Science Journal

 

Researcher
(Researcher)
ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly
Volume 8 - Issue 6 (Cumulated No. 84), June 25, 2016
Cover (pdf), Cover (jpg), Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher0806
 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

DNA Barcoding and Phylogeny of Some Common Rodents of the Family Muridae in the Egyptian Environment

 

Shaimaa Mohamed Essa1, Mohammed Abdel-Salam Rashed2, Nadia Hussein Mohamed1, Mahmoud Magdy2*

 

1 Zoology Department, Faculty of Women for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Genetic Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Email: m.elmosallamy@agr.asu.edu.eg; Telephone: +201093411288

 

Abstract: The family Muridae is one of the most ubiquitous invasive families all over the world and in Egypt is particularly common and wide spread. Here we investigated the degree of similarity and divergences between 8 species related to the family Muridae of common occurrence in Egypt through molecular analysis of mitochondrial DNA (COI gene) comparing between Acomys cahirinus, Mus musculus, Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, Albino Rattus norvegicus, Gerbillus gerbillus and Gerbillus pyramidum in Egypt. Our result showing a strong link between Acomys cahirinus and genus Gerbillus than to genus Mus and Rattus with high bootstrap support.

[Essa SM, Rashed MA, Hussein NM, Magdy M. DNA Barcoding and Phylogeny of Some Common Rodents of the Family Muridae in the Egyptian Environment. Researcher 2016;8(6):1-4]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.01.

 

Keywords: Rodents, Acomys cahirinus, Gerbillus sp., cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), Phylogenies, Egypt

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2

Nutrient Based Bacterial Growth Dynamics And Comparative Biogas Yield Using Cow Dung And Cow Intestinal Exudates

 

Ajunwa, O.M.1, Adeleke, A.J.1, Audu, J.O.2*, Tsahyel, J.1, Adedeji, B.A.M.1

 

1. Department of Microbiology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa state, Nigeria

2. Department of Laboratory Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa state, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: j3suwa@yahoo.com, +60102122159

 

Abstract: Biogas is a product of anaerobic digestion of organic matter with microbial aid. Nutrient based bacterial growth dynamics for cow dung and cow intestinal exudates was studied when Mineral salt medium (MSM) was supplemented differently with acetate (5% v/v), and methanol (5% v/v) as carbon sources. Time-based growth patterns according to media used indicated growth successions from MSM (pH 4) to MSM/acetate to MSM/methanol when sampled at 1, 10, 20, and 30 days retention period. Total viable bacterial counts were conducted using nutrient agar and showed highest growth of 9.6 x 1010 CFU/g for cow dung was obtained when sampled on the 20th day, and the highest growth of 7.2 x 109 CFU/g for cow intestinal exudates was also obtained when sampled on the 20th day. Bacterial counts for cow dung and cow intestinal exudates sampled were higher on the 1st day and reduced on the 30th day (4.5 x 107 to 3.4 x 104 – cow dung; 2.7 x 107 to 3.1 x 103 – cow intestinal exudates). Biogas yield for cow dung had highest value of 51ml on the 17th day, while gas yield for cow intestinal exudates was highest (48ml) on the 16th day. Cumulative gas yields for cow dung (901ml) was higher than cumulative yield for cow intestinal exudates (871ml) after total retention period. Bacteria isolated include Enterobacter species, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococus specie, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella choleraesius, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia pestis, and Clostridium spp., and were all distributed throughout the digestion times sampled (1st, 10th, 20th and 30th days). Gas produced was flammable when tested with laboratory fabricated bioreactors and burners.

[Ajunwa, O.M, Adeleke, A. J, Audu, J.O., Tsahyel, J, Adedeji, B.A.M. Nutrient based bacterial growth dynamics and comparative biogas yield using cow dung and cow intestinal exudates. Researcher 2016;8(6):5-11]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.02.

