Science Journal

 

Researcher
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ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly
Volume 8 - Issue 8 (Cumulated No. 86), August 25, 2016
Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher0808
 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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No.

1

Role of Information Technology (IT) in Managing Organizational Change and Organizational Interdependence

 

Bisallah Hashim I1, Aleshelonye abbas2, Bello Bilkisu Mohammed 3

 

1Computer Dept, University of Abuja, Nigeria. hbisallah@gmail.com

2Dept of computer Sc.. Turkish-Nile University, Abuja. yalesh200@gmail.com

3 Dept of Computer Sc. Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna). candiebell2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper sets forth the application of open systems theory for generating propositions regarding the management of organizational change and organizational interdependence by application of IT. The commonly preferred approaches - goal theory, population ecology, systems resource theory and transaction costs theory - are inadequate in providing a "wholistic" perspective of the organizational issues. The article argues that the survival and growth of organizations in an increasingly turbulent environment would depend upon effective utilization of information technology for aligning the organizational structure with environmental preferences and for creating symbiotic inter organizational structures. We have modified our environment so radically that we must modify ourselves in order to exist in this new environment. -- Norbert Wiener.

[Bisallah Hashim. I, Aleshelonye abbas, Bello Bilkisu Mohammed. Role of Information Technology (IT) in Managing Organizational Change and Organizational Interdependence. Researcher 2016;8(8):1-7]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080816.01.

 

Keywords: strategy, management, change, hyperturbulence, information technology, information systems, IS, organizational environment, organizations, open systems, systems theory, adaptability, organization structure, organizational learning, intelligence, scanning, organic, mechanistic, adhocracy, control, communications, core competencies, competence, interdependence, alliances, coordination, organizational change.

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2

Security Issues In An Emerging Information Technology Setup

 

Bisallah Hashim I1, Aleshelonye abbas2, Bello Bilkisu Mohammed 3

 

1Computer Dept, University of Abuja, Nigeria. hbisallah@gmail.com

2Dept of computer Sc.. Turkish-Nile University, Abuja. yalesh200@gmail.com

3 Dept of Computer Sc. Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. candiebell2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The theft or destruction of information or the disruption of communication resources can result in not only lost of time and revenue, but also an irreparable loss of confidence by clients and customers of an company or institutions. The ability of computer networks to remain functional continuously for their intended users has been a necessity to business. Professionals who have computer security training, who have demonstrated the ability to respond to human and organizational weaknesses by passing security certifications, and who have had instruction in cryptography, communication security, can use real-world tools to implement security for their company/institutions. This paper tends to discuss those areas in an emerging information technology setup and how they can be applied.

[Bisallah Hashim .I, Aleshelonye abbas, Bello Bilkisu Mohammed. Security Issues In An Emerging Information Technology Setup. Researcher 2016;8(8):8-11]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080816.02.

 

Keywords: Networks, Data, firewall, authentication, VoIP

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3

Activities Of Aqueous Leaf Extracts Of Senna alata Linn Onfungal Rot Microbes

 

Ijato, J Y

 

Department Of Plant Science, Faculty Of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti P.M.B 5363, Ekiti State, Nigeria

E-mail: considerureternity@gmail.com, GSM: 08067335124

 

Abstract: Effects of aqueous leave extracts of Senna alata was assessed using different concentrations. The extracts were antagonistic on the mycelia growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus glaucus and Botryodiplodia theobromae. The inhibitory effects of hot and cold water leaf extracts of S. alata on the fungal rot organisms differed significantly (p<0.05) from the untreated control and standard. The efficacy of both cold and hot water leaf extracts of S. alata on the rot organisms increased with the increase in concentration. Hot water extracts of S. alata at 10g/100ml exhibited the least inhibitory effect of 13.33% on A. glaucus while hot water extract was completely (100%) fungicidal on A. flavus at 50g/100ml. Similarly, cold water extracts of S. alata at 30-50g/100ml also completely inhibited A. glaucus and A. flavus.

[Ijato, J Y. Activities Of Aqueous Leaf Extracts Of Senna alata Linn Onfungal Rot Microbes. Researcher 2016;8(8):12-14]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080816.03.

