better self-concept than Pulwama Adolescent Girls. Moreover, Shopian Higher Secondary Students have better Academic Achievement than Pulwama Higher Secondary Students.

[M.Y Ganaie, Hafiz Mudasir. A Study of Self-Concept, Mental Health and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Boys & Girls of District Pulwama. Researcher 2014;6(12):87-92]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 14. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.14.


Key words: Self-concept, Mental health, Academic Achievement, Higher Secondary Students, etc.

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Investigating and Comparing Concept Formation between Iranian and Afghan Girls and Boys Primary Students


Faezeh Pourghorban Gourabi1, Jamalaldin koolaiinezhad2


1. MA in Primary School Education

2. Assistant Professor in Allameh Tabataba'i University


Abstract: Human development domain is observing considerable increase in the number of study into cultural texture of people living in it. Researches that compare cultures and ethnic groups in cultural contexts inform us about the individual commonalities and differences in development. This study was conducted to investigate and compare concept formation between Iranian and Afghan Primary Girls and Boys students. This is a causal-comparative descriptive (retrospective) study, as the researcher does not have direct control on independent variable (i.e. Iranian and Afghan cultures) and only addresses its effect on the formation of concept in children. Statistical population includes all Iranian and Afghan Primary School Girls and Boys studying at primary level in school year 2002-2003. Here, convenience sampling method was used. Sample group includes 48 girl students (24 Iranian and 24 Afghan) and 48 boy students (24 Iranian and 24 Afghan) in the first-to-sixth grades. For collecting data, Vygotsky Concept Formation Test was employed. Conceptual reasoning tests do not concern about breaking down the components of mental constructs, rather the focus is on qualitative analysis of given subject. They create a completely homogeneous group by using quit specific issues, whose main property is qualitative classification. In these tests, the methodology used by the subject for problem solving is more important than the final result. In Kasanin-Honfmann test, as the data collection instrument in this study, 22 wooden blocks, varying in color, shape, height, and size, are given to the subject. He should show how parts are classified based on four different perspectives, and justify his methodology. This is also known as Vygotsky’s blocks. In scoring the performance, each correction should be taken as 5-minute endeavor (the first block, given as a sample, is not regarded as a modification). Therefore, to obtain the final score, the number of corrections is multiplied by 5. In Vygotsky test, the number of corrected blocks refers to the amount of blocks a subject wrongly classifies in other groups, and the examiner corrects them by declassification. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were employed. Descriptive statistics was used for data classification and frequency calculation. In inferential statistics section of this study, to describe and explain the information obtained from the sample and to investigate the main hypothesis, both descriptive and two-sample t-test were used. Results showed that in the main question, the classification variable is only nationality, and both genders were put in the same groups. The assumption of a difference in concept formation between Iranian and Afghan students is rejected with 95% confidence. The first question, comparing concept formation between Iranian boy students and Afghan boy students (living in Iran), did not show any significant difference between the two groups. Comparing the means of both groups depicted better performance of the Afghan boy students, but this mean difference was not significant. The second question investigated the difference in linguistic concept formation between Iranian girl and boy groups. Results showed a significant difference in this regard between the two groups with 95% confidence.

[Faezeh Pourghorban Gourabi, Jamaloding Kolainejad. Investigating and Comparing Concept Formation between Iranian and Afghan Girls and Boys Primary Students. Researcher 2014;6(12):93-104]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 15. doi:10.7537/marsrsj061214.15.


Key words: Concept formation, Vygotsky's theory, Concept formation test, Double stimulation, Kasanin-Honfmann test

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from November 27, 2014. 

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