Science Journal

 

Researcher
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ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly
Volume 8 - Issue 9 (Cumulated No. 87), September 25, 2016
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

The effect of heat treatment on the quality of Algerian honey

 

Nair Samira

 

Geo-environment and Development Researches laboratory, University Mustapha Stambouli of Mascara, Algeria.

falati22@yahoo.fr

 

Abstract: Heating of honey could accelerate certain chemical reactions that lessen its quality during storage. The purpose of this study consists in assessing the effect of temporary heating of honey on the variation of its main quality characteristics. Samples of each honey were heated at 37C, 55C and 75C; the physic-chemical properties (moisture contents, pH, free acidity, hyfroxymethylfurfural (HMF), diastase, glucose and coloring action) were determined. During the heating treatment, the color deepened and the hydroxymethylfurfural and free acidity increased, while there was a reduction in glucose contents with reduced water and amylase action. All reactions were greatly slowed down before this treatment, thus the heating applied determine certain changes on the level of the parameters of quality of the several of Algerian honey.

[Nair Samira. The effect of heat treatment on the quality of Algerian honey. Researcher 2016;8(9):1-6]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080916.01.

 

Key words: Algerian honey; physic-chemical properties; quality; thermal treatment

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2

Epidemiological Study of Nematodes in Adigudom and Mereme’eti Grazing Areas, Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: Larval Nematodes Cattle Pasture Contamination

 

1Haile Worku and 2Getachew Dinede

 

1Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development, Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, P.O.Box: 326, Asossa, Ethiopia

2*Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Epidemiology Directorate, P.O.Box:1084, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Email: dinedegech@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A study was carried out in Adigudom and Mereme’eti grazing areas of Southern Tigray during the periods of December, 2008 to April, 2009 to identify the major infective nematodes’ larvae that contaminate the pasture, to assess the level of pasture contamination and to determine nematodosis prevalence in cattle populations of the area. An area of one hectare by one hectare plot of pasture area was sampled from both sites and 0.5 kg of herbage was collected monthly for identification of larvae. Fecal samples were also collected randomly from cattle grazing in the study sites for measuring level of infestation in cattle population. Larvae of trichostrongylus, haemonchus, strongylus and dictyocaulus were detected as the major contaminants of pasture in the study areas with trichostrongylus larval count being the most prevalent (7400 + 1437) followed by strongylus (5800 + 1753), haemonchus (5200 + 1216) and dictyocaulus (2600 +878). The finding also indicated that the mean larval count of Mereme’eti area was higher (6900.0 1327) than that of Adigudom area (3600.0 927.40). Further, fecal samples collected from (n= 234) cattle grazing in the area were examined showing an overall prevalence of 183/234(78.20%). Higher proportion of nematodosis infestation (83.78%) was detected in Mereme'eti than in Adigudom (73.17%), though, the difference in prevalence between the study sites was statistically non-significant. The major nematodes identified from fecal microscopic examination were trichostrongylus (25.21%), haemonchus (11.5%), dictyocaulus (4.7%), strongylus (4.3%), and mixed infection (32.5%). Peak larval count was recorded during the months of small rainy seasons (February and March) then decline to undetectable levels during the dry seasons (December, January and April). It was observed that age and sex categories were not found statistically significant risk factor for parasitic infestation. To wrap up, the study indicated the prevailing of various types of nematode genuses signaling the importance of devising strategic and appropriate control measures to mitigate the parasitic adverse impacts on livestock production and health in the studied areas.

[Haile W, and Getachew D. Epidemiological Study of Nematodes in Adigudom and Mereme’eti Grazing Areas, Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: Larval Nematodes Cattle Pasture Contamination. Researcher 2016;8(9):7-12]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080916.02.

 

Key words: Cattle, Infective Larvae, Nematodes, Pastures Contamination, Prevalence

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3

Results Of Research On Astrometeorology

 

Gangadhara Rao Irlapati

 

H.No.5-30-4/1, Saibaba Nagar, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad – 500 055, Telangana State, INDIA

Email ID: scientistgangadhar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Astrometeorology is thousands of years old based on astronomical positions that allegedly directly affect the weather on the earth. I have conducted many researches in the field of Astrometeorology and invented some related discoveries & inventions which may also be useful in understanding the extent of the use of Astrometeorology.

[Gangadhara Rao Irlapati. Results Of Research On Astrometeorology. Researcher 2016;8(9):13-44]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080916.03.

