Science Journal

 

Researcher
(Researcher)
ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9865, Monthly
Volume 7 - Issue 12 (Cumulated No. 78), December 25, 2015
            Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher 0712
 

You can use the message in end of the article abstract to cite it.

To get Microsoft Documents: After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc (or .docx)

Welcome to send your manuscript to: sciencepub@gmail.com

When you manuscript(s), please mention that it is submitted to Researcher

Marsland Press, PO Box 180432, Richmond Hill, New York 11418, USA, 347-321-7172

http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher

 

CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Spatial Distribution and Abundance of Bacteria and Phytoplankton in Calabar River, Cross River State, Nigeria.

 

George, Ubong1, Ekpo, Antai2

 

1Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

2Department of Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanography University of Calabar, Calabar.

talk2georgeubong@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Spatial distribution of bacteria and phytoplankton in Calabar River was investigated for three months (January to March, 2015). Water samples were collected from the three sampling stations (Nsidung, Adiabo and Esuk-Utan) and preserved in the laboratory for phytoplankton and bacteria analysis. A total of thirty five (35) species of phytoplankton were recorded during the studies with Bacillariophyceae having the highest numerical abundance followed by Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Dinophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Xanthophyceae and Chrysophyceae. There was significant variation (p<0.05) in distribution of phytoplankton in the three stations of the River. A total of eighteen (18) species of bacteria were isolated (Cyanobacteria 9 and Heterotrophic bacteria 9). Heterotrophic bacteria were higher in numerical abundance than Cyanobacteria. There was significant variation (p<0.05) in distribution of bacteria in the three stations of Calabar River. A positive correlation (r2 = 0.4, p<0.05) was observed between composition of phytoplankton and bacteria in Calabar River with correlation coefficient r = 0.63. Based on these findings, it was observed that phytoplankton diversity in the River system can contribute significantly to the sustenance of fishery. Control of human activities to prevent faeces and refuse from entering water bodies is the key to avoiding feacal pollution of water bodies, which will help in minimizing the rate of transmission of water-borne related disease.

[George, U. U., Ekpo, E. Spatial Distribution and Abundance of Bacteria and Phytoplankton in Calabar River, Cross River State, Nigeria. Researcher 2015;7(12):1-8]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj071215.01.

 

Key words: Spatial distribution; Abundance; Bacteria; Phytoplankton; Calabar River; Nigeria.

Full Text

1

2

The effect of combination of saline water and fresh water on physical and chemical properties of soil with silt loam texture

 

Ehsan Salehi1*, Saeed Boroomand Nasab2, Amir Soltani Mohammadi3

 

1. MSc student in Irrigation and draining, water science engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

2. Professor of Irrigation and Drainage Department, water science engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

3. Assistant Professor of Irrigation and Drainage Department water science engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

*-Corresponding author: (E-Mail: ehs_salehi69@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: During the deficit water, one of the irrigation management techniques is saline- sodium water in combination with freshwater. In order to study the effect of saline- sodium and freshwater ratios on some soil properties such as porosity, average speed of penetration and electrical conductivity, an experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications in Research Station of water Science engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz was done. The test duration was three months starting from mid-April 2014 and 20 times irrigation was performed. Treatments consisted of control (C): treatment that has been irrigated with fresh water, 1/3 salt treatment, 2/3 freshwater (M1), treatment as a third of irrigation water was saline water and the remaining two-thirds, Immediately after the intrusion of salt water is completed by fresh water, the treatment of 1/2 salt, 1/2 freshwater (M2), 2/3 saline water treatment, 1/3 freshwater treatment (M3), mixed treatment: In this treatment, the saline water and freshwater were mixed in a same ratio and then were used (M4). The results showed no significant difference between treatments in terms of soil acidity. M1 and M2 treatments after control treatment (C) had the lowest electrical conductivity and the closest result in the control (C) in terms of sodium adsorption ratio was related to M1. The M4, after the control (C), had the highest average speed of penetration and there was no difference between treatments in terms of porosity.

[Salehi E., Boroomand Nasab, S. and Soltani Mohammadi. The effect of combination of saline water and fresh water on physical and chemical properties of soil with silt loam texture. Researcher 2015;7(12):9-16]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj071215.02.

