Science Journal


ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9865, Monthly
Volume 7 - Issue 5 (Cumulated No. 71), May 25, 2015 
            Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0705

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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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The survey relationship between Nature of Equity and Z scores at private banks in Iran


Ali Akbar Hassanzadeh1, Dariush Demori2 (corresponding author)


1- Department of Financial Management, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran.

2- Department of Management, Faculty of Economic, Management and Accounting, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.


Abstract: Banks are responsible for main role of financing in developing countries. Also, these are firms having have high leverage ratio, due to deposits received from customers. For the reasons mentioned above, they are more affected by regulations, so that must have more accountability to the rights of depositors, reduce their risk and ensure the stability of the payment system. The present study investigated the effect of the relationship between ownership structure and risky behavior in Iranian private banks. According to temporal examination of under study data, panel data econometrics (panel data) approach is selected to model the relationship between the independent and dependent variables of the banks. In this study, the financial statements data of active Iranian private banks from years between 2010 and 2013 are used, including twenty-one banks. The findings show that as much indicator of shareholders’ nature in banks increases the bank's risk will increase.

[Ali Akbar Hassanzadeh, Dariush Demori. The survey relationship between Nature of Equity and Z scores at private banks in Iran. Researcher 2015;7(5):1-8]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 1



Key word: panel data, private banks, Corporate governance, Director or board.

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Study of Characteristics of an effective clinical instructor from nursing students’ point of view in Zahedan


Zahra Pournamdar


Faculty member in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Operating Room Group, Center for Reproductive Health Research


Abstract: Introduction: Clinical instruction is one of the most important parts of the educational process, because much of the professional learning is going to be completed through clinical practice. Thus, the effectiveness of clinical instruction has been the topic of many nursing, and midwifery researches. With regard to the importance of clinical teaching, existence of fruitful characteristics and features in clinical instructors is the essential factor in achieving clinical objectives. So the aim of this study was to examine the effective characteristics of a clinical instructor from Zahedan nursing students’ point of view. Methods: This study was a cross - sectional study, which was carried out on 165 students of nursing, midwifery, and operating room personnel of Zahedan nursing school, who were randomly selected in 2013. The tool for data collection was the questionnaire, which consisted of two parts; the first part comprised of demographic information, including age, gender, and field of study; and the second part consisted of 49 questions covering five domains of professional characteristics of the clinical instructor, communication features, personal features, teaching features, and assessment features, which was scored based seven Likert scale where seven denotes total agreement and one denotes total disagreement. To examine the content validity of the questionnaire, it was reviewed by a number of nursing and midwifery specialists at university, and necessary corrections were made, also to examine the reliability, the cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used, which delivered the total reliability of the questionnaire (0.87). In order to analyze the data, the descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated by using the SPSS 18, and Excel applications. Findings: The results of study regarding the effective characteristics of clinical instructors from students’ point of view showed that professional features of the instructor with the mean (SD) 0.56 6.33, personal features with mean (SD) 0.59 6.29 and features of teaching with 0.34 6.07, had the highest score respectively, and evaluation features with the mean and standard deviation of 0.81 5.88 had the lowest score. Conclusions: In this study, some characteristics of an effective clinical instructor were reviewed. These results could be useful for the group managers, education planners, regarding the effectiveness of educational mission and the process of teaching.

[Zahra Pournamdar. Study of Characteristics of an effective clinical instructor from nursing students’ point of view in Zahedan. Researcher 2015;7(5):9-13]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 2



Key words: Effectiveness, Clinical Instructor, Student, Nurse

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Investigation Role of personality traits in spiritual intelligence (Case study in Iranian private Co.)


