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ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly
Volume 8 - Issue 5 (Cumulated No. 83), May 25, 2016
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Sociological study of Bojnourd City in 2014

 

Sepideh Nezafati1, Mosayeb Samaniyan2

 

1. MSc in Library science, Islamic Azad University of Bojnourd, Khorasan Shomali, Iran

2. Assistant professor in Library science, Islamic Azad University of Bojnourd, Khorasan Shomali, Iran

memols160@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The incidence of illiteracy affected by cultural factors, economic and etc. According to Maslow's pyramid of factors such as the economy, security, which are located on the bottom floor of the utmost importance and not require primary suppliers the chance to think, study, and self-actualization will be created. Study and gain knowledge and the underlying infrastructure development of the country and pave the way for prosperity and wisdom society that the information and knowledge societies greater, than other societies are more successful and the development of any society depends on the amount of information. That is why in the present and even the future, the development of study and raises awareness, improve and save the nations will be destroyed. Therefore, the role and importance of books and reading matter as visible return was considered.

[Sepideh Nezafati, Mosayeb Samaniyan. Sociological study of Bojnourd City in 2014. Researcher 2016;8(5):1-7]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.01

 

Keywords: Sociological study, Library science, Bojnourd City

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2

Storage Stability and Quantitative Determination of Metalaxyl and Its Metabolite 2,6-Dimethylaniline in Wettable Powder (WP) Formulation

 

Nasr Sobhy Khalil (1) and Mohamed, A. A. Shaymaa(2)

 

(1) Pesticides Analysis Research Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center

(2) Pesticides Formulation Research Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center

E-mail: nasr_khalil@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A sample of Metalaxyl 35% WP was supplied by Central Agricultural Pesticides laboratory from a local company and the country of origin of the sample is Jordan. The physical and chemical properties of the Metalaxyl 35% WP samples were examined initially, cold stored at 0 C 1 for 7 days in the refrigerator and stored in glass bottles in the oven at 54C 2 C for 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The physical properties were carried out as follows Alkalinity, Density, Tapped density, pH and Wettability and the physical properties of their spray solutions under recommended dose in soft and hard were carried out as follows Persistent foam, Emulsion stability, Suspensibility, Conductivity, Surface tension and Viscosity. Generally, increasing time of hot storage for long time as 14 and 28 days at 54 C may causes damage of the samples nature which may have diverse effects on their fungicidal activity against their targets. The storage variation causes basisty variation referred to pH, conductivity and salinity may causes phytotoxicity for plants during using their spray solutions. Finally, the Metalaxyl content decreased with the time of storage and still within the limit till 21 days of storage at 54 2 C. While after 28 days of storage the Metalaxyl content decreased till become out of the comply limit. On the other hand, the amount of metabolite 2,6-dimethylaniline increases with with the time of storage increase which may be reflected on the toxicity and biological activity of the sample.

[Nasr Sobhy Khalil and Mohamed, A. A. Shaymaa. Storage Stability and Quantitative Determination of Metalaxyl and Its Metabolite 2,6-Dimethylaniline in Wettable Powder (WP) Formulation. Researcher 2016;8(5):8-14]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.02

 

Key words: Metalaxyl 35% WP, storage conditions, physical and chemical properties

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3

Energy resources in Ahmednagar: Current situation and need for alternative strategies

 

1Kelkar Gautam, 2Rathod V. R.

 

1Research Scholar, 2Assiociate Professor

School of Earth Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Vishnupuri, Nanded 431606 (Maharashtra) India.

E-mail: gautam.kelkar20@gmail.com; Mobile No: +919890960155

 

Abstract: Ahmednagar is one of the fastest growing cities in Maharashtra. Ahmednagar is facing challenges of energy crises. Energy demand of Ahmednagar is continuously increasing. Poor and inadequate access to spotless, reliable and affordable energy is now considered a major concern for sustainable development. This article considers Ahmednagar challenge in this area, examines the energy access situation, and analyses measures pursued to improve it. The article argues that the current focus on rural electrification is unlikely to resolve the energy access problem, due to the low penetration of electricity in the energy mix of the poor. The article also argues that strategies based on energy market reform, promotion of renewable technologies and correct price signals are unlikely to succeed in changing the situation, as acceptance of this policy prescription is rather low. Instead, a bottom-up, holistic, long-term approach is suggested that integrates energy access with economic development, and relies on selective market intervention, local resources and local governance. The information generated in this study can help appropriately assess the conservational benefits providing useful inputs for urban planners.

