Science Journal


ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9865, Monthly
Volume 7 - Issue 6 (Cumulated No. 72), June 25, 2015
            Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0706

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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Model of Persian gardens in India (Comparative study of Persian and Hindi gardens in the evening Indian Mughal)


Abolfazl Karbalaei Hosseini Ghiasvand1*, Jamal alddin Soheyli2


1* Master of Architecture, Islamic Azad University of Shahrood, Semnan, Iran (Corresponding)

2 Architecture Ph.D., assistant professor of Architecture and urban faculty, Islamic Azad University of Qazvin, Qazvin,iran


Abstract: Iranian garden in art history of making garden in the world has known with its own style and identity which remains stable from 2,500 years ago till least the early Qajar era and despite the changing conditions of life, has always been consistently against all attacks and political unrest has remained stable and has become a tradition. This tradition was strong enough to distant lands, to take samples of this inspiring School of thought including the territory of India. The garden tradition in India, including the descendants of Timur and Babur were heritage, to a large extent affected the Iranian garden, but due to the effects of background and context and climate of India's Mughal differences with the Iranian garden. For this reason, this article is a comparative view of the comparison between Persian and Hindi's Garden to build basic knowledge of Iranian gardens, how to model and gardens Hindi difference that the reference in the history of the Persian Garden has been detected. The method used in this study is comparative - analytical method and documents are from Library. The purpose of the architecture and gardens of the Mughal Empire Generalities expressed, making reference to the recognition of patterns of Persian gardens. Six Case (Prince Garden Mahan, Fin Garden in Kashan and Ghadamgah Garden in Iran, Shalimar Gardens in Lahore and Kashmir and the Taj Mahal in India) the patterns are being compared. The results showed that the Garden of Hindi, although originally inspired by Persian gardens were built and modeled. The results showed that the Garden of Hindi, although originally inspired by Persian gardens were built and modeled, but with the passage of time and the impact of Mongolian background, particularly the effect of climatic conditions, foundations and concepts of the original Iranian garden space and simply had enough of a patterned surface.

[Abolfazl Karbalaei Hosseini Ghiasvand, Jamal alddin Soheyli. Model of Persian gardens in India (Comparative study of Persian and Hindi gardens in the evening Indian Mughal). Researcher 2015;7(6):1-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 1



Key words: Indian Mughal, Persian Garden, Hindi Garden, Climate, Mongolian Culture

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Estimating the human error probability using the fuzzy logic approach of CREAM (The case of a control room in a petrochemical industry)


Saeid Maddah1, Mehdi Ghasemi2


1. University of Malaya, Kuala lampur, Malaysia

2. Medical Science, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran


Abstract: Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM) is one of the Second Generation methods of human reliability analysis (HRA) that focus on the contextual conditions in which the task is performed. The second generation method of HRA was developed to address the limitation of the First Generation methods, which their center of attention was inherent human error probabilities with less attention to the conditions of the workplace. The CREAM benefits from two methods of quantification namely, Basic, and Extended methods. The Basic method is a rapid and simple way to estimate the probability of human error based on the level of control that operators have on their performance. However, the result obtained by this method is an interval value rather than a specific value that can be used in quantitative risk assessment (QRA) methods. To overcome this issue, a fuzzy logic approach was developed on the basis of CREAM methodology. In this research, the fuzzy modeling of CREAM is applied to estimate a crisp value for probability of human action erroneous in a quick and quantitative manner. The method is used to calculate the human error probability (HRA) in a control room of a petrochemical industry.

[Saeid Maddah, Mehdi ghasemi. Estimating the human error probability using the fuzzy logic approach of CREAM (The case of a control room in a petrochemical industry). Researcher 2015;7(6):7-12]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 2



Key words: human error probability, fuzzy logic approach, petrochemical industry

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Sustaining Nongovernmental Organizations


Dr. Hassan Alvedari, Azita Mehrabizadeh Honarmand


Department of Governmental Management, Faculty of Management, West Tehran Branch, Payam-E- Noor University, Tehran, Iran


Abstract: Until this century, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and other nonprofit organizations were often regarded as adaptive mechanisms that spring into life as needed and vanish as quickly when conditions change. The Sustainability Movement brings a different perspective on the rapid growth of new NGOs, echoing a concern for maintaining organizational continuity. In this paper, we discuss the sustainability problems of NGOs or social sector organizations as they address local needs, using two case studies, one in Jamaica and the second, a composite case study of anthropology departments in small liberal arts colleges in the United States.