 

Keywords: antagonistic, S. alata, rot microbes

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4

In 1991 Fermat’s Last Theorem Has Been Proved (I)

 

Jiang, Chun-Xuan

 

Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL34682-1577, USA

And: P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, China

jiangchunxuan@sohu.com, cxjiang@mail.bcf.net.cn, jcxuan@sina.com, Jiangchunxuan@vip.sohu.com, jcxxxx@163.com

 

Abstract: In 1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.” This means:  has no integer solutions, all different from 0 (i.e., it has only the trivial solution, where one of the integers is equal to 0). It has been called Fermat’s last theorem (FLT). It suffices to prove FLT for exponent 4. and every prime exponent . Fermat proved FLT for exponent 4. Euler proved FLT for exponent 3.On October 25,1991 we proved Fermat last theorem.

[Jiang, Chun-Xuan. In 1991 Fermat’s Last Theorem Has Been Proved (I). Researcher 2016;8(8):15-20]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080816.04.

 

Keywords: 1991; Fermat’s Last Theorem; prime exponent

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5

In 1991 Fermat’s Last Theorem Has Been Proved(II)

 

Jiang, Chun-Xuan

 

Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL34682-1577, USA

And: P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, China

jiangchunxuan@sohu.com, cxjiang@mail.bcf.net.cn, jcxuan@sina.com, Jiangchunxuan@vip.sohu.com, jcxxxx@163.com

 

Abstract: In 1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.” This means:  has no integer solutions, all different from 0(i.e., it has only the trivial solution, where one of the integers is equal to 0). It has been called Fermat’s last theorem (FLT). It suffices to prove FLT for exponent 4 and every prime exponent . Fermat proved FLT for exponent 4. Euler proved FLT for exponent 3. In this paper using automorphic functions we prove FLT for exponents  and , where  is an odd prime. We rediscover the Fermat proof. The proof of FLT must be direct. But indirect proof of FLT is disbelieving. In 1974 Jiang found out Euler formula of the cyclotomic real numbers in the cyclotomic fields ,                                     (1)

where  denotes a th root of unity, , m=1,2,3,…,  are the real numbers.

 is called the automorphic functions(complex hyperbolic functions) of order  with  variables [2,5,7].

                                                                                (2)

where   ;

2000 Mathematics subject classification11D41

[Jiang, Chun-Xuan. In 1991 Fermat’s Last Theorem Has Been Proved(II). Researcher 2016;8(8):21-24]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080816.05.

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6

Genome Editing

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The genome is the genetic material of an organism, which consists of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses). The genome includes both the genes (the coding regions) and the noncoding DNA. Genome editing is a technique in which DNA is deleted, inserted or replaced in the genome of an organism using engineered nucleases that create site-specific double-strand breaks at desired locations in the genome. The induced double-strand breaks are repaired through nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) which resulting in targeted mutations. NHEJ uses a variety of enzymes to directly join the DNA ends in a double-strand break and in HDR a homologous sequence is utilized as a template for regeneration of missing DNA sequence at the break point. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are certain prokaryotic DNA segments that contain short repetitions of DNA sequences. Each repetition is followed by some short segments related to a bacteriophage virus or plasmid. The CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system. CRISPR spacers recognize and cut the exogenous DNA for an immunological function. CRISPRs exist in the bacterial genomes. The Cas9 nuclease and guide RNAs can cut genome in certain location and remove the existing genes. CRISPRs can be used for genome editing and gene regulation. Using CRISPR interference technique can alter the germline of animals.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Genome Editing. Researcher 2016;8(8):25-29]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080816.05.

 

Keywords: genome; editing; clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR); DNA; bacteriophage; immune system; life; gene

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7

Natural Radioactivity in drinking Water in Sudan (Khartoum region)

 

1A. Abbasher, 2Dr. A. Alsalam A. Almaged, 3Dr O. A. lhabib

 

1 Technology experts company, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2 Faculty of engineering department of chemical engineering, Alneelain University, Khartoum, Sudan