[Kelkar Gautam, Rathod V. R. Energy resources in Ahmednagar: Current situation and need for alternative strategies. Researcher 2016;8(5):15-18]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.03

 

Key words: Access Energy, Poverty, Public policy, Alternative strategy, Millennium Development Goals

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4

Assessment Of Some Commercial Feed Brands In Nigeria On Growth Performance Of Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings

 

Olukunle Oyin and Ekundayo I. O.

 

Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan

olusola.ekdy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study assessed three commonly available commercial catfish feed brands on growth, survival and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings under controlled conditions; providing information on the integrity and quality of some of the feeds in the market. C. gariepinus fingerlings (3.83 0.22g) were fed to satiation twice daily at 9.00hr and 18.00hr with 2mm pellet size of three commercial diets scripted TD, TT, and TV in concrete tanks. Growth performance and nutrients utilization parameters were measured and calculated; water quality parameters were controlled using a partial flow-through system. ANOVA showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the mean weight gain, specific growth rate, survival rate, food conversion rate, nitrogen metabolism and protein efficiency ratio. TV had the most significant value for mean weight gain (41.54 4.09g), specific growth rate (1.65 0.04g/day), feed conversion rate (0.7), nitrogen metabolism (951.91), and protein efficiency ratio (2.57) with 90.00 5.0% survival rate; TD had significantly highest survival rate (92.50 4.51%) with mean weight gain 36.77 0.48g. Proximate analysis of TD, TT and TV revealed that macronutrients therein significantly different from the brands’ claim, except TD. This study revealed that, for fast fish growth on less expensive feed desired by catfish farmers, commercial catfish feed brand tagged TV, was the best, giving a better growth performance and nutrient utilization, at 48.3% CP, 6.01% Fat, and 3.03% CF.

[Olukunle Oyin and Ekundayo I. O. Assessment Of Some Commercial Feed Brands In Nigeria On Growth Performance Of Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings. Researcher 2016;8(5):19-28]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.04

 

Keywords: Commercial catfish feeds, fingerling, growth performance, nutrients utilization, macronutrients, concrete tank.

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5

Strengthening MaxEnt modelling through screening of redundant explanatory Bioclimatic Variables with Variance Inflation Factor analysis

 

Prakash Pradhan

 

West Bengal Biodiversity Board, Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal, Poura Bhawan, 4th Floor, Salt Lake City, Sector-III, Kolkata, West Bengal, PIN – 700 106, India

shresthambj@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Through the past two decades, bioclimatic variables have been utilized as an important tool to understand species distribution and prioritize areas for conservation of target species through the Ecological Niche Modelling. However, the interpolated datasets of bioclimatic variables are known to cause over-fitting of the models mainly due to multicollinearity or redundancy within the variables. In the current work, bioclimatic variables of South and South East Asia region are screened regarding the presence of multicollinearity or redundancy to serve as a convenient reference for investigators of the region.

[Pradhan P. Strengthening MaxEnt modelling through screening of redundant explanatory Bioclimatic Variables with Variance Inflation Factor analysis. Researcher 2016;8(5):29-34]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.05

 

Keywords: Ecological Niche Modelling, Habitat Suitability Modelling, MaxEnt, Multicollinearity, Over-fitting, South Asia, South-East Asia

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Optimization of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Yield Relativities via Varying Levels of Potassium and Planting Geometry

 

Nadeem Akbar 1, Muhammad Ishfaq1, Asif Iqbal1, Muhammad Wajid Javed*2, Asad Aslam2, Muhammad Kaleem Arshad1, Muhammad Kamran Saleem1, Muhammad Jafir2, M. Shehzad2

 

1Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad- Pakistan.

2Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad- Pakistan.