[Dr. Hassan Alvedari, Azita Mehrabizadeh Honarmand. Sustaining Nongovernmental Organizations. Researcher 2015;7(6):13-20]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 3



Key words: NGO, nonprofit organization, society

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The impact of brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand associations, perceived quality and brand image on consumers' perception


Leila Andervazh, Hamid Reza Mir Riahi, Reza khademi, Sayed Javad Mussavi, Abdulreza Diriss


Department Of Business Management, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramshahr, Iran


Abstract: The brand is one of the most valuable assets of a firm. Based on concepts - such as brand management for brand value - due to its rightful place in the minds of customers, it's so important. This study has emphasized the model Aaker (1991) and a consumer-based approach, the survey in order to achieve the dimensions of brand equity in the Aaker (Perceived quality, brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand associations, brand image) from the consumer's perspective. In this study, 145 individuals with regard to the choice of Sony's consumer brands as sample And using the software SPSS and AMOS structural equation modeling methods to analyze data obtained deals. The results indicate an overall model test measurements indicate significant relationships between latent variables and indicators of good and fit the model variables.

[Leila Andervazh, Hamid Reza Mir Riahi, Reza khademi, Sayed Javad Mussavi, Abdulreza Diriss. The impact of brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand associations, perceived quality and brand image on consumers' perception. Researcher 2015;7(6):21-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 4



Key words: Consumer Perception, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, brand image, perceived quality

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Effects of Heavy Workload on Performance of Teaching Staff (A Cross-sectional Study of University Teachers)


Mohsin Shafi 1, Dr. Ahsan Shafi Memon 2


1. Institute of Business Administration, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan

2. Directorate of General Health Sindh at Hyderabad, Pakistan


Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the effects of heavy workload on performance of Teaching Staff of different ranks at tertiary education level. Methodology: A cross-sectional study has been conducted with the help of questionnaire in three public sector Universities of District, Jamshoro. A sample of 300 respondents of male and female teaching staff was selected for the study as the teaching profession ranks on the top of stressful jobs. Results & Conclusion: Results showed that conflict, heavy workload, lack of information about job description, lack of job independence and lack of motivation are unenthusiastically associated with all job satisfaction aspects. Those teaching staff who had high level of job stress had low job performance and satisfaction with the job. All the factors causative to job stress affected lower rank teaching staff of all three Universities especially medical sciences teaching staff.

[Mohsin Shafi, Ahsan Shafi Memon. Effects of Heavy Workload on Performance of Teaching Staff. A Cross-sectional Study of University Employees. Researcher 2015;7(6):30-33]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 5



Keywords: Performance of Teaching Staff, heavy workload, stress. Job satisfaction, motivation

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Investigation The relationship between parental attachment styles, with a tendency to drug addiction


Abbas Shahraki1, Dr. Mahvash Raghibi2, Dr. Bahman Kord3


1.  MSc in Clinical Psychology

2.  Associate Professor in University of Sistan and Baluchestan

3.  Assistant Professor in University of Sistan and Baluchestan


Abstract: In the present study the relationship between attachments styles to parents with a tendency to drugs addiction were investigated. Total of 400 students from the University of Sistan and Baluchistan were selected by cluster sampling and completed scales attachment style to any parent and the questionnaire tend to addiction (Zargar.2006). Attachment styles to father, attachment to mother as predictor variable and tendency to addiction as the criterion variable was considered. Research design is of correlation type and research data with the Pearson correlation coefficient and with stage to stage regression analysis were analyzed. Results show existence of negative correlation between attachment style, secure to father and secure to the mother with tendency to addiction. Also between insecure avoidant style to father, insecure ambivalent to father, insecure avoidant to mother, ambivalent insecure to mother with tendency to addiction obtained a positive correlation. Coefficients of the regression analysis with step to step method show that style of avoidant insecure to father, avoidant insecure to mother and ambivalent insecure to mother all were positive predictors for tendency to addiction.