Roghayeh Abdali1, Leila Hooshmand2*, Zahra Hooshmand3 


1. Department of Public Management, Faculty of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modaress University, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Public Management, Faculty of Management, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

3. Department of Public Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran


Abstract: The present study aimed to assess a) the relationship between personality traits and spiritual intelligence and b) the relationship between demographic characteristics of the respondents and spiritual intelligence. In this correlation research, 311 employees (168 females and 143 males) in some Iranian private companies completed personality traits questionnaire NO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and spiritual intelligence scale (King, 2008). Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, independent-samples T test and one-way ANOVA by means of SPSS version18. The results show that there is a positive and significant relationship between extroversion and conscientiousness as personality traits and spiritual intelligence, but the other three, Neuroticism, openness to experience and agreeableness don’t have a significant relation with spiritual intelligence. The other finding of this research is that except one of demographic variable (education level); there is no significant relationship between the demographic variables and spiritual intelligence. The main contribution of the paper is to provide empirical evidence about the relationship between spiritual intelligence and personality traits that was considered partially. The Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

[Roghayeh Abdali, Leila Hooshmand, Zahra Hooshmand. Investigation Role of personality traits in spiritual intelligence (Case study in Iranian private Co.). Researcher 2015;7(5):14-18]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 3



Key words: personality traits, spiritual intelligence, private organizations

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Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Kidney Literatures


Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1


1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA


Abstract: Obstructive uropathy is a condition in which the flow of urine is blocked. This causes the urine to back up and injure one or both kidneys. Obstructive uropathy occurs when urine cannot drain through a ureter. Urine backs up into the kidney and causes it to become hydronephrosis. It can occur suddenly, or be a long-term problem. If the blockage comes on suddenly, kidney damage is less likely if the problem is detected and treated promptly, and the damage to the kidneys goes away normally. Long-term damage to the kidneys may occur if the blockage has been present for a long time. If the problem is caused by a blockage in the bladder, the bladder may have long-term damage, which may lead to problems emptying the bladder or leakage of urine. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. It is part of the system that restores the oxygen supply to tissues when blood circulation is inadequate. Serum concentration of VEGF is high in many diseases such as bronchial asthma and diabetes mellitus, etc. VEGF's normal function is to create new blood vessels during embryonic development, new blood vessels after injury, muscle following exercise, and new vessels to bypass blocked vessels. Overexpression of VEGF can cause disease. Solid cancers cannot grow beyond a limited size without an adequate blood supply, but are able to grow and metastasize with the overexpression of VEGF. Overexpression of VEGF can cause vascular disease in the retina of the eye and other parts of the body, and drugs such as bevacizumab and ranibizumab can inhibit VEGF and control or slow these diseases. Endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a structural component of membranes of gram-negative bacteria and a potent proinflammatory agent. Epidemiologic reports indicate that exposure to endotoxin can cause inflammatory airway diseases in agricultural workers and can exacerbate reactive airway disease in those with asthma and in wheezing children.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Kidney Literatures. Researcher 2015;7(5):19-27]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 4



Key words: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); lipopolysaccharide (LPS); kidney  

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Background of Nowruz, the Grand Celebration


Parto Sadat Yazdani


MSc in Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Alborz, Iran


Abstract: Ancient big celebration Nowruz day in Aries and the vernal equinox will be held at the beginning and has a long history in the land of the Aryans. Nowruz is the most important holiday in many countries such as Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan since the beginning of spring, nature, the solar year begins and people of each country, according to the customs of the holiday are trying to set up more and more beautiful.

[Parto Sadat Yazdani. Background of Nowruz, the Grand Celebration. Researcher 2015;7(5):28-30]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 5



Key words: Nowruz, spring, Iranian New Year, Nature

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Governors of Fars in Shah Abbas Safavi Era


Mohammad Bagher Mohajer


Department of History, Darab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Darab, Iran  


Abstract: Shah Abbas I in the first years of monarchy and in line with his centralizing policy based on declining the power and increasing influence of Qizilbash tribes and governors of the states and provinces about a century ended Zolqadr family rule on Fars and Miladian local government of Larestan in the south of this state and Fars Gulf beaches. These two families in the beginning of Shah Abbas monarchy tried for realizing centralizing policy of Safavi Shah by maladaptive behavior. Appointment of Allah Verdi khan Gholeler Aghasi, Safavi court and military character trusted by Shah Abbas and then his child, Imam Gholi khan arrived in Fars domination and also delegation of all politic affairs, properties and security in Fars and adjacent areas such as Kohkeluieh, Larestan, Bahrein, Doragh (Khoozestan), Gambroon and Hormoz to him were the most goals of Shah Abbas of these changes. Assignment of responsibility for stanching unrest of neighboring tribes with Fars states such as Kohkeluieh, Lorestan and Khoozestan gave to Bigler Beigi. This state is also military supporting of internal and external expedition of Shah Abbas which is the indicator of important politic and military place of Fars Emirates and special trust of Shah Abbas to his governor in this state. Hence Fars state by having important economic and commercial resources is the richest south state of Iran and like Safavi economic support in consolidation and fixation for power of this family because of natural position and placing in the neighborhood of Fars Gulf and Hormoz strait and crossing commercial roads of Fars Gulf. In this article we investigate politic place and importance of Fars governors and the reason of special attention of Shah Abbas to this state by relying to historical documents and references.