*Correspondence author’s email: muhammadwajidjaved@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is regarded as staple food in most of Asian countries regardless of their economic or social status including Pakistan. Being its utmost importance, wheat crop is grown in varied geographic zones of the world with different factors effecting yield of the crop comprising nutritional and planting geometry aspects. For this regard, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different nutritive element levels such as potassium with ranges of (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and planting geometry (broadcast and line sowings with 22.50 cm and 11.25 cm) with growth and yield associations of wheat. Different yield components like No. of fertile tillers (m-2), Spike length (cm), Number of grains/spike and 1000-grain weight (g) were significantly increased by increasing potassium levels. Planting geometry did not influence on yield components. The crop fertilized with 100 kg Potassium ha-1 gave higher grain yield (5.48 t ha-1) with reference to grain yield parameter of planting geometry.

[Nadeem Akbar, Muhammad Ishfaq, Asif Iqbal, Muhammad Wajid Javed, Asad Aslam, Muhammad Kaleem Arshad, Muhammad Kamran Saleem, Muhammad Jafir, M. Shehzad. Optimization of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Yield Relativities via Varying Levels of Potassium and Planting Geometry. Rep Opinion 2016;8(5):35-38]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.06

 

Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., nutrient levels, broadcast, line sowing, grain yield

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7

Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among HIV Co-infected Patients in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

 

Frank-Peterside, N.2, Ayodele, M. B. O.1*

 

1Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B.5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

E-mail: ufuomartins@yahoo.com: Tel: +2348037055953(*Corresponding author)

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

E-mail: nnenna.frank-peterside@uniport.edu.ng: Tel: +2348033106272

 

Abstract: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is one of the major health concerns which accounts approximately for 350 million chronic cases out of 2 billion people infected worldwide. Co-infection with HBV in HIV infected person has been identified as one of the burdens of HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa owing to common route of transmission and the similar risk factors. HBV is more destructive in HIV-positive than in mono-infected individuals, with associated HBV carrier rates, increased concentrations of HBV viraemia, more frequent occurrences of activation, and faster progression to liver cirrhosis. Blood samples from 535 HIV I/II sero-positive patients were re- screened to confirm their HIV sero-positivity and also screened for HBsAg, Sero-prevalence of HBsAg was 25(4.67%). Among the 535 HIV sero-positive patients studied, 360(67.3%) were females and 175(32.7%) were males; the mean age in years was 33.511.7 Age groups 31-40 had the highest frequency of 224(41.8%) while age group above 60 had the lowest frequency of 4(0.7%). Out of the 25(4.67%) HBsAg sero-positive patients, 13(2.43%) were females while 12(2.24%) were males. Age group 31-40 had the highest frequency of 12(2.24%) while age groups 51-60 and above 60 had lowest frequencies of 0(0.0%) each. There was no significant differences between sex and HBsAg infections and also between age and HBsAg infections among HIV infected subjects (p>0.05). Transmission routes of HBV and HIV are similar, regular screening, awareness and knowledge of HBV sero status, vaccination and understanding of other risk factors will reduce the spread of HBV/HIV co-infection and progression. Hence, appropriate information, advocacy and awareness campaign strategies are advocated.

[Frank-Peterside, N., Ayodele, M. B. O. Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among HIV Co-infected Patients in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2016;8(5):39-43]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.07

 

Keywords: Sero-prevalence, HBV, HIV, Co-infection, Port Harcourt.

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8

Microbial Profile Of Chicken Meat Sold At Different Locations In Port Harcourt Metropolis

 

Omorodion Nnenna Jp

 

Department Of Microbiology, University Of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323 River State Nigeria.