3 Faculty of Engineering, Taif University, P.O. 888, Al-Taif, Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: Water usually contains several natural radionuclide ‘radon, radium, uranium isotopes, etc. Their concentrations vary widely since they depend on the nature of the aquifer, ground water pH, etc. Aims in this research broad overview of the radioactivity in drinking water is presented, for limiting the presence of radioactivity in waters intended for human consumption, and draft of guidelines for the planning of campaigns to measure radioactivity in drinking water proposed by the Environmental Protection. This research it is contain nine water samples were analyzed for natural radioactive materials in drinking water in Sudan (Khartoum area). The concentration of radioactive element has been assessed for the water samples taken from different location in Sudan. The studies included of 226Ra+228Ra, 222Ra and 234U+238U concentrations indifferent type of water samples, (mineral, Nile River, wells water).The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 for radon concentration, spectrum gamma detector HPGe for radium and instrument of alpha spectrometry for uranium. The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H2O, which allows one to identify the total Ra226 and Ra228 activity concentration in small water samples of one Litter in the range going from less than 0.0pCi/L to greater than 37.9pCi/L, also the results of uranium concentration between the 0.21ppb and 9.8ppb and maximum of radon concentration179.0 pCi/L.

[A. Abbasher, A. Alsalam A. Almaged, O. A. lhabib. Natural Radioactivity in drinking Water in Sudan (Khartoum region). Researcher 2016;8(8):30-35]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080816.07.

 

Keywords: Natural; Radioactivity; drinking; Water; Sudan

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8

Empowering Human Resources through Embedding Local Cultural Values, Starting from the Family as the Most Important Social Institution Contributing to National Human Resource: A Study of Selected Village Families in South Sulawesi

 

Syamsul Bakhri Gaffar

 

Department of Out of School Education (J-PLS), Faculty of Education (FIP), Universitas Negeri Makassar (UNM),  Jalan. A. P. Pettarani Makassar 90222

Email: syabagaar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Shifting cultural values are becoming a problem in sustainable development, caused by a weakened understanding of honourable cultural values. The family have an influence over this, particularly in the field of education or socialisation of values in the family environment. As a result, embedding local cultural values is one way to safeguard the quality of human resources so future generation so not lose their self-identity. The aim of this research is to increase the quality of human resources for regional and national development through the potential and role of families by imbedding cultural values in children in the family environment. The research method used was qualitative research, with descriptive-inductive analysis. Research was undertaken in families which fulfilled the criteria in four ethnic groups located in Sout Sulawesi, namely Bugis (Bone), Makassar (Gowa), Mandar (Polman), and Toraja (Tana Toraja). The research shows that siri’ culture in South Sulawesi society has become a reference or life view in all actions, inseperable from their personality as people of South Sulawesi. The meaning of siri’ as feeling shame and self-respect has experienced a shift, narrowing the meaning to humiliation, personal offence, and prestige leaning towards negative aspects. This change has been influenced by a socialisation of siri’ values in the family, undertaken from parent to child.

[Syamsul Bakhri Gaffar. Empowering Human Resources through Embedding Local Cultural Values, Starting from the Family as the Most Important Social Institution Contributing to National Human Resource: A Study of Selected Village Families in South Sulawesi. Researcher 2016;8(8):36-41]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080816.08.

 

Keywords: family and society, siri’ culture, and siri’ human resources

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9

A Review On Foot And Mouth Disease And Its Current Status In Ethiopia

 

Tsegaye Mitiku1, Legesse Garedew2, Mebrie Zemene3*, Melkie Dagnaw1, Bemrew Admassu4 and Gashaw Getaneh4

 

1University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Medicine.

2University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Para-clinical study.

3* University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pharmacy, Gondar, Ethiopia, B.O.B. 196.

4University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences

Telephone: (+251) 0918518866; E-mail: zemenemebrie@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an acute and serious disease of angulated animals particularly in cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, deer and others. FMD virus belongs to the genus Aphthovirus in the family Picornaviridae and possesses a single strand of positive-sense RNA genome. It has worldwide distribution and is one of the most infectious diseases found in nature which is characterized by fever and blister-like sores on the tongue and lips in the mouth, on the teats and between the hooves. The disease existing in seven immunologically distinct serotypes O, A, C, Southern African Territories (SAT) 1, SAT2, SAT3 and Asia1and numerous divergent strains within the serotypes can manifest continuous genomic and antigenic evolution. The disease has a wide host range and can beeasily transmitted by ingestion, direct and indirect contact, as well as by aerosols. It can cause high number of deaths among young animals and production losses in adult livestock. FMD imposes very serious impediments to international trade in live animals and animal products. In Ethiopia, the disease is endemic that affects the agricultural economy and international trading system. The disease is highly distributed in the pastoral low land of Ethiopia. Since the disease has devastating economic loss for both developed and developing countries, control of the import of live animal and animal products from infected countries, movement of visitors and illegal trading across national and international boundaries are recommended to prevent the disease.