[Seyed Mohsen Hoseini. Governors of Fars in Shah Abbas Safavi Era. Researcher 2015;7(5):31-35]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 6



Key words: Safavids, Fars governors, Shah Abbas I, Fars state, local governments, family of Allah Verdikhan

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Occurrence of Pteris austrosinica (Ching) Ching [Pterideaceae] in Darjiling Hills: a new record of endemic Chinese element in Indian Sub-continent.


Nayan Thapa1 and Dorjay Lama2


Department of Botany, St Joseph College, Darjiling- 734104, West Bengal, India

1Corresponding author: E-mail:


Abstract: Recent collection of Pteris austrosinica (Ching) Ching [Pterideaceae] from the tropical habitat of Singla (343 m 10) in Darjiling hills is a new record of its occurrence in Indian subcontinent. The plant is a Chinese element, being stated as endemic to Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangxi in China and its discovery in Darjiling hills has widened its geographical distribution. It assumes significance as this species has been included in the threatened Pteridophytes in Asia.

[Nayan Thapa and Dorjay Lama. Occurrence of Pteris austrosinica (Ching) Ching [Pterideaceae] in Darjiling Hills: a new record of endemic Chinese element in Indian Sub-continent. Researcher 2015;7(5):36-38]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 7



Key words: Pteris austrosinica, Endemic, New record, Darjiling Hills, Indian subcontinent

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Renal Obstruction and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) Review


Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2


1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA


Abstract: Renal obstructiion is a condition in which the urine flow is blocked. This causes the urine to back up and injure kidneys. Obstructive uropathy occurs when urine cannot drain through a ureter. Urine backs up into the kidney and causes it to become hydronephrosis. Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs, EC are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. NO is an important cellular signaling molecule that helps to modulate the vascular tone, insulin secretion, airway tone and peristalsis, etc, and it is involved in angiogenesis and neural development. It may function as a retrograde neurotransmitter.

[Ma H, Young M. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and Renal Obstruction Research Literatures. Researcher 2015;7(5):39-44]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 8



Key words: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); obstruction; renal

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Effects of soil properties on arthropod biodiversity in dumpsites in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria


*Popoola, 1 K.O.K, Amusat, 2 A.I.


1Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Oyo state.

2Department Science Laboratory Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture, Igboora, Oyo state.



Abstract: The impact of soil properties, temperature and relative humidity on arthropod species composition, abundance and diversity was investigated in Apete and Aba-eku dumpsites and in a control site in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. Ten 250g size pitfalls one third filled with 5% formalin were placed in each point in order to trap and preserve the arthropods. The arthropods trapped in each pitfall were preserved in separate specimen bottle containing 70% ethanol before identification. A total of 20 soil samples were collected from the sites using Auger and analyzed for particle size distribution, bulk density, moisture content, water holding capacity, porosity, organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium, calcium in (mol/kg-1) and available iron and zinc in mg/kg-1. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) were conducted to compare the mean values of the soil properties and arthropods abundance. A total of 4,763 arthropods were recorded belonging to 17 orders. Twenty six families of arthropods containing 31 species were recorded in Aba-Eku, while 24 families with 24 species were encountered in Apete and 19 families with 21 species were recorded for the control site. Soil parameters examined showed significant difference (p>0.05) across the three sites. The high percentage abundance of Dipterans (Musca domestica) and heavy metal recorded, Zinc and Iron indicates that the environments were polluted. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) showed negative correlation for the relative humidity and temperature to the arthropods abundance. The distinct taxa found in Apete and Aba-eku suggest that the organic input from residential areas around the dump sites favoured their abundance.