Nnenna.omorodion@gmail.com, nigwiloh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The microbiological quality of frozen chicken meat bought from Zartech cold room, Rumuola grocery retail market and Choba open market in Port Harcourt, Rivers state, was assessed. 5 samples were collected from each location, 15 samples collected in total. Total bacterial count (TBC), total Staphylococus count, total coliform count, total Salmonella count and fungal counts were done using Plate count agar, Mannitol salt agar, MacConckey agar, Salmonella-Shigella agar and Potato dextrose agar respectively. The result showed that the total bacterial count ranged from (5.9 106 cfu/g- 9.9 107cfu/g), total Staphylococcus count ranged from (2.5104cfu/g – 7.2105cfu/g), total coliform count ranged from (3.9 105cfu/g-1.6106cfu/g), Salmonella count ranged from (2.5104cfu/g – 3.1105cfu/g). Fungal counts ranged from (2.7x104cfu/g - 5.9 x105cfu/g). Biochemical tests were done to identify isolates; From the 28 bacterial isolates, 7 different organisms were identified; Escherichia coli (14.3%), Salomonella sp (17.9%), Klebsiella sp (3.6%), Staphylococcus sp (39.3%), Serretia sp (7.1%), Shigella sp (7.1%) and Pseudomonas sp (10.7%). The fungal isolates identified by microscopy and physical examination include; Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillum sp and Mucor sp. A sensitivity test was done using Mueler-Hinton agar and the results showed that Staphylococcus sp exhibited 50% resistance, Salmonella sp; 80%, Klebsiella sp; 40%, Serretia sp; 30% Shigella sp; 20%, E.coli; 40%, Pseudomonas sp;30% resistance to the antibiotics used for the sensitivity. The presence of microorganisms in chicken meat is attributed to the conducive microbial environment it provides, as well as the poor hygienic practices during processing and selling especially in the open markets. Thus, proper storage and hygiene during processing and selling of chicken meat is of uttermost importance.

[Omorodion Nnenna Jp. Microbial Profile Of Chicken Meat Sold At Different Locations In Port Harcourt Metropolis. Rep Opinion 2016;8(5):44-49]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.08

 

Keywords: microbiological; quality; chicken; meat; grocery retail market agar; Mannitol; salt; agar

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9

Biodegradability Of Unused Lubricating Brake Fluids In Fresh And Marine Ecosystem.

 

1Vincent C. Wokem And 2Lucky O. Odokuma

 

Department Of Microbiology, University Of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323, Port Harcourt,

Rivers State, Nigeria. Tel: +2348130306131. E-Mail: Chineduvin@Yahoo.Com

 

Abstract: The biodegradability of four unused lubricating brake fluids (Total brake fluid, Allied brake fluid, Oando brake fluid and Ate brake fluid) was carried out in fresh and marine water obtained from Isiokpo stream and Bonny river of the Niger Delta, South South Nigeria. Biodegradability, of the brake fluids were obtained after a 56 day period of incubation monitored at 2 weeks intervals using the percentage ratio of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) to Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Olive oil was used as the positive control while sodium azide served as the negative control. The results obtained showed the following rate of biodegradability in fresh water and marine water; Total brake fluid (20, 2.3 percent), Allied brake fluid (40%, 1%), Oando brake fluid (44%, 2.5%), and Ate brake fluid (13.3%, 2.1%). Statistical analysis using ANOVA, showed that there was significant difference (P<0.05) in the parentage mineralization of Allied brake fluid in both fresh and marine water sources. Biodegradability of the brake fluids was higher in fresh water than in the marine water. Results obtained from the viable bacterial and fungal counts (TVC) indicated higher total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) count than total fungal (TF) counts and higher hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) counts than Hydrocarbon Utilizing Fungi (HUF) counts. Characterization and identification tests revealed that a microbial consortium comprising of the following genera; Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Escherichia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Enterobacter and Citrobacter was implicated in the biodegradation process in fresh water, while Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter and Citrobacter was implicated in the marine water source. Similarly, the moulds encountered from the fresh water were, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Geotricum and Cladosporuim. The yeast was candida species. In marine water, the moulds were Aspergillus and Fusarium. Physicochemical parameters monitored were pH, salinity, BOD, COD, TOC, DO, NO32- SO42- and PO43-. The study indicates that the lubricating brake fluids which are petroleum based were not readily biodegradable in fresh and marine aquatic ecosystems, hence research into production of biobased lubricating oils that are environmentally friendly, cost effective and efficient in performance is highly recommended.

[Vincent C. Wokem And Lucky O. Odokuma. Biodegradability Of Unused Lubricating Brake Fluids In Fresh And Marine Ecosystem. Rep Opinion 2016;8(5):50-61]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.09

 

Key words: Biodegradation, Mineralization, Lubricating Oils, Biodegradability, Brake fluids

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Epidemiology of Cattle Mange Mite in Mekelle and Adigrat Districts: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors

 

1Gezahegn Ashagre, 2Kefyalew Chirkena, 3Sisay Getachew, 4Yonas Alemayehu, 5Lemma Minda and 6Getachew Dinede

 

