Science Journal


ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9865, Monthly
Volume 7 - Issue 4 (Cumulated No. 70), April 25, 2015
            Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0704

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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Arsenic contamination and its toxicity in algae


Shefali Sharma


Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Banasthali, 304022, Rajasthan, India


Abstract: Arsenic, a metalloid, is considered nonessential for human beings. However, excess amount of As is extremely toxic, leading to many pathological conditions that are consistent with oxidative damage, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Arsenic compounds widely enter in environment through food chain and water supply and excess of them producing worldwide pollution threat. Due to this, millions of people around the world are suffering from arsenic toxicity which leads to major health problems including liver damage, cancer, diabetes, skin lesions and hyperkeratosis. In water bodies the high amount of arsenic compounds enter in the algal cells. After accumulation arsenic interferes with algal metabolic processes which lead to impairment of photosynthesis, respiration, depletion in protein, carbohydrate, lipid and cell viability. Higher amount of arsenic also induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS can easily oxidize different macromolecules present in the algal cells. To counteract arsenic toxicity, algae have evolved complex protective mechanisms to mitigate the deleterious effects and repair the damage caused by ROS.

[Sharma S. Arsenic contamination and its toxicity in algae. Researcher 2015;7(4):1-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 1



Key words: algae; arsenic; oxidative stress

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Synthesis and Evaluation of some food grade lubricating greases from local materials


Fatma A. Morsy1, Ahmed M. Ramdan 1, Mohamed F. EL-menier2, Hesham M. Salah 2 and Walaa M. Mahmmoud2


1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hellwan University, Cairo, Egypt

2Misr Petroleum Co, Research Center, Technical affair


Abstract: The objective of this research aimed to produce food grade calcium lubricating grease which is used in lubricating of bearing and gears in food processing and pharmaceutical machine using renewable sources. Jojoba oil was used as the base oil in producing two types of food grade greases. This grease was manufactured via two steps of process, saponification process and cooling & homogenization process. In normal grease we use lubricating oil and calcium hydroxide, 12-hydroxystearic acid and in complex grease we use lubricating oil, calcium hydroxide and fatty acid 12-hydroxystearic acid and acetic acid. The produced normal grease had a dropping point of 140o C, good anti-wear property and consistency NLGI Grad 1, and the produced complex grease had dropping point of 335oC, good anti-wear property and consistency NLGI Grade 2.

[Fatma A. Morsy, Ahmed M. Ramdan, Mohamed F. EL-menier, Hesham M. Salah and Walaa M. Mahmmoud. Synthesis and Evaluation of some food grade lubricating greases from local materials. Researcher 2015;7(4):7-13]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 2



Keywords: food grade- lubricating grease, 12-hydroxystearic acid, acetic acid, consistency, dropping point

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Medicinal And Other Potential Use Of Wild Flora Found In Kumaun Area


Meenakshi Jalal1 and Deeksha Nautiyal2


1 Department of forestry and environmental science DSB campus Nainital, Uttarakhand 263002, India – M.Sc student.

2 Department of forestry and environmental science DSB campus Nainital, Uttarakhand 263002, India – Research scholar



Abstract: The use of the plant species of the Himalaya as medicine is known since the long time. These species play an important role in combating many diseases for time immemorial. They are turned as magic stick for people who can’t go through proper medicinal treatment in terms of need, due to lack of money and scarcity of things. The species used are mostly wild flora present in Kumaun region. Wild flora mostly termed useless for people visiting Kumaun but these have tremendous ethanol medicinal and ethanol- vetinary property. If awareness is created for these worldwide and proper research is conducted then Kumaun might get groom in overall economy of people and they do not have to move out in search of their bread and butter. In this context, the current study was conducted in Khurpatal area situated at a distance of 8-10 km from Nainital located at 29.220 N and 72.250 E at an elevation of 1750m. All these data were collected during field survey participatory rural appraisal method. Detail study of 9 most common found species of the area was studied in terms of medicinal and other uses along with documentation of few other species. The species documented are widely used as a traditional medicine in hilly region all over Kumaun.