[Popoola, K.O.K, Amusat, A.I. Effects of soil properties on arthropod biodiversity in dumpsites in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. Researcher 2015;7(5):45-50]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 9



Keywords: Arthropod, biodiversity, Soil properties, Temperature

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An Investigation of the Relationship between Religious Beliefs of Internet Users and Their Internet Searching and Browsing (A Case Study: Shiite students at Astara Islamic Azad University)


Zahra Hassani11, Behrooz Eskandarpour2


1 Department of Islamic Education, Astara Branch, Islamic Azad University, Astara, Iran

2 Department of management, Payame Noor branch, Ardebil, Iran

Corresponding author: Zahra Hassani



Abstract: In the present era, internet as a new communication tool has changed human life and in different countries according to some factors such as religion, level of development, culture and etc. it has different uses. The purpose of this study is to investigate if the users who have stronger tendencies to Islam and Shiite avoid searching about unethical issues, counter-values and the factors that cause their decline. Methodology: In order to investigate the research questions, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Descriptive analysis was done through demographic information. Inferential statistics were applied to examine the statistical hypothesis and data analysis was done using inferential statistics for testing the hypothesis. Population: The sample size was calculated using Morgan table. Since the total number of students was 3,500, Morgan table estimated 346 subjects as sample. Findings: The findings of this study generally suggested that users with stronger religious beliefs behave according to Shiite jurisprudence and their internet searches pay more attention to ethical issues and values. Conclusion: the institutionalization of Islamic ethical and religious training of users are the best strategies that can take them away from immoral internet searches. Besides, some tools can be used in order to make them away from immoral issues such as; the codifying Special Rules of Internet, obtaining permits and commitment based on contents or using filtering in order to ban users from bad sites. However, there is no reliable way to strengthen the values, ethical and religious issues, and to create self-control and self -immunity.

[Zahra Hassani1, Behrooz Eskandarpour. An Investigation of the Relationship between Religious Beliefs of Internet Users and Their Internet Searching and Browsing. Researcher 2015;7(5):51-58]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 10



Keywords: religious beliefs, users, Shiite, searching, internet, ethics, identity

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Ramanujam Parliament?...(“Ramanujam Caste”)


M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.


M.Arulmani, B.E.


V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.



Abstract: This scientific research focus that everyone on the “EARTH PLANET” belong to caste of “RAMANUJAM” who shall be considered as the supreme god and the creator of entire cosmo universe. Case study shows that British parliament is often referred to as mother of parliaments because the British parliament has been the model to most other parliament systems and its acts have created many other parliaments having the British concept of THREE TIER MODEL. Further in conventional parliament PRESIDENT is considered as the highest legislative body and elected by members of the both houses and states council. In RAMANUJAM PARLIAMENT, Ramanujam shall be considered as the KING OF PARLIAMENT and MOTHER JANAKI shall be considered as the nominated president and also called as QUEEN OF PARLIAMENT.

[M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. Ramanujam Parliament?...(“Ramanujam Caste”). Researcher 2015;7(5):59-63]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 11



Keywords: EARTH PLANET; RAMANUJAM; supreme god; creator; cosmo universe

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Investigation type of distribution of aerosol and its impact on air pollution


Mahdi Ojaghi1, Ziba Beheshti2, Karim Isazadeh3, Mohammad hossein Mohammadi ashnani4


1. MSc in Planning, management & training of Environment, Faculty of Environment, Tehran University.

2. MSc in Assessment and Land Use Planning, Faculty of Environment and Energy, Islamic Azad University, Tehran

3. MSc in Agero Ecology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran

4. MSc in Planning, management & training of Environment, Tehran University


Abstract: Air pollution started to become a problem for human beings with the industrial revolution, but nowadays, with the introduction of laws against emissions. The atmosphere is a complex natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. The size distributions of K and Mg are also discussed in relation to particular sources. A survey of atmospheric aerosols in a suburban area near Tokyo, Japan was conducted using an Andersen sampler. Significant amounts of Na+ and Cl collected were considered to be derived from sea salt. The difference between the Na+/Cl ratio in the area and that in sea salt indicated a considerable loss of Cl. This is assumed to be caused by the formation of NaNO3, which is one of the main nitrate species present. Most of the sulfate in the sample was found to be (NH4)2SO4 in the form of fine particles, which is different from the sulfate derived from sea salt and soil.  