1Bale Zone Pastoralist area Development Office, P.O. Box: 250, Oromia Regional State, Bale Robe, Ethiopia

2Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Livestock Identification and Traceability System directorate, P.O. Box: 1084, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

3Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Livestock Identification and Traceability System directorate, P.O. Box: 1084, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

4Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Disease Prevention and Control directorate, P.O. Box: 1084, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

5Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Export Abattoir Inspection and Certification directorate, Bishoftu, Ethiopia

6Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Epidemiology Directorate, P.O. Box: 1084, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Telephone: +251116676953; Email: dinedegech@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November, 2008 to April, 2009 to determine the prevalence of cattle mange mite infestation, mange mite’s species and associated risk factors for its prevalence in Mekelle and Adgirat districts of Tigray Regional State, Northern Ethiopia. A total of 384 animals comprising of 280 and 104 cattle from Mekelle and Adigrat were sampled respectively. The samples collected, skins scrapings, were subjected to laboratory examination to determine the presence of mange mite infestation. The apparent prevalence of mange mite infestation was found to be 19.6% in Mekelle and 20.2% in Adigrat whereas its overall prevalence in the study areas was 19.8%. Demodex bovis (80.3%) and Sarcoptes scabies var bovis (19.7%) were the mite species detected in the study areas. The distribution of mange mite was observed statistically different between Mekelle and Adigrat districts. Similarly, statistically significant mange mite prevalence discrepancy was found in association with body conditions and predilection sites. The highest prevalence was recorded in animals having poor body condition (40%) whilst the least in medium (10%) body conditions. Likewise, the highest prevalence was obtained on the neck (43.42 %), followed by body (38.16%) and head (18.42%), however, the shoulder was found non- infested. Further; age groups, sex categories, breeds and management systems were not found statistically significant risk factors. In conclusion, cattle mange mites are highly prevalent in the study areas warranting integrated control measures to alleviate its impact on the productivity and health of animals.

[Gezahegn Ashagre, Kefyalew Chirkena, Sisay Getachew, Yonas Alemayehu, Lemma Minda and Getachew Dinede. Epidemiology of Cattle Mange Mite in Mekelle and Adigrat Districts: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors. Researcher 2016;8(5):62-66]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.10

 

Key words: Adigrat district, Cattle, Mange mite species, Mekelle district, prevalence, Risk factors

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Microbial Quality Of Turkey Meats Sold In Some Locations In Port Harcourt Metropolis

 

Omorodion, Nnenna J.P.

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B 5323 Port Harcourt, River State, Nigeria.

nnenna omorodion@gmail.com, nigwiloh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was aimed at assessing the microbiological quality of fresh, frozen and refrigerated turkey thighs and wings from different locations in Port Harcourt metropolis. The samples used for this study were collected from three different location (Open Market, Cool room and Retailers store) all in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, and was transported aseptically to the laboratory using sterile bags and were analyzed using standard method for total bacterial counts, total coliform counts, total fungi counts. Bacterial isolated that were identified include Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and they are all foodborne pathogens that causes foodborne illness and food contamination. The total bacterial count of the turkey wing samples was from 3.7 x 106 to 9.9 x 106 while the total bacterial count of the turkey thigh samples was from 1.0 x 106 to 9.3 x 106, The total coliform count of the turkey wings was from 3.4 x 105 t 4.6 x 105 and the total coliform count of the turkey was from 1.8 x 105 to 5.5 x 105. The total fungi count was from 2.6 x 104 to 3.7 x 104 for turkey thigh sample and for turkey wings sample the total fungal count was from 4.0 x 104 to 4.7 x 104. Also, the presence of these organisms indicated that there were poor hygienic conditions during the slaughtering, packaging, storage and sales process. Therefore, this food is a serious risk to the public health. Temperature control also is a key issue in producing frozen turkey meat. In addition, it is also important that the products must be manufactured under good hygienic practices. Because of the growing global concerns on pathogenic microorganisms which can be pass from animal to human, good hygiene practices should be obtain to avoid contamination. Adequate treatment should be given to the turkey to eliminate the possibility of antibiotics resistancee bacteria surviving which play a role in prevention and spread of diseases.