[Jalal M, Nautiyal D. Medicinal and other potential use of wild flora found in Kumaun area. Researcher 2015;7(4):14-22]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 3



Key word: Wild flora, ethano medicinal, ethano vetinary and traditional medicinal.

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Clinical significance: A Therapeutic Approach to Psychological Assessment in Treatment Planning


Olusegun Emmanuel Afolabi


Department of Educational Foundation, University of Botswana, Botswana


Abstract: Psychological assessment has long been reported as a key component of clinical psychology. This paper examined and shed light on the complexities surrounding the clinical significance of therapeutic approach to treatment Planning. To achieve this objective, the paper searched and used the PsycINFO and PubMed databases and the reference sections of chapters and journal articles to analysed the underlying themes: 1) given a strong basis for the usage of therapeutic approach to psychological assessment in treatment plans, 2) explained the conceptual meaning of clinical significant change, 3) answered some of the questions regarding the clinical significance and practicability of therapeutic approach to psychological assessment, particularly during or before treatment, 4) linked therapeutic assessment to change in clients’ clinical impression, functioning and therapeutic needs, 5) used initial theory to explain the therapeutic mechanisms of psychological assessment in clinical practice, 6) analysed the empirical studies that addressed and linked empirically supported therapeutic assessment with clinical significant changes in clients. Finally, the study suggested that though therapeutic assessment is not sufficient for the systematic study of psychotherapy outcome and process, it is still consistent with both the lay-man and professional expectations regarding treatment outcome and also provides a precise method for classifying clients as "changed" or "unchanged" on the basis of clinical significance criteria.

[Olusegun Emmanuel Afolabi. Clinical significance: A Therapeutic Approach to Psychological Assessment in Treatment Planning. Researcher 2015;7(4):23-34]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 4



Key Word: Therapeutic approach, psychological assessment, clinical significance change, treatment outcome

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Economic Valuation of Investment in Bush Mango (Irvingia gabonensis Baill) Plantation Establishment in Southern Nigeria


*Larinde, S.L and G. E. Omokhua


Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria



Abstract: Bush mango is a non-timber forest species that has been contributing to the rural economy of southern Nigeria for a long time but whose potentials have not been fully exploited for economic development. Economic valuation of investment in Bush mango plantation per hectare of land was carried out using a discounted cash flow analysis to determine its financial viability to intending small-holders of this edible Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP) in Rivers state. This was achieved by estimating the costs and evaluating the benefits involved in establishing a hectare of Bush mango plantation. Two tools of cash flow analysis; Net Present Value (NPV) and, Benefit Cost Ratio (B/C) were used in the analysis. The study showed that bush mango production is a profitable business with a positive NPV of N2, 054,188.32 ($12838.67) and B/C of 2.1 which indicates that the returns from Bush mango production would be high and economically viable in the study area. Given the high benefits relative to costs involved in Bush mango production, it is recommended that the capabilities of the smallholders should be enhanced by strengthening their access to small and medium scale forms of capital from cooperative societies, micro-finance houses. Agricultural finance institutions as well as government credit facilities at local, state and federal levels.

[Larinde, S.L and G. E. Omokhua. Economic Valuation of Investment in Bush Mango (Irvingia gabonensis Baill) Plantation Establishment in Southern Nigeria. Researcher 2015;7(4):35-43]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 5



Key words: Economic-valuation, investment, Bush mango, plantation establishment, cash flow analysis.