[Mahdi Ojaghi, Ziba Beheshti, Karim Isazadeh, Mohammad hossein Mohammadi ashnani. Investigation type of distribution of aerosol and its impact on air pollution. Researcher 2015;5(5):64-67]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 12



Key words: Size Distribution; Chemical Compositions; Particulate Matter

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Advancement of Battery in Smart Phones


Mr. Abdur Razzaq


MTB College Khalid Campus, Manthar Road, Sadiq Abad, Punjab, Pakistan.


AbstractSmart phones are currently very widely used all over the world. It has become very important in our electric devices that it’s not possible to think about life without it. Power required to make it productive interest has as well raised. Battery is consumed very much in Smartphone and tablets and dead in few hours as much of energy is consumed while running countless functions. An innovative new feature of power saving mode made it easy to auto dimming for screen portions to handled by user's fingers without jeopardizing consumer experience too much. Power saving apps should be developed and used. Latest research in advancement in batteries is done like water based nuclear powered battery, OLED screens to save energy, extremely low resistance USB cable to long lasting battery and nano dot technology etc.

[Abdur Razzaq. Advancement of Battery in Smart Phones. Researcher 2015;7(5):68-71]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 13



KeywordsEnergy Improvement, minimizing energy usage, drainage of Android’s battery, Nano dots, power use savings in Smart phones.

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Next Era for Satellite Communication


Mr. Abdur Razzaq


MTB College Khalid Campus, Manthar Road, Sadiq abad, Punjab, Pakistan.


Abstract— When we do conversation with our abroad friends, we feel trouble due cutting of voice result of satellite delay of 240 milli seconds. This Document Shows that how can we improve the Satellite Communication by the idea of Higgs Boson to minimize latency and the Quantum Computing to minimize processing and queuing delay. This document also describes the current way of Satellite Communication with a little legacy. We approach this problem by using the idea for carrying data using Higgs Boson particles and Quantum computing to enhance computation at earth stations and satellite.  

[Abdur Razzaq. Next Era for Satellite Communication. Researcher 2015;7(5):72-75]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 14



Keywords Satellite Communication, Higgs Boson, Quantum Computing, Current Satellite Communication, Future Satellite Communications.

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A New Emerging Interface: Sorcerous User Interface SUI


Abdur Razzaq


MTB College Khalid Campus, Manthar Road Sadiq Abad, Punjab, Pakistan


Abstract— In this document we want to introduce a new emerging, magical, supernatural, sorcery, enchanting interface of operating system. This interface will support the new developed and in future coming devices those use human gestures, mind scanning etcetera. This interface includes all types of input and output devices whose interaction make the people amazed. 

[Abdur Razzaq. A New Emerging Interface: Sorcerous User Interface SUI. Researcher 2015;7(5):76-80]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 15



Keywords new user interface, command line interface, CLI, graphical user interface, GUI

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Turing Machine for Quantum Computers


Mr. Abdur Razzaq


MTB College Khalid Campus, Manthar road, Sadiq Abad, Punjab, Pakistan.


Abstract— This document gives the Exotic way to revolutionize the Turing Machine’s Concept regarding to the Quantum Computing. We are not going to disturb the Turing Machine’s overall concept, but we would make some changes that could possibly enhance and refine the original idea of Turing Machine regarding to the pretty new much-demanded subject in Technology, known as Quantum Computing. It’s not the very detailed document of Turing machine of quantum computing, It’s too brief, but we will mention here all of the important things, which really matters.