[Tsegaye Mitiku, Legesse Garedew, Mebrie Zemene, Melkie Dagnaw, Bemrew Admassu and Gashaw Getaneh. A Review On Foot And Mouth Disease And Its Current Status In Ethiopia. Researcher 2016;8(8):42-51]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080816.09.

 

Key words: Ethiopia, Foot and mouth disease, Livestock

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10

Proficient Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Techniques Based on PCA

 

Bushra Naz1, Faraz Ahsan2, Sajjad Mohsin1

 

1Department of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Correspondence: bushra.naz@comsats.edu.pk

2 Department of Computer Science, HITEC University, Taxila, Pakistan

 

Abstract: Facial expression recognition has potential applications in different aspects of day to day life not yet realized due to absence of effective expression recognition techniques. This paper aims to present computationally efficient hybrid models based on automatic facial feature extraction and artificial neural network (ANN). For promising accuracy up to 7% as compared to existing models, a cascade of geometric features and appearance based features, namely: FLIP TRIANGLE and HOURGLASS. Numerical results markedly demonstrate average accuracies ranging from 83% to 87% which provides 5.63% increase on overall average accuracy as compared with existing technique.

[Bushra NAZ, Faraz AHSAN, Sajjad MOHSIN. Proficient Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Techniques Based on PCA. Researcher 2016;8(8):52-59]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080816.10.

 

Keywords: Facial expression recognition, Principal Component Analysis, automatic face representation, artificial neural network, JAFFE

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11

The climate change, the city of Naein in the period (2011-2100) under scenarios fourth and fifth IPCC report

 

A. Soltani Mohammadi, M.R. Molaienia, A. Ajamzadeh

 

1- M.Sc. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Zabol, Iran.

2- Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, University of Zabol, Iran.

3- Graduate of Master of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Zabol, Iran.

 

Abstract: Undoubtedly, climate change and global warming, one of the issues and concerns of today's society. In this paper, the effects of climate change on precipitation and temperature in the city of Naein under scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions and output data General Circulation Models (GCM) were investigated. For this purpose, the global output data models by the end of the 21st century, as change factor method (delta) are down scaled. According to the results, the late 21st century, a maximum temperature rise of 5.34 C for Fourth Report and 7.22 C for Fifth Report scenarios will be occur. Also, the fourth report scenarios, reduced rainfall predicted until the end of the century addressing. While, the fifth report scenarios, show an increase in precipitation.

[A. Soltani Mohammadi, M.R. Molaienia, A. Ajamzadeh. The climate change, the city of Naein in the period (2011-2100) under scenarios fourth and fifth IPCC report. Researcher 2016;8(8):60-64]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080816.11.

 

Keywords: Climate Change, Fourth and fifth reports, Downscaling Delta, Naein

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12

The New Prime theorems391-440

 

Jiang, Chun-Xuan

 

Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL34682-1577, USA

And: P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, China

jiangchunxuan@sohu.com, cxjiang@mail.bcf.net.cn, jcxuan@sina.com, Jiangchunxuan@vip.sohu.com, jcxxxx@163.com

 

Abstract: Using Jiang function  we prove that the new prime theorems (341)-390) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions. Analytic and combinatorial number theory (August 29-September 3, ICM2010) is a conjecture. The sieve methods and circle method are outdated methods which cannot prove twin prime conjecture and Goldbach’s conjecture. The papers of Goldston-Pintz-Yildirim and Green-Tao are based on the Hardy-Littlewood prime k-tuple conjecture (1923). But the Hardy-Littlewood prime k-tuple conjecture is false: (http://www.wbabin.net/math/xuan77.pdf) (http://vixra.org/pdf/1003.0234v1.pdf). Mathematicians do not speak advanced mathematical papers in ICM2010. ICM2010 is lower congress.

[Jiang, Chun-Xuan. The New Prime theorems391-440. Researcher 2016;8(8):65-116]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 12. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080816.12.

 

Keywords: new; prime theorem; Jiang Chunxuan

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from  August 15, 2016. 

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