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African Thinkers And Self-Reliance: Remedy To Ameliorate Unemployment In Africa


Adebisi David, ALADE


Department of History and International Studies, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria; 2348064151074; 2348024615670


Abstract: In African states, there is high tempo of following the residual paths of Western thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle and John Locke, in the quest to formulate sound thoughts and policies. While nothing is inherently wrong with appropriating ideas from non-African cultural backgrounds, what is awkward is that Africans are so engrossed in this vogue that our own models, whatever their worth, are rarely considered. This paper therefore critically appraises the ideas of Dr. Taiwo Solarin and Julius Nyerere on education for self-reliance as panacea to ameliorating the mounting quotient of unemployment in Africa. The paper notes that although African education is rooted in self-reliance as stated in the National Policy on education, commitment however is only at the level of policy articulation. Using historical and philosophical analytical methodology, the paper examines African Political Thought and self-reliance and posits that the present educational policy stifles the graduates’ initiative to apply their theoretical knowledge pragmatically. The paper explores the philosophers’ views on education which reflects African cultural experiences based on resourcefulness, self-realization, self-sufficiency and self-reliance through emphasis on vocational and technical education. The paper asserts that Africa is blessed with great thinkers and in our march to economic greatness, the paper concludes by advocating for the integration of their perspicuity into the National Policy on education in other to tackle unemployment in Nigeria.

[Adebisi David, ALADE. African Thinkers And Self-Reliance: Remedy To Ameliorate Unemployment In Africa. Researcher 2015;7(4):44-48]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 6



Keywords: Education, Unemployment, Self-reliance, Africa, Development, Political Thought

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Impact of weaver birds (Ploceus cucullatus Muller) nesting on the ornamental trees shade management in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria


Aiyeloja, A. A. and G. A. Adedeji


Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria


Abstract: A survey within the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria indicated that weaver birds are the most damaging avian pests to ornamental trees. Though, the presence of this species among other birds has been reported but their damaging activities on tree shade management is lacking. Therefore, the impact of weaver birds nesting on the ornamental trees shade management in the University of Port Harcourt was investigated in the three campuses using on-site surveys and observations. A total of 116 trees of 7 species belonging to 5 families were used by Ploceus cucullatus for their nesting activities. From the utilization standpoint, two classes of species were recognized: nest building material species (NBMS) and nest building supporting species (NBSS). Survey indicated that 102 trees or 87.93% were NBMS with Arecaceae family dominating while 14 trees or 12.07% were NBSS with Anacardiaceae family dominating. The result demonstrated that weaver birds nesting activities were distinctly more damaging on NBMS than NBSS, and strongly associated with massive defoliation of NBMS. Consequently, NBMS were remarkably inflicted resulting in poor shade provision and management. It can be inferred that the cardinal goal of shade production of NBMS was defeated. This study therefore, recommended non-utilization of these highly susceptible species to weaver birds for landscaping within the Universities in Niger Delta region.

[Aiyeloja, A. A. and G. A. Adedeji. Impact of weaver birds (Ploceus cucullatus Muller) nesting on the ornamental trees shade management in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Researcher 2015;7(4):49-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 7



Key words: Aves, environment, nest, ornithology, shade and trees

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Effects Of Different Levels Of Poultry Manure On The Growth And Yield Of Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus Monech) In Ikorodu Agro-Ecological Zone Of Nigeria


*Sanni, K. O., Godonu, K. G. and Animashaun, M. O.


Department of Crop Production and Horticulture, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria.



Abstract: A field experiment was carried out to determine the effects of different levels of poultry manure on the vegetative development and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Monech). The study was laid out in randomized complete block design with four treatments replicated three times. The treatments were applied at 0 t/ha-1, 15 ha-1, 20 ha-1 and 25 ha-1. Data were collected on both growth and yield parameters, the data collected includes: plant height, number of leaves, stem girth, number of days to 50% flowering number of days to 50% fruiting, number of harvested pod/fruits, length of harvested fruits and weight of harvested fruits. Results indicated that plot amended with 25 ha-1 poultry manure significantly influenced okra growth and yield; and hereby recommended for the cultivation of okra in Ikorodu agro-ecological zone as a substitute for synthetic fertilizer.