[Omorodion, Nnenna J.P. Microbial Quality Of Turkey Meats Sold In Some Locations In Port Harcourt Metropolis. Researcher 2016;8(5):67-74]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.11

 

Key words; turkey meat, food borne pathogens,microbial contamination

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Micriobiological Screening Of Some Herbal Drinks Hawked In Some Parts Of Rivers State.

 

Omorodion, Nnenna J.P

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B 5323 Port Harcourt, River State, Nigeria.

nnenna omorodion@gmail.com, nigwiloh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The microbiological quality of five indigenous herbal drinks (Afato, Opaeyin, Emagon, Munru, and Dokita Igbo) from three different hawkers, in Port Harcourt Metropolis was investigated. The assessment of the microbial contamination on the herbal products were carried out using standard method; total bacteria counts, coliform counts and fungal counts. The average results per total bacterial counts in Dikta igbo, Emagon, Afato, Opaeyin and Munru herbal drink were 9.2 x 107 Cfu/ml, 4.1 x 107 Cfu/ml, 8.8 x 107 Cfu/ml, 7.8 x 107 Cfu/ml and 9.6 x 107 respectively while the average counts for coliforms in 3.5 x 105 Cfu/ml, 3.8 x 105 Cfu/ml, 3.5 x 105cfu/ml, 3.7 x 105cfu/ml and 4.3 x 105Cfu/ml also the average fungal counts for the five herbal drinks were 4.4 x 105Cfu/ml, 3.5 x 105cfu/ml, 5.6 x 105Cfu/ml, 4.5 x 105Cfu/ml and 3.6 x 105Cfu/ml respectively. The overall resistance pattern by the gram positive and gram negative isolates to standard antibiotics were; ampiclox (100%), Zimacef (100%), amoxicillin (100%), gentamycin (40%), streptomycin (40%), septrin (30%), peilogivafloxacin (20%), sparifloxacin (20%) and ofloxacin (20%). The results of this work showed the presence of some pathogenic microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli (18%), Staphylococcus spp (29%), Salmonella spp (21%), Klebsiella spp (4%), Shigella spp (14%), Serratia spp (6%), and Proteus spp (8%), that could impair this herbal products, which may be a source of infection to consumers, therefore, production of these herbal drinks by manufacturers should be done under hygienic condition, water should be tested continuously for microbial growth, raw materials should be tested before use especially those of natural origin and only thoroughly monitored herbal drinks, whose microbiological quality are government or NAFDAC approved should be allowed for sale to the public.

[Omorodion, Nnenna J.P. Micriobiological Screening Of Some Herbal Drinks Hawked In Some Parts Of Rivers State. Researcher 2016;8(5):75-81]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 12.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.12

 

Keywords: Micriobiological; Screening; Herbal; Drink; Hawked; River; State

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Microbial Profile Of Chicken Meat Sold At Different Locations In Port Harcourt Metropolis

 

Omorodion Nnenna Jp

 

Department Of Microbiology, University Of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323 River State Nigeria.

nnenna omorodion@gmail.com, nigwiloh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The microbiological quality of frozen chicken meat bought from Zartech cold room, Rumuola grocery retail market and Choba open market in Port Harcourt, Rivers state, was assessed. 5 samples were collected from each location, 15 samples collected in total. Total bacterial count (TBC), total Staphylococus count, total coliform count, total Salmonella count and fungal counts were done using Plate count agar, Mannitol salt agar, MacConckey agar, Salmonella-Shigella agar and Potato dextrose agar respectively. The result showed that the total bacterial count ranged from (5.9 106 cfu/g- 9.9 107cfu/g), total Staphylococcus count ranged from (2.5104cfu/g – 7.2105cfu/g), total coliform count ranged from (3.9 105cfu/g-1.6106cfu/g), Salmonella count ranged from (2.5104cfu/g – 3.1105cfu/g). Fungal counts ranged from (2.7x104cfu/g - 5.9 x105cfu/g). Biochemical tests were done to identify isolates; From the 28 bacterial isolates, 7 different organisms were identified; Escherichia coli (14.3%), Salomonella sp (17.9%), Klebsiella sp (3.6%), Staphylococcus sp (39.3%), Serretia sp (7.1%), Shigella sp (7.1%) and Pseudomonas sp (10.7%).The fungal isolates identified by microscopy and physical examination include; Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillum sp and Mucor sp. A sensitivity test was done using Mueler-Hinton agar and the results showed that Staphylococcus sp exhibited 50% resistance, Salmonella sp; 80%, Klebsiella sp; 40%, Serretia sp; 30% Shigella sp; 20%, E.coli; 40%, Pseudomonas sp; 30% resistance to the antibiotics used for the sensitivity. The presence of microorganisms in chicken meat is attributed to the conducive microbial environment it provides, as well as the poor hygienic practices during processing and selling especially in the open markets. Thus, proper storage and hygiene during processing and selling of chicken meat is of uttermost importance.