 

Keywords: biogas, cow dung, cow intestinal exudates, bacteria

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2

3

Enhancing Nutritional Values Of Oilseed Crops Through Genetic Engineering

 

Saima Iram1, Rabia Rehman1, Maryam Khalid1, Hafiz Saad Bin Mustafa2*, Ejaz-ul-Hasan2 and Tariq Mahmood2

 

1Centre of Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

2Directorate of Oilseeds, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

*Corresponding Author’s Email: saadpbg@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to emphasize the use of genetic engineering to improve the oil quality in oilseed crops. Genetic engineering is a powerful tool to enhance the nutritive values of oilseed crops. Naturally the nutrition decreases due to constant growing of the different crops on the same land. The need is to adopt modern techniques that are less time consuming and give the best results. Different genetic engineering techniques like hairpin mediated transformation, gene silencing, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, somatic hybridization are very helpful in transforming the genetic makeup according to our own need. Plant oils are considered beneficial when the level of Erucic acid and Glucosinolates is low. This becomes possible through adopting the modern techniques of genetic engineering. Major oilseed crops like cotton, canola, soybean, sunflower need few genetic modifications to enhance their oil quality. The main concern is to introduce such genes which can add to its value. Through the help of biotechnology, we are able to decrease the gossypol level in cotton seeds and not in the leaves which is the remarkable work of biotechnology. Tph1, tph2 and o1 genes are introduced in sunflower to enhance Tocopherol level, which is useful to maintain oil stability. Such as LPAT gene introduction in soybean helps to enhance oil contents. Increase in soybean biodiesel production is also achieved by genetic engineering. Gene silencing also plays a major role to enhance stability of oils by minimizing linolenic acid level.

[Saima Iram, Rabia Rehman, Maryam Khalid, Hafiz Saad Bin Mustafa, Ejaz-ul-Hasan and Tariq Mahmood. Enhancing Nutritional Values Of Oilseed Crops Through Genetic Engineering. Researcher 2016;8(6):12-17]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.03.

 

Keywords: Agro-bacterium mediated, Genetic modification, Gene silencing, Hair pin mediated, Somatic hybridization.

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4

Examine the relationship between organizational commitment and job burnout of personnel in Health centers of Amol city

 

Asgari Heidari1, Mohammad Shirzad2

 

1. MSc of Health Care Management, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2. BA of Public Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran, Iran

asgariheidari@ymail.com

 

Abstract: The vital goal of this study is examine the relationship between organizational commitment and job burnout of personnel in health centers of Amol city. Organizational commitment can be a simple belief in the values and goals of the organization for which the three components are considered. Home health care networks in the most peripheral service-delivery units in the country. Health centers depending on the geographic region, especially roads and population may have one or more villages covered by its services. Health home health workers serve only one job category, which according to gender is called (male health workers) and (female health workers). Many health workers in routine services cannot be included employee service and often live streaming and daily contact with the public health workers and rural families was carried out.

[Asgari Heidari, Mohammad Shirzad. Examine the relationship between organizational commitment and job burnout of personnel in Health centers of Amol city. Researcher 2016;8(6):18-22]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.04.

 

Keywords: Organizational commitment, Job burnout, Health centers, Amol city

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4

5

Social and economic benefits of semi-freedom of the individual and society

 

Hadi Razi poor, Hossein Hayavi, Fazel Sendi, Sadegh fatili

 

Department of Law, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramshahr, Iran

 

Abstract: In the Islamic criminal law passed in 1392; regarding a new discipline; which was not mentioned in earlier articles; in the seventh chapter of the new Islamic punishment low password in 1392; there are 2 articles under the new name '' semi free system'' but under certain circumstances; they seem not dealt with in an enough manner. therefore we must make use of the experiences of other countries which these articles were put in effect; so that it would give enough courage to the legislator to put these two articles ''56 & 57'' in use; it looks as if the legislator had feared the results to use them in a large scale; therefore he made use of them in a very limited manner. But experience showed their benefits were great; economically & socially. We must prepare the society to acknowledge the benefits of these articles; and protect them of being criminated and not to be regarded as an enemy of the and miss users of the customs& values of the society. If we were able to teach this'' semi freedom system'' to other criminals; better results would be gained; here in this field; the role of the honored professors & psychologists & the sociologists and those who care about the society would be magnificent. And their point of view would be of great importance and should be implemented by the politicians. Because this system should not be looked upon through political glasses; because crimes and criminals are a totally social concept; not a political one. Anyway taking in consideration that this is a new concept we may workout many ways and subjects and find its faults & deficiencies and try to eliminate them. Therefore in this thesis we may study its benefits in 4 chapters to persons and the society.

[Hadi Razi poor, Hossein Hayavi, Fazel Sendi, Sadegh fatili. Social and economic benefits of semi-freedom of the individual and society. Researcher 2016;8(6):23-29]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.05.