[Sanni, K. O., Godonu, K. G. and Animashaun, M. O. Effects Of Different Levels Of Poultry Manure On The Growth And Yield Of Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus Monech) In Ikorodu Agro-Ecological Zone Of Nigeria. Researcher 2015;7(4):55-59]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 8



Keywords: different levels, harvested fruits, synthetic fertilizer, yield parameters

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Copula Density Estimation between Norwegian and MSCI World Stock Index Using Wavelets Analysis


M. Ghalani1, A. Daneshkhah2 and O. Chatrabgoun3


1 Faculty of Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Cranfield Water Science Institute, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL, UK

3 Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences and Statistics, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran


Abstract: Wavelet analysis has been used for copula density estimation. This paper highlights the usefulness of the compact support and orthogonal wavelet in order to approximate copula density functions. Our method involves high approximation order properties rather than other previous methods such as kernel and orthonormal series method. Finally, we apply our proposed method to approximate the copula density between Norwegian stock index and MSCI world stock index.

[M. Ghalani, A. Daneshkhah and O. Chatrabgoun. Copula Density Estimation between Norwegian and MSCI World Stock Index Using Wavelets Analysis. Researcher 2015;7(4):60-62]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 9



Key words: Copula, Kernel, Orthonormal Series, Wavelets.

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Mining of simple sequence repeats in chloroplast genome sequence of Trifolium subterraneum


Deepika Srivastava and Asheesh Shanker


Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Banasthali-304022, Rajasthan, India


Abstract: Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), also known as microsatellites, are found in DNA sequences and consist of short repeating motifs of 1-6 nucleotides. These repeats are ubiquitous and play an important role in the development of molecular markers. Therefore, the present analysis was conducted to identify SSRs in chloroplast genome of Trifolium subterraneum. A total of 77 SSRs (including 3 compound SSRs) were identified with an average length of 12.79 bp in 144.76 kb sequence mined. Depending upon the repeat unit, SSRs varied in length from 12 to 27 bp. The identified SSRs showed a density of 1 SSR/1.88 kb. Mononucleotides (38, 49.35%) were found to be the most abundant repeat, followed by dinucleotide (15, 19.48%), trinucleotide (13, 16.88%) and tetranucleotide (11, 14.29%). The penta and hexanuleotide repeats were not detected in chloroplast genome of Trifolium subterraneum.

[Srivastava D and Shanker A. In silico mining of simple sequence repeats in chloroplast genome of Trifolium subterraneum. Researcher 2015;7(4):63-66]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 10



Key words: Chloroplast; Data Mining; Microsatellites; Simple sequence repeats

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The relationship between ownership concentration and Z scores at private banks in Iran


Ali Akbar Hassanzadeh1, Dariush Demori2 (corresponding author)


1-Department of Financial Management, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran.

2-, Department of Management, Faculty of Economic, Management and Accounting, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.


Abstract: The present study investigated the effect of the relationship between ownership structure and risky behavior in Iranian private banks. According to temporal examination of under study data, panel data econometrics (panel data) approach is selected to model the relationship between the independent and dependent variables of the banks. In this study, the financial statements data of active Iranian private banks from years between 2010 and 2013 are used, including twenty-one banks. The findings show that as concentration of ownership in the hands of the bank shareholders increases, bank risk, in particular bank's portfolio risk and bank leverage risk will increase and the bank faces a dangerous situation in which the amount of bank risk effectiveness per each unit change of ownership concentration is 0.32.

[Ali Akbar Hassanzadeh, Dariush Demori. The relationship between ownership concentration and Z scores at private banks in Iran. Researcher 2015;7(4):67-75]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 11



Key word: Ownership structure, private banks, Corporate governance, Director or board

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Diarrhea an Epidemic Havoc and Causative Agents in Nepal a Quintessential (Review)