[Omorodion Nnenna Jp. Microbial Profile Of Chicken Meat Sold At Different Locations In Port Harcourt Metropolis. Researcher 2016;8(5):82-87]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 13.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.13

 

Keywords: Microbial; Profile; Chicken; Meat; Port; Harcourt Metropolis

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The Quantitative and Qualitative evaluation of Safflower Yield

 

Abed Vahedi1, Esmaeil Yasari2

 

1Corresponding author: Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Qaemshahr, Mazandaran, 48148-35497. Cell: +98-09356211306. Iran. abedvahedy@gmail.com

2Assistant Prof, Payame Noor University, Sari, Mazandaran, 48189-35455. Cell: +98-9113511510, Iran. e_yassari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A split plot experiment in base on completely randomized blocks with four replicates was carried out in the city of Firuzkooh to study the effect of seeding date on safflower cultivars in the years 2009-2010. The experimental treatments included the seeding date as the main plot i.e. four different dates: 20 days apart from each other– February 28, March 20, April 9, and April 29 and three cultivars as the sub plot: the three cultivars of Sina, Isfahan 14, and Padideh. Results obtained show that yield and yield components are significantly affected by delays in the seeding date –that is, the more the seeding date is delayed from the suitable seeding date, the more the yield is reduced. Safflower cultivars also show statistically significant differences due to their high production potential and also because of the degree of their adaptation to the weather in the area. As a whole, the cultivars can be seeded in Firuzkooh at the seeding dates of February 28 and March 29; and these two dates did not give significantly different results. Based on the results of this experiment, the cultivar Padideh was superior in many of the traits investigated, while the cultivar Isfahan 14 did not meet the necessary requirements to be recommended for Firuzkooh.

[Abed Vahedi, Esmaeil Yasari. The Quantitative and Qualitative evaluation of Safflower Yield. Researcher 2016;8(5):88-92]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 14.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.14

 

Key words: Cultivars, Safflower, seeding date, yield, yield components

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Introduction of the Weeds to Iranian Rangeland (A Case Study of the Cheshmehe Ali Watershed)

 

Abed Vahedi1, Esmaeil Yasari2 and Maryam Saeedi3

 

1Corresponding author: Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Qaemshahr, Mazandaran, 48148-35497. Cell: +98-09356211306. Iran. abedvahedy@gmail.com

2Assistant Prof, Payame Noor University, Sari, Mazandaran, 48189-35455. Cell: +98-9113511510, Iran. e_yassari@yahoo.com

3 Mazandaran Wood and Paper Industries Company.

 

Abstract: The necessity of knowing and of paying attention to the composition of plant species in rangeland is an important matter because the composition of the species in each rangeland, besides determining the condition and the carrying power of the rangeland, has a role in the minor usages of rangeland. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the composition of rangeland species in various years to determine whether there has been an increase or decrease in the weeds of the rangeland and to plan for the rangeland on that basis. In this study, which was carried out in the rangeland of Cheshmeh Ali watershed in the province of Semnan, the weeds, the poisonous plants, and the thorny plants of the rangeland are introduced and analyzed. Results obtained show that 31% of the plants in the region are rangeland weeds. This high percentage of rangeland weeds is very important as far as the management of grazing in the rangeland is concerned; and the way this trend will continue in the future is highly significant in investigating the condition of the rangeland.

[Abed Vahedi, Esmaeil Yasari and Maryam Saeedi. Introduction of the Weeds to Iranian Rangeland (A Case Study of the Cheshmehe Ali Watershed). Researcher 2016;8(5):93-95]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 15.

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080516.15

 

Key words: Identification, Rangeland, Watershed, Weed

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from May 3, 2016. 

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