 

Keywords: irrigation management; saline- sodium water; use integration; porosity; electrical conductivity; soil acidity; sodium adsorption ratio

Full Text

2

3

Assessing customer satisfaction in food industry with Fuzzy Kano approach: A case study in Food Company

 

Dr Sajjad Shokouhyar1 , Dr Rouallah Tavallaee2, Fereshte Mohsenian3 (Corresponding author)

 

1Assistant professor of information technology, faculty of management and accounting, Shahid Beheshti university, Velenjak.

2Assistant professor of information technology, faculty of management and accounting, Shahid Beheshti university, Velenjak.

3MA student of information technology, faculty of management and accounting, Shahid Beheshti University, Mahalati, fereshtemohsenian @gmail.com, 09127625539

 

Abstract: With increasing competitions in markets, organizations have well understood that customer satisfaction is very important and it is much more rewarding to keep current customers loyal and happy than getting new customers. The goal is having long term relationship with customers to gain more benefits for the organization. Therefore organizations should monitor their interactions with customers and create value for customers by providing their needs and keeping them satisfied. In this study, important factors in food quality have been determined according to previous research papers and consultation with specialists and a fuzzy Kano questionnaire has been designed accordingly. This questionnaire has been distributed to 512 customers; Using k-Means, 3 clusters have been identified and for each cluster, their needs have been recognized by fuzzy Kano. This study shows that some characteristic features are the same in all clusters and also highlights the other distinguishing features. For each feature, satisfaction ratio has been calculated and dissatisfaction ration whether it is exist or not, has been determined. The results could help service based organizations to improve their customer satisfaction.

[Sajjad Shokouhyar, Rouallah Tavallaee, Fereshte Mohsenian. Assessing customer satisfaction in food industry with Fuzzy Kano approach: A case study in Food Company. Researcher 2015;7(12):17-25]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj071215.03.

 

Keywords: food industry, clustering, customer satisfaction, Kano Fuzzy, service quality, data mining

Full Text

3

4

Nutritional value, Fungi bio-deterioration and Aflatoxin Contaminations of aadun (Maize Snacks) a Novel Nigerian Indigenous Snacks

 

Jonathan, Segun Gbolagadea; Adeniyi, Mary Adejokeb and Asemoloye, Michael Dare.c*

 

abc Mycology/Fungal Biotechnology Unit, Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria.

Corresponding author E-mail: asemoloyemike@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study on Aadun (a popular staple food in Nigeria, prepared as snack from maize) was carried out on samples collected from different areas in South Western Nigeria and compared with a laboratory prepared ones. Proximate and aflatoxin contents of the food were detected and fungi responsible for its bio-deterioration were isolated and studied. The prominent fungi isolated are Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma koningi. Proximate composition of the samples were significantly different (P<0.05) with moisture (9.80% to 11.03%), ash (5.53% to 6.90%) and carbohydrate (47.40% to 52.57%) contents but low in fibre (3.43% to 3.93%) and fat (16.63% to 21.13%) contents. Most of the vented samples are confirmed to contain certain amount of aflatoxins concentrations but vary generally based on the sample locations, Aflatoxin G1 and G2 were found in all the samples except the control (laboratory prepared) and high level of Aflatoxin G1 of 12.8 (/kg) and 12.3 (/kg) were detected on Oja Oba and Ibode samples while the control gavethe least (0.13 /kg). Aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2 are below the tolerable limits for human consumption (FAO standard). Aflatoxin B1 was generally higher on the samples and this can be attributed to the fact that when aflatoxin is produced by either Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin B1 is the first metabolite released before others (aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2) depending on the production rate which takes time, therefore the level of carcinogenicity can be put as B1˃B2˃G1˃G2.

[Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Adeniyi, Mary Adejoke and Asemoloye, Michael Dare. Nutrientional value, Fungi bio-deterioration and Aflatoxin contaminations of Maize Snacks (aadun). Researcher 2015; 7 (12):26-31]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj071215.04.