 

Key Words: Criminal, Sentences, Criminal responsibility, media, Adolescents, Baby, Microeconomics, Semi-free system, Social acceptance

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5

6

Technologies improve the efficiency of the educational process outside the classroom

 

Abdullayeva Ozoda Safibullayevna 1, Dr. Saida Beknazarova 2

 

1. Namangan Engineering Pedagogical Institute 100052, Uzbekistan

2. Department of Audio visual technologies, Tashkent University of Information technologies, Uzbekistan; Tashkent, Mirzo Ulugbek region, Akkurgan st, 35/7 100052, India; Telephone: +998903276666; E-mail: saida.beknazarova@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This article analyzes the pedagogical activity of teachers of educational institutions, identifies the currently existing problems in the organization of educational process in colleges and high schools, as well as to search solutions in the field of improving the quality of teacher education of students of pedagogical universities.

[Abdullayeva Ozoda Safibullayevna, Saida Beknazarova. Technologies improve the efficiency of the educational process outside the classroom. Researcher 2016;8(6):30-31]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.06.

 

Keywords: educational activities, preparation for teaching activities, extracurricular educational work, educational process

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6

7

Vector control of permanent magnet synchronous motor using fuzzy algorithm

 

Najmeh Ghasemi1, Seyed Mohsen Naderi2

 

1. MSc in Power Engineering, Heris Islamic Azad University, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

2. BA Petrochemical, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza Branch, Isfahan Province, Iran

 

Abstract: This article is focused on the control of permanent magnet synchronous motor function. Usually with a variety of non-linear controller proportional-integral controller is used to control the motors. However, the controller is sensitive to changes in speed and load disturbance and parameter changes. Conventional methods to overcome this problem manually adjust the controller parameters. It results in a Ziegler- Nichols method used to set the PI controller coefficients, but this method cannot always be effective. In order to overcome these problems, the fuzzy controller for controlling PMSM motors is used. The performance of the control authorities in tracking different speeds using MATLAB Simulink simulation is studied. In this study 49 inference rule is intended to fuzzy logic controller system has been shown to improve dynamic performance. The results of the simulations show that the fuzzy controller in many cases have better performance than conventional controllers.

[Najmeh Ghasemi, Seyed Mohsen Naderi. Vector control of permanent magnet synchronous motor using fuzzy algorithm. Researcher 2016;8(6):32-41]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.07.

 

Keywords: PMSM motors, fuzzy Control, PI controller, Fuzzy Logic Controller for PMSM motors

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7

8

Comparative Study Of The Prevailing Illness In Ibeno And Its Environs In Akwa Ibom State Linked To Overload Of Air Quality Parameters

 

Osu Charles I * and Asuoha, Adaku N.

 

Safety Health and Environmental Department, Mobil Producing Nigeria

 

*Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Telephone: +234 803 7783246 email: charsike@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The impacts of gas flaring on health at Ibeno, Eket, Onna, Esit Eket and Umudike were investigated measuring air quality parameters, The results showed that the mean concentration of air parameters value were below FEPA and USEPA National air quality standards with exception of carbon monoxide which exceeded the limit of 35 ppm in March at Ibeno. Concentration of air parameters at Umudike showed a similar trend to that of study locations at Eket, Ibeno, Esit Eket and Onna. The values also decreased drastically during wet season. Statistical analysis of the data showed some correlations between CO, NH3 and pneumonia in Esit Eket and a reduced correlation with respiratory tract infection (RTI). The result also indicates that one is likely to be infected by pneumonia when the volume of CO in air increases. It shows that when the volume of NO2 increases, the tendency for one to be RTI infected is reduced. Another variable in this equation that affect RTI is CO. The result also shows if all other explanatory variables in this equation are kept constant a 216% increase in CO will cause1% increases in the chance of one to be infected with pneumonia in the research areas.

[Osu Charles .I, Asuoha, Adaku N. Comparative Study Of The Prevailing Illness In Ibeno And Its Environs In Akwa Ibom State Linked To Overload Of Air Quality Parameters. Researcher 2016;8(6):42-49]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.08.

 

Keywords: Air quality parameters, prevailing illness, pollution

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8

9

Distribution of Gracillaria species (Gracillaria edulis, Rhodophyta) in SriLanka

 

Prof P. Vinobaba, Dr. (Ms). Kumudu, Ganeshamoorthy Umakanthan

 

Department of Zoology, Eastern University Sri Lanka

Department Fisheries and Aquaculture University of Ruhuna Sri Lanka

 

Abstract: This paper reviews the taxonomical literature of the Gracilaria edulis algae from Sri Lanka, and provides information about their ecology and distribution based on an intensive regime of local collection. Its aim was to find out name, even if on a preliminary basis, for local gracilarioid taxa. Mainly four species of Gracilaria are reported in the Sri Lanka, including one unidentified Gracilaria corticata and mostly abundant Gracilaria edulis in Puttalam, Jaffna, Trincomalee and Mannar. Sri Lanka has an extremely rich and diverse seaweed flora with a wide variety of marine habitats. Increased commercial interest in these seaweed resources has been the stimulus for Biochemical studies.