[Abbas Shahraki, Mahvash Raghibi, Bahman Kord. Investigation The relationship between parental attachment styles, with a tendency to drug addiction. Researcher 2015;7(6):34-40]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 6



Key words: Attachment, Addiction, parents

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Analyzing Opportunities and Challenges of Using Information and Communication Technology in Higher Education Curriculum


Fatemeh Khojasteh1, Dr. Effat Abbasi2


1. Student at Kharazmi University in Tehran

2. Faculty member of Kharazmi University in Tehran


Abstract: Today information and communication technology plays the major role in different fields. One of the fields that have had a major transformation is the higher education field. Higher education process in every society has great importance. Universities are one of the most important components of educational institutions that transform along the changes. The purpose of this research is analyzing opportunities and challenges result from utilizing information and communication technology in higher education curricula from the specialists’ point of view by considering Tyler pattern (goals, content, teaching and learning ways, evaluation). This research is categorized in qualitative researches due to its theme. The study population includes professors of Tehran public universities that have sufficient knowledge of using FAVA in higher education curricula. The purposive sampling method is snowball and sampling is done till data saturation. The researcher has gathered data by using semi-structured interview. The obtained data of interview has been analyzed by method of content analysis. The results of interview show that using information and communication technology has opportunities and challenges that the most important ones are: Opportunities: flexibility of goals in higher education curricula, expanding goals from local level to international level, growing the skills of problem solving and critical thinking, electronic and multidimensional content, more adaptation of contents with educational goals, the possibility of quick access to different contents, using new educational methods, further activating students, variation in evaluation forms, students’ self evaluation. Challenges: increasing confusion among different contents, decreasing pencil and paper tests, not having sufficient confidence to online exams.

[Fatemeh Khojasteh, Effat Abbasi. Analyzing Opportunities and Challenges of Using Information and Communication Technology in Higher Education Curriculum. Researcher 2015;7(6):41-45]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 7



Key words: Information and Communication Technology, Curriculum, higher education

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Evaluation the ratio of benefit to cost for retrofitting tall buildings


Hosein Khavari


MSc of Civil Engineering, structural trend, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


Abstract: In this study, a benefit cost analysis methodology is introduced for the comparative evaluation of several seismic retrofitting measures applied to a representative building. To improve safety and serviceability of tall buildings, aerodynamic optimization of building shapes is considered to be the most efficient approach. The urgent need has arisen to evaluate the benefits of loss mitigation measures that could be undertaken to strengthen the existing housing stock. The analysis is performed probabilistically through the development of fragility curves of the structure in its different retrofitted configurations. By incorporating the probabilistic seismic hazard for the region, expected direct losses can be estimated for arbitrary time horizons. By establishing realistic cost estimates of the retrofitting schemes and costs of direct losses, one can then estimate the net present value of the various retrofitting measures. Aerodynamic optimization is aimed at solving the problem from the source in contrast to structural optimization which is aimed at increasing the structural resistance. The analysis in this work implies that, even when considering only direct losses, all of the retrofitting measures considered are desirable for all but the very shortest time horizons. This conclusion is valid for a wide range of estimates regarding costs of mitigation, discount rates, number of fatalities, and cost of human life. The general methodology developed here for a single building can be extended to an entire region by incorporating additional structural types, soil types, retrofitting measures, more precise space- and time-dependent seismic hazard estimates, etc. By means of a cost-benefit-analysis decision makers can quantify all impacts of various investment alternatives to a society in monetary terms and make recommendations based on the net present value.