 

Keywords: Aadun; biodeterioration; proximate; aflatoxin; tolerable; carcinogenicity

Full Text

4

5

Interaction of cyanobacteria and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in crude oil biodegradation

 

Ejileugha Chisom, Okerentugba Phillip O., Okonko IO

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Email: phillip.okerentugba@uniport.edu.ng, Tel: +2348033087332

 

Abstract: The interaction of cyanobacteria and bacteria in crude oil biodegradation was examined using cyanobacterial and bacterial consortia. The bacterial consortium consist of Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium 2, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter asburiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium kutscheri, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila group 2, Acinetobacter baumannii, Serratia ficaria, and Kocuria varians. The cyanobacteria consortium consists of Anabaena cicadae, Pseudonabaena minima, Laptolyngbya sp., Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium, Microcoleus sp., Mycrocystis holsatica, Mycrocystis elabens, Phormidium faveolaurum, Phormidium sp., and Synechococcus sp. The cyanobacteria and bacteria were used for biodegradation in sterile brackish water treated with Escravos light crude oil and monitored throughout the experimental period of 30 days. The pH in all the treatment setups (except for the control) decreased progressively with increase in microbial growth measured by optical density (OD) at 620 nm. The OD increased from 0.076 to 0.789 in setup A while the pH decreased from 6.88 to 5.34, the pH decreased from 6.90 to 5.70 for setup B while the OD increased from 0.069 to 0.896, for setup C the OD increased from 0.084 to 0.941 while the pH decreased from 6.93 to 5.64. The highest pH decline was observed in setup A while the highest OD increase was observed in setup C. Studies using Gas Chromatographic analyses showed that on the 30th day, 79.9 % of TPH were lost in setup A, 57.5% for setup B, 96.0 V for setup C, and 0.38% for setup D. The highest TPH lost was observed in setup C having both cyanobacteria and bacteria consortium, followed by setup A having only bacteria consortium and setup B having only cyanobacteria consortium to setup D which is the control with no organism. This study has shown the potential benefit of combining cyanobacteria and bacteria in bioremediation of crude oil polluted sites.

[Ejileugha Chisom, Okerentugba Phillip O., Okonko IO. Interaction of cyanobacteria and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in crude oil biodegradation. Researcher 2015;7(12):32-38]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj071215.05.

 

Keywords: interaction; cyanobacteria; aerobic; heterotrophic; bacteria; crude oil biodegradation

Full Text

5

6

Determination of the Variability in the Geotechnical Properties of Three Termitaria in Lagos, Nigeria

 

Olowofoyeku, Adeoye1*, Ofuyatan Olatokunbo2, Aletan Owolabi 3

 

1.  Department of Civil Engineering, Yaba College of Technology, Lagos, Nigeria

2.  Department of building, Caleb University Lagos. Nigeria.

e-mail: toksofuya@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study examined the geotechnical properties of three inhabited termite mounds in different locations of Lagos (Yaba, Festac and Ayobo). The Sieve analysis, Atterberg Limits (Liquid, Plastic and Shrinkage limits), shear strength, California bearing ratio, and Specific gravity are the geotechnical tests performed on each soil sample. Simple physical tests based on colour and texture of samples was also carried out. Chemical properties such as the metallic content, pH, organic carbon (OC), organic matter (OM) etc. were also examined. The results showed that the geotechnical, physical and chemical properties of termitaria varied from one location to another.

[Olowofoyeku, Adeoye, Ofuyatan Olatokunbo, Aletan Owolabi. Determination of the Variability in the Geotechnical Properties of Three Termitaria in Lagos, Nigeria. Researcher 2015;7(12):39-42]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj071215.06.

 

Keywords: geotechnical properties, physical properties, chemical properties, termitaria

Full Text

6

7

Synthesis and Insecticidal Evaluation of some newly Designed pyridine-2(1H)-thion derivatives and their thienopyrimidine Analogue

 

Ali, A. F. and Mohamed, A. A. Shaymaa

 

Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Egypt.

alyfahmyaly@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Given the importance of pesticide in the field of pest control, specially cotton leaf worm spodopttera littoralis, we have studied the reaction of 4,6-disubstituted phenyl-3-cyanopyridien-2(1H)thiones 5a-d with dialkyl chloro-phosphate. The formed s-(3-cyano(4,6-(4-substituted phenyl)pyridine-2yl)-O,O-dialkyl phosphor-thioate 7a-h were separated and identified. Also, the reactions of enaminonitriles 8a-d with formic acid, formamide, carbon disulfide and trichloro acetonitrile were studied to obtain (9.10.11 and 12) a-d. The insecticidal activity of some synthesized organophosphorous compounds as well as some thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin derivatives was evaluated and tabulated.

[Ali, A. F. and Mohamed, A. A. Shaymaa. Synthesis and Insecticidal Evaluation of some newly Designed pyridine-2(1H)-thion derivatives and their thienopyrimidine Analog. Researcher 2015;7(12):43-50]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj071215.07.