[P. Vinobaba, Kumudu, Ganeshamoorthy Umakanthan. Distribution of Gracillaria species (Gracillaria edulis, Rhodophyta) in SriLanka. Researcher 2016;8(6):50-58]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.09.

 

Key words: Taxonomy, distribution, Rhodophyseae, Gracilariales, Sri Lanka, species, Gracillaria edulis, Rhodophyta

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9

10

Effect Of Different Nitrogen Sources On Nodulation, Nutrient Compostion, Growth And Yield Of Soybean (Glycine Max L.) In Southern Guinea Savannah, Kogi State, Nigeria

 

Ogundare, S. K and Mohammed, S. A

 

1Department of Agronomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

2Division of Agricultural Colleges, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Email: drogundarekayode@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The experiment was carried out at Agronomy Section of Kabba College of Agriculture to investigate the effect of different nitrogen sources on nodulation, nutrient composition, growth and yield of soybean. The treatment consists of two nitrogen fertilizer (urea and N P K 15:15:15) and three animal manures (poultry manure, cow dung and pig manure). All these materials were applied at 20kgN/ha at planting. The growth character observed were plant height, number of leaves, stem girth, leaf area, fresh weight of plant and dry weight of plant. Yield characters observed were pod length, pod number, 1000seed weight, and number of grains per plant, grain weight per plant and yield per land area. Nodule characters observed were fresh weight of nodule and number of nodule produced per plant. Data were also collected on nutrient composition of soybean seed such as N P K, S, protein, oil, and carbohydrate. All the data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance and treatments mean were separated using Least Significant Difference. The result shows that plots treated with N P K fertilizer at 20kgN per ha gave highest yield of soybean. It is therefore recommended to the farmers in the study area.

[Ogundare, S. K and Mohammed, S. A. Effect Of Different Nitrogen Sources On Nodulation, Nutrient Compostion, Growth And Yield Of Soybean (Glycine Max L.) In Southern Guinea Savannah, Kogi State, Nigeria. Researcher 2016;8(6):59-63]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.10.

 

Keywords: Nitrogen, Nodulation, Nutrient composition, Soyabean, Manure and Fertilizer

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10

11

Social and economic benefits of semi-freedom of the individual and society

 

Zahra Rahmati

 

hhosseini581@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the Islamic criminal low passed in 1392; regarding a new discipline; which was not mentioned in earlier articles; in the seventh chapter of the new Islamic punishment low passed in 1392; there are 2 articles under the new name '' semi free system'' but under certain circumstances; they seem not dealt with in an enough manner. therefore we must make use of the experiences of other countries which these articles were put in effect ; so that it would give enough courage to the legislator to put these tow articles ''56 & 57'' in use; it looks as if the legislator had feared the results to use them in a large scale; therefore he made use of them in a very limited manner. but experience showed their benefits were great; economically & socially . we must prepare the society to acknowledge the benefits of these articles; and protect them of being criminated and not to be regarded as an enemy of the and miss users of the customs & values of the society. if we were able to teach this'' semi freedom system'' to other criminals; better results would be gained; here in this field ; the role of the honored professors& psychologists & the sociologists and those who care about the society would be magnificent. And their point of view would be of great importance and should be implemented by the politicians. because this system should not be looked upon through political glasses; because crimes and criminals are a totally social concept; not a political one. anyway taking in consideration that this is a new concept we may workout many ways and subjects and find it's faults & deficiencies and try to eliminate them. therefore in this theses we may study it's benefits in 4 chapters to persons and the society.

[Zahra Rahmati. Social and economic benefits of semi-freedom of the individual and society. Researcher 2016;8(6):64-70]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.11.