Tarani Prasad paneru


Abstract: Nepal has been suffered from frequent epidemics by different diarrheal agents like bacteria, protozoa and viruses. Cholera epidemic and enteric diarrhea are often become routine seasonal outbreaks, the main causes of morbidity and mortality. The two most prevalent diarrheal bacterial pathogens are Vibrio Cholera and Aeromonas spp. In both cases, the co-infecting bacterial pathogens detected are Shigella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The other major co-infective bacterial pathogens in both cases were E. coli O157:H7 and VTEC. The higher prevalence of diarrhea is reported in the age group of less than 2 years. Highest prevalence of parasitic infection cases Cyclospora spp, E. histolytica followed by Giardial lamblia and the least frequency by A. lumbricoides. Among the viruses family Caliciviridae—the noroviruses and sapoviruses are reported frequently. Antibiotic therapy and vaccination have benefited millions of persons worldwide. Yet, constrained resources have now threatened our ability to adequately administer threats of infectious diseases by placing clinical microbiology services and expertise distance from the patient and their infectious diseases. infection control need to develop outbreak management policies, procedures and programs like surveillance, early identification, importance of routine practices and isolation of cases to prevent disease spread among the communities. Come into rapid respond policies for gastroenteritis outbreaks and procedures for managing outbreaks associated with food are must. It is a high time to overhaul the existing societal changes in health and sanitation beliefs and habitats of people by avoiding their deep rooted orthodox traditions.

[Tarani Prasad paneru. Diarrhea an Epidemic Havoc and Causative Agents in Nepal a Quintessential (Review). Researcher 2015;7(4):76-85]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 12



Keywords: Diarrhea an Epidemic Havoc, Causative Agents, Nepal a Quintessential

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Effect of Vitamin C on the Birth weight of newborn babies


Irum Samreen Siddiqui1, Farheen Shaikh2, Sanam Mari3, Saira Dars1


1Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Liaquat University Hospital, Pakistan

2Department of Biochemistry, LUMHS, Jamshoro

3Medical Research Centre, LUMHS, Jamshoro


Abstract: Background and Objective: Vitamin C play a vital role in fetal growth during pregnancy, the aim of the present study was to estimate mothers which taking vitamin C properly having new born babies and detect its normal birth weight. Methods: The study was conducted on 100 pregnant women from Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Liaquat University Hospital, Sindh, Pakistan who came to visit Antenatal clinic frequently. 50 pregnant females were taken Vitamin C supplements properly from last 3-6 months 100 mg/day. 50 pregnant females were not taking vitamin C properly. Results: Those pregnant females which taken proper vitamin C delivered the child with birth weight 2.3kg 2.8 kg (2.40.3kg) (1.70.2 kg). Those pregnant females which not take proper vitamin C delivered the child with birth weight 1.51.9 kg. Conclusion: Taking Vitamin C properly highly effect on the birth weight of child. A low vitamin C levels has been associated with premature rupture of the membrane sometimes causing premature delivery.

[Irum Samreen Siddiqui, Farheen Shaikh, Sanam Mari, Saira Dars. Effect of Vitamin C on the Birth weight of new born babies. Researcher 2015;7(4):86-88]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 13



Key words: Vitamin C, Birthweight, newborn babies, pregnancy

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Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) and Renal Obstruction Literature Review


Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1


1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA


Abstract: Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that respond to changes in available oxygen in the cellular environment - to decreases in oxygen, or hypoxia. The HIF signaling cascade mediates the effects of hypoxia in the cells. Hypoxia keeps cells from differentiating, but it promotes the formation of blood vessels and is important for the formation of a vascular system in embryos and cancer tumors. In mammals, deletion of the HIF-1 genes results in perinatal death. HIF-1 has been shown to be vital to chondrocyte survival, allowing the cells to adapt to low-oxygen conditions within the growth plates of bones. HIF plays a central role in the regulation of human metabolism. Obstructive uropathy is a condition in which the flow of urine is blocked. This causes the urine to back up and injure one or both kidneys. Obstructive uropathy occurs when urine cannot drain through a ureter. Urine backs up into the kidney and causes it to become hydronephrosis. It can occur suddenly, or be a long-term problem.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) and Renal Obstruction Literature Review. Researcher 2015;7(4):89-98]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 14



Key words: DNA; eternal; life; stem cell; universe

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from March 24, 2015

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