 

Keywords: Pyridine -2 (1H) thion, thienopyrimidine, synthesis, insecticidal evaluation

 

Full Text

7

8

Research Literatures of Dialysis in China

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In medicine, dialysis is a process for removing waste and excess water from the blood and is used primarily as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with kidney failure. Dialysis may be used for those with an acute disturbance in kidney function or progressive but chronically worsening kidney function—a state known as chronic kidney disease stage 5. The latter form may develop over months or years, but in contrast to acute kidney injury is not usually reversible and dialysis is regarded as a "holding measure" until a kidney transplant can be performed or sometimes as the only supportive measure in those for whom a transplant would be inappropriate. The kidneys have important roles in maintaining health. When healthy, the kidneys maintain the body's internal equilibrium of water and minerals. The acidic metabolism end-products that the body cannot get rid of via respiration are also excreted through the kidneys. The kidneys also function as a part of the endocrine system, producing erythropoietin and calcitriol. Erythropoietin is involved in the production of red blood cells and calcitriol plays a role in bone formation. Dialysis is an imperfect treatment to replace kidney function because it does not correct the compromised endocrine functions of the kidney. Dialysis treatments replace some of these functions through diffusion and ultrafiltration. This article introduces recent research reports as references in the related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Research Literatures of Dialysis in China. Researcher 2015;7(12):51-60]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj071215.08.

 

Key words: cancer; life; China; research; literature; cell

Full Text

8

9

Research Literatures of Dialysis in America

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In medicine, dialysis is a process for removing waste and excess water from the blood and is used primarily as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with kidney failure. Dialysis may be used for those with an acute disturbance in kidney function or progressive but chronically worsening kidney function—a state known as chronic kidney disease stage 5. The latter form may develop over months or years, but in contrast to acute kidney injury is not usually reversible and dialysis is regarded as a "holding measure" until a kidney transplant can be performed or sometimes as the only supportive measure in those for whom a transplant would be inappropriate. The kidneys have important roles in maintaining health. When healthy, the kidneys maintain the body's internal equilibrium of water and minerals. The acidic metabolism end-products that the body cannot get rid of via respiration are also excreted through the kidneys. The kidneys also function as a part of the endocrine system, producing erythropoietin and calcitriol. Erythropoietin is involved in the production of red blood cells and calcitriol plays a role in bone formation. Dialysis is an imperfect treatment to replace kidney function because it does not correct the compromised endocrine functions of the kidney. Dialysis treatments replace some of these functions through diffusion and ultrafiltration. Hemodialysis is the most common method used to treat advanced and permanent kidney failure. Since the 1960s, when hemodialysis first became a practical treatment for kidney failure, we've learned much about how to make hemodialysis treatments more effective and minimize side effects. In recent years, more compact and simpler dialysis machines have made home dialysis increasingly attractive. However, even with better procedures and equipment, hemodialysis is still a complicated and inconvenient therapy that requires a coordinated effort from your whole health care team, including your nephrologist, dialysis nurse, dialysis technician, dietitian, and social worker. The most important members of your health care team are you and your family. By learning about your treatment, you can work with your health care team to give yourself the best possible results, and you can lead a full, active life. This article introduces recent research reports as references in the related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Research Literatures of Dialysis in America. Researcher 2015;7(12):61-90]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj071215.09.

 

Key words: dialysis; America; cell; life; research; literature

Full Text

9

10

Cancer Prevention Research Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Cancer is the general name for a group of more than 100 diseases. Although there are many kinds of cancer, all cancers start because abnormal cells grow out of control. Untreated cancers can cause serious illness and death. The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly fashion. During the early years of a person’s life, normal cells divide faster to allow the person to grow. After the person becomes an adult, most cells divide only to replace worn-out or dying cells or to repair injuries. This article introduces recent research reports as references in the cancer prevention related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Cancer Prevention Research Literatures. Researcher 2015;7(12):91-116]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj071215.10.

 

Key words: cancer; prevention; research; literatures; life; cell

Full Text

10

The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from December 1, 2015

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Researcher, click here.

Emails: researcher@sciencepub.neteditor@sciencepub.net 

Marsland Press: http://www.sciencepub.net

 

 Marsland Press, PO Box 180432, Richmond Hill, New York 11418, USA. 347-321-7172

 

 

Terms of Service  |  Privacy Policy  |

2015 Marsland Press