[Abdur Razzaq. Turing Machine for Quantum Computers. Researcher 2015;7(5):81-85]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 16



Keywords Quantum Computing, Turing Machine, Quantum, Turing, Quantum Turing

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Comparative wife alimony enforcement perspective Khamse jurisprudence, law of Iran and Egypt


Ali Bazmi Haji Khajehlou1, Mina Peydaei1, Mohammad Reza Marandi2


1. MSc student in private law, Islamic Azad University, Germi Branch, Ardabil, Iran

2. Lecturer in Islamic Azad University, Germi Branch, Ardabil, Iran


Abstract: The most important issues of family law, which appears in all stages of life, both during marriage and after its dissolution, both in relation to his wife and children and other relatives in relation to the issue of "alimony". In terms of jurists and lawyers wife alimony is: life needs a wife whose husband is legally obligated to pay as food, clothing, housing, child support enforcement is twofold wife: 1) guarantees 2) criminal sanction. The first should be enforced through the courts required the husband to pay alimony and if it is not possible to divorce the obligation to pay alimony times that divorce can be done through the courts. The criminal sanction regime could afford to have someone to support, his wife alimony if not deign to 74 lashes and the guarantee of present or future maintenance. Egypt also follows the same rules and theories of famous scholars of public support, including food, clothing, and housing knows. In Khamse, where is helpless husband, the rules governing the collection and maintenance requirements and the inability of the husband of the minimum food and attempted to terminate the marriage and the divorce decree is issued. Due to the nature of research paper topic, once completed and coordinate maintenance and guarantee that the views expressed in it. This is especially jurists and lawyers presented followed by some good justification for this are Khamse jurisprudence in Iran and Egypt. The legal feasibility of this debt as a result of maintenance in accordance with the law of the husband and the husband is obliged to pay it.

[Ali Bazmi Haji Khajehlou, Mina Peydaei, Mohammad Reza Marandi. Comparative wife alimony enforcement perspective Khamse jurisprudence, law of Iran and Egypt. Researcher 2015;7(5):86-91]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 17



Key words: Alimony, civil and criminal sanctions, husband, wife, marriage

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Analysis of the production structure and economic efficiency of wheat in Shahin Dezh District


Amin Delavar1, Gholam Reza Yavari2, Mohsen Shokat Fadaei3


1. MSc in Agricultural Economics, Payame Noor University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2. Assistant Professor in Agricultural Economics, Payame Noor University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3. Associate Professor, Payame Noor University of Tehran


Abstract: Based on the importance of wheat production in the country, the main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationships between inputs and economic efficiency in the production of wheat using cost dual approach. So, after estimating the cost of flexible functions, translog cost function was used to estimate function coefficients, returns to scale and elasticity of substitution. This function was estimated along with the seemingly unrelated regression equations share of the cost to duplicate, in the crop year 2013-2014. Allen partial cross elasticity for each pair of inputs showed that inputs of fertilizer is replaced by machines and labors and seed has complementary relationship with labor, fertilizer and machinery. The results indicated that there is relationship between replacement of machinery and labor. Calculation the price elasticity of demand indicates that seed has more elasticity and fertilizer is without elasticity in wheat production process. Besides, these results suggest that economies efficiency derived from scale is less than 1. In other words, the production of wheat in Shahin Dezh District has decreasing returns relative to the scale.

[Amin Delavar, Gholam Reza Yavari, Mohsen Shokat Fadaei. Analysis of the production structure and economic efficiency of wheat in Shahin Dezh District. Researcher 2015;7(5):92-98]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 18



Key words: cost function, elasticity of substitution, returns to scale, seemingly unrelated regression, wheat

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Investigation status of sex education to adolescent girls


Masoumeh Masoumi1, Elham AbNiki2, Fahimeh Barkhordari3


1. MA in Educational Psychology, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

2. Researcher and psychologist at Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB), Ph.D. student of General Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

3. Ph.D. student of General Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran


Abstract: Although sex education begins at birth, but it happens and young teens mature business's identity, the more important. This study examines the role of schemas of mothers in the process of their daughter's sex education. The participants were third grade students in middle school of 3rd districts in Tehran in 2011 and their mothers. The data was collected through interview by researcher – made instrument. As one of the functions of family is child education and a dynamic and health society is achieved through having qualified children with high self- steamed self concept helping mothers to identify schemas and schema-awareness training can be an effective step in developing the next generation.

[Masoumeh Masoumi, Elham AbNiki, Fahimeh Barkhordari. Investigation status of sex education to adolescent girls. Researcher 2015;7(5):99-103]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 19



Key words: Schema, sex education, adolescent

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from April 15, 2015

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