[Hosein Khavari. Evaluation the ratio of benefit to cost for retrofitting tall buildings. Researcher 2015;7(6):46-50]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 8



Key words: benefit to cost (B/C), retrofitting, tall buildings

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The role of organizational culture in knowledge management (study in 6 state-owned companies)


Sara Shademani1, Soheila Karami2, Azadeh Shahizadeh3, Maryam Shademani4, Zainab Karami5


1. Expert in strategic management, West Regional Power Co.

2. Expert in Personnel affairs, West Regional Power Co.

3. Expert in university

4. Expert in industrial management

5. Expert in Business management


Abstract: Attention to knowledge will have an increasing role in the growth of organizations and communities. Managers have to examine the fundamental knowledge of their business and how to use it. The aim of this study is to provide an experimental resource for understanding the impact of organizational culture on knowledge management. Statistical population of this study consist of all managers in the companies of West Regional Electricity, water and sanitation of Kermanshah, Gas of Kermanshah, Regional Electricity of Isfahan, water and sewer and Gas in Isfahan province are working. Research method is descriptive and its purpose is survey. Tools of the data collection is two questionnaires, which one includes organizational culture that examines culture of the organizations from the perspective of Hofstede and other proposed questions about knowledge management and key factors influencing on knowledge management. According to the results of statistical analysis and Pearson correlation coefficients between "culture" and "knowledge management" there is strong and meaningful, positive relationship, as well as between human factors, information technology, reward and training programs, educational and learning with management knowledge was observed meaningful and positive correlation.

[Sara Shademani, Soheila Karami, Azadeh, Shahizadeh, Maryam Shademani, Zainab Karami. The role of organizational culture in knowledge management (study in 6 state-owned companies). Researcher 2015;7(6):51-58]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 9



Key words: organizational knowledge, organizational culture, knowledge management, knowledge sharing

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Knowledge and Attitude about health hygiene and preventive measures for malaria among the households in Hardwar city (Uttarakhand)


Pankaj Saini, T. Sharma*, Sudhanshu Kaushik and Bishambhar D. Joshi


Department of Environmental Science, Dev Sanskriti University, Haridwar

*National Institute of Malaria Research (Field Station), Haridwar



Abstract: The present study was conducted in two different economic area i.e. high income group colony (Nandpuri) and low income group Slum area (Valmiki Colony) in Jwalapur region, Hardwar city during monsoon period of 2013. To study the effect of community participation in controlling disease vectors, various aspects of vector borne disease and its control as well as community initiative for maintaining health were analyzed. It was observed that residents of slum area (Valmiki Colony) were more affected with vector borne diseases in comparison to the residents of posh colony (Nandpuri) as having less knowledge and behaviour to the health education and hygiene. Almost cent percent household in Nandpuri Colony were using prevent measure to mosquitoes control and other disease vectors using Mosquito coils, Liquid machines, chemical sprays and maintaining SWM, while in Valmiki Colony only 20% residence were aware about these measures. A significant association was observed between educational status and knowledge of respondents regarding vector born disease. The above findings indicate that various awareness programmes, community participation may play an active role for controlling diseases vector, which needs governmental support and motivation against this epidemic.

[Pankaj Saini, T. Sharma, Sudhanshu Kaushik and Bishambhar D. Joshi. Knowledge and Attitude about health hygiene and preventive measures for malaria among the households in Hardwar city (Uttarakhand). Researcher 2015;7(6):59-61]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 10



Keywords: Health hygiene, community Participation, Education

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M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.


M. Arulmani, B.E.


V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.



Abstract: In global level Legal system, political, cultural system the words SIN, WIN, BAD, GOOD, NEGATIVE, POSITIVE are commonly used. Similarly the words LORD, GOD are also used coLOmmonly in various religions. The scientific research focus that the “Supernatural person” who created the entire universe and human shall be called as “GOD” (BARRISTER). The creator of universe shall also be called by name by author as “RAMANUJAM” who considered created everything through his mother called by name as ‘JANAKI’. JANAKI shall mean ‘CREATIVE SOUL’ (or) ‘JUSTICE’. In other words the whole universe was considered created by Ramanujam (Barrister) through “LAW OF JUSTICE”.