 

Key Words: Criminal, Sentences, Criminal responsibility, media, Adolescents, Baby, Microeconomics, Semi-free system, Social acceptance

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11

12

Radicalization Of Religion, Ethnicity And Sectarian Conflicts In The Middle East

 

Farkhod Karimov Erkinovich

 

Senior Research Officer of the State Institute of Oriental Studies

E-mail: elegantsirius@list.ru

 

Abstract: The scale and gravity of the abuses and the urgency of the situation demand a swift and robust response – not only to provide humanitarian assistance to those displaced and otherwise affected by the conflict but also to ensure the protection of vulnerable communities who risk being wiped off the map of Iraq. A quick resolution is unlikely and impossible, but an increased understanding of the regional scope of these problems is an important step towards addressing them. In this case, as many experts underline, the U.S. should not follow withdrawal from Iraq with disengagement from the region – productive efforts with regional allies are still possible and will be vital to preventing the further deterioration of an already bad situation. It should be very clear that increasing sectarian polarization and violence is in the interests neither of the regional players and their allies nor the whole international community.

[Farkhod Karimov Erkinovich. Radicalization Of Religion, Ethnicity And Sectarian Conflicts In The Middle East. Researcher 2016;8(6):71-78]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 12. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.12.

 

Keywords: gravity; abuse; humanitarian assistance; conflict; protection; regional player; international community

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13

Comparative Performance of Frequency Response Analysis and IEEE Std. C.37 in Transient Recovery Voltage Analysis of a Circuit Breaker with Fault Current Limiter (FCL)

 

Mohammad Sadegh Javadi1, Morteza Taherkhani2, Amin Javadinasab3

 

1. Young Researchers club-Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr branch, Mahshahr, Iran

2. Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran

3. Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch, Shoushtar, Iran

msjavadi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: One of the main problems in high voltage power stations is increasing the short circuit level. It causes some problems for circuit breakers and other station equipments. Using the series reactors is one of the methods for reduction and control of the short circuit level. This paper investigates the effects of the series reactor installation and the requirements of the circuit breaker on the CB interruption capability. The case study is a real power system in which the FCL installation analysis is carried out. The IEEE C.37 Standard is used for the selection of the size and the location of the high voltage capacitors. EMTP-RV software has been used for the analysis of the suggesting scenarios and frequency response of the suggested topologies.

[Mohammad Sadegh Javadi, Morteza Taherkhani, Amin Javadinasab. Comparative Performance of Frequency Response Analysis and IEEE Std. C.37 in Transient Recovery Voltage Analysis of a Circuit Breaker with Fault Current Limiter (FCL). Researcher 2016;8(6):79-84]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 13. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.13.

 

Keywords: Transient Recovery Voltage, Rate of Rise of Recovery Voltage, Fault Current Limiter, Frequency Response

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14

The principle of justice and its role in interpretation of contracts

 

Reza Najafloo

 

Department of Law, Baku University, Baku, Azerbaijan

najafloo1389@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Fairness is a set of eternal and timeless principles which can be the essence of human’s judgment either in the case of nature or target. Some have understood the fairness as the synonym of justice and some have made the distinct and would say, justice like the law is a typical and universal concept but fairness has a personal meaning namely a diverse concept based on different people. And fairness in each case has a specific statement while the justice is identical for all people. Of course equality doesn’t imply the meaning of equity, because the justice means setting anything in its own position and in this sense it sometimes appropriates either equality or inequality.

[Reza Najafloo. The principle of justice and its role in interpretation of contracts. Researcher 2016;8(6):85-93]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 14. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.14.

 

Keywords: Justice; contracts; fairness; law

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15

Investigating The Effect of Number of Steps on Energy Dissipation of Stepped Spillways Based on the New Design Approach

 

Mohammad Karami

 

Islamic azad university, Dehloran branch, Dehaloran, Iran

mohammadkarami468@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Stepped spillways are hydraulic structures that, because of their significant capacity in energy dissipation, have been widely used by designers. Flow mechanism over them is complex and many investigations have been performed to study that mechanism. The effect of some parameters such as the number of steps in energy dissipation has not been fully investigated. In this study the latest design criteria have been reviewed and then an algorithm has been developed to design the stepped spillways which are based on the effect of number of steps. Results show that the number of steps affects the energy dissipation. With increasing the number of steps energy dissipation increases and then decreases. Thus for specific discharge and spillway slope, the number of steps can be optimized for maximum energy dissipation. By reducing design discharge the optimum number of steps increases. Research work on this subject can be continued in the future and various aspects of the design parameters may be investigated [Mohammad Karami. Investigating The Effect of Number of Steps on Energy Dissipation of Stepped Spillways Based on the New Design Approach. Researcher 2016;8(6):94-99]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 15. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.15.

 

Keywords: Design discharge, Energy dissipation, Number of steps, Spillway slope

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from May 29, 2016. 

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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doi:

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.01

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.02

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doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.05

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doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.14

doi:10.7537/marsrsj080616.15

 

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