[M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. CAN LORD JUDGE GOD?...(“BARRISTER RAMANUJAM”). Researcher 2015;7(6):62-66]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 11



Keywords: global; Legal system; political; cultural system; JUSTICE

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Late Paleocene to early Oligocene dinoflagellate cysts from the Zagros basin, west of Iran


Ali akbarjafar nezhad1*, Ebrahim Ghasemi-Nejad2 , Tayebeh mohtat3, Ali aghanabati4


1Department of Geology, Tehran Shomal Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran (

2Department of Geology, University College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran (

3Head of paleontology,Geological survey of Iran, Tehran (

4Department of geology, Tehran shomal branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran



Abstract: Palynological investigation on 132 samples from the 428m thick outcrop section of Late Paleocene to Early Oligocene of the Pabdeh Formation in southwestern Iran yielded 55 species of dinoflagellate cysts and allowed establishment of seven biozones. Quantity of marine palynomorph elements indicate an open marine environment at that time interval but, a slight increase in number of spore and pollen grains in some samples indicate suitable conditions for forest development as a consequence of increase in climate humidity. The species are common in various latitudes and most of them are cosmopolitan. Thermal maturity index measurement indicate oil prone nature for majority of the samples.

[Ali akbarjafar nezhad, Ebrahim Ghasemi-Nejad, Tayebeh mohtat, Ali aghanabati. Late Paleocene to early Oligocene dinoflagellate cysts from the Zagros basin, west of Iran. Researcher 2015;7(6):67-74]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 12



Keyword: Pabdeh Formation, Dinoflagellate cysts, Paleogene, Palynostratigraphy, Thermal maturity

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Investigation the Saffron production in Iran


Mohammad Sadegh Ebrahimi (Corresponding author)


Assistant Professor, Dept of Rural Development, Collage of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, E-mail:


Abstract: Saffron is a native plant of Iranian plateau. Iran with more than four-fifths of global production, has the largest share producer and exporter of saffron in the world market. Annual nearly 270 ton of saffron are produced worldwide, of which more than 240 ton belonging by Iranian farmers. After Iran, countries such as: Greece (7.5 ton), Morocco (2.3 ton), India (2.3 ton), China (1 ton) and Spain (1 ton) are the most producers in the world, respectively. The total number of saffron farmers in Iran is nearly 150000 farmers. The average acreage of Iranian saffron in a growing trend in recent years has been reached from 18000 hectares to 76000 hectares. But unfortunately, the yield per hectare of saffron production in Iran has declined from about 7 kg to 3 kg per hectare. The result of this study showed that with investigate to condition requirements to saffron plantation in Iran, saffron had a good condition to develop this crop to achieve of sustainable agriculture in Iran.

[Mohammad Sadegh Ebrahimi. Investigation the Saffron production in Iran. Researcher 2015;7(6):75-80]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 13



Key Words: Saffron, Agriculture, Sustainability, Iran.

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Solving system of two-dimensional nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm integro-differential equations by He's Variational iteration method


Alireza gholami


Department of mathematics, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran


Abstract: In this paper, He's variational intration method is imployed successfully for solving systems of the partial mixed Volterra-Fredholm integro-differential equations, The variational interation method (VIM) formula is derived and the lagrange multiplier can be effectively identified. Moreover, this technique does not require any discretization, linearization or small perturbations and therefore it reduces significantly the numerical computations. The results seems to show that the method is very effective and convenient for solving such equations.

[Alireza gholami. Solving system of two-dimensional nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm integro-differential equations by He's Variational iteration method. Researcher 2015;7(6):81-85]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 14



Keywords: Nonlinear mixed Volterra-Fredholm integral equations, Variational iteration method.

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Renal Unilateral Partial Ureteral Obstruction (PUO) Research Literatures


Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1


1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA


Abstract: Obstructive uropathy is a condition in which the flow of urine is blocked. This causes the urine to back up and injure one or both kidneys. Obstructive uropathy occurs when urine cannot drain through a ureter. Urine backs up into the kidney and causes it to become hydronephrosis. This article introduces recent research reports as references in the renal unilateral partial ureteral obstruction (PUO) related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Renal Unilateral Partial Ureteral Obstruction (PUO) Research Literatures. Researcher 2015;7(6):86-108]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). 15



Key words: renal; kidney; partial ureteral obstruction (PUO); life; cell; research; literature

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from May 30, 2015. 

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