 

Key Words: Astrometeorology, Monsoons, Cyclones, Indian Monsoon Time Scale

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4

A Survey on Nano biosensor development and its functions

 

Fatemeh Bonyadi

 

M.Sc. of Medical Nanotechnology, Islamic Azad University, Pharmaceutical Branch, Advance Sciences and Technology College, Tehran, Iran

bonyadi93@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this survey is review of Nano biosensor development and conspiring its function in different field. Nano biosensors are capable of penetration and location at specific sites within single living cells, which is made possible through developments in Nano biotechnology. Advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of nanoscale biosensors that have exquisite sensitivity and versatility. The ultimate goal of Nano biosensors is to detect any biochemical and biophysical signal associated with a specific disease at the level of a single molecule or cell. Nanotechnology has bestowed some highly exciting ingredients for the improvement of sensing phenomenon. The use of diverse nanomaterials and nanoparticles has enabled faster detection and its reproducibility in a much better way. For example, a number of particles have slow response times and are burdensome to patients. The goal of this combination is to utilize the high sensitivity and selectivity of biological sensing for analytical purposes in various fields of research and technology. Their applications include detection of microorganisms in various samples, monitoring of metabolites in body fluids and detection of tissue pathology such as cancer. The ability to detect pathogenic and physiologically relevant molecules in the body with high sensitivity and specificity offers a powerful opportunity in the early diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

[Fatemeh Bonyadi. A Survey on Nano biosensor development and its functions. Researcher 2016;8(9):45-50]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080916.04.

 

Keywords: Nano biosensor, nanotechnology, immunosensor

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5

Investigating of the Effect aromatic water of Citrus Aurantium flowers on the Anxiety-Like Behavior and locomotor Activity in the Male Rats

 

Manoochehr Yousefi1*, Araz Nazari2

 

1*.Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Higher Educational Complex, Saravan, Iran

2.MSc of physical education and Sport sciences, Higher Educational complex of Saravan, Iran

*Email: manouchehr.yousefi2001@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Anxiety is a common disorder that a lot of people suffer from it and accompanies physiologic symptoms such as tachycardia, perspiration disorders, lack of sense and sometimes paralysis of limbs etc. Method: In this study, anxiolytic effects of aromatic water of Citrus Aurantium flowers in male rats were assessed compare to the control group. In order to do this, 14 male rats weighing 250 to 350 grams were applied. The rats were divided into two groups of control and experimental each including 7 rats. For 2 weeks before test the experimental group had free access to aromatic water of Citrus Aurantium flowers without any drinking water and the control group had free access to distilled water of course free access to food for two groups had established. Then, the behavior of rats was tested in order to increase physical activities and the curiosity of the rats in 5 minutes in an elevated plus-maze. The obtained results were analyzed using independent sample t-test through SPSS. Findings: The study revealed that although aromatic water of Citrus Aurantium flowers did not have anxiolytic effects on male rat, it only had significant sedative effects.

[Manoochehr Yousefi, Araz Nazari. Investigating of the Effect aromatic water of Citrus Aurantium flowers on the Anxiety-Like Behavior and locomotor Activity in the Male Rats. Researcher 2016;8(9):51-55]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080916.05.

 

Keywords: elevated plus-maze, anxiety, rat

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6

Survey On Botnet Detection Techniques

 

Dr. Pervaiz khan Rabbani And Umair Mujtaba

 

Abstract: Internet security problems remain a major challenge with many security concerns such as Internet worms, spam, and phishing attacks. Botnet has recently been recognized as one of the most significant security threats/worms of the Internet. Botnet attacks degrade the status of Internet security. Although research on the topic of botnets is relatively new, it has been the subject of increasing interest in recent years and has spawned a growing number of publications. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the latest techniques for botnet detection, in addition to figuring out the trends of previous and current research. In this paper we discuss some of the botnet detection techniques and compare their advantages, disadvantages and features used in each technique.

[Pervaiz khan Rabbani AND Umair Mujtaba. Survey On Botnet Detection Techniques. Researcher 2016;8(9):56-62]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080916.06.

 

Keywords: Survey; Botnet; Detection; Technique

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7

Estimate of catch per unit effort of ‘shark’ in inshore Atlantic off Ibaka, Nigeria

 

Eyo Ambrose and Isangedighi Isangedighi

 

Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Environmental Management, University of Uyo, PMB 1017, Uyo Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

E-mail: eyoambrose@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A study of shark (shark, skate and ray) fishery was conducted in inshore Atlantic Ocean off Ibaka, Cross River estuary with a view to providing baseline information for the conservation of shark, being an endangered species according to IUCN Red List. Study methods included reconnaissance and observer based surveys. The result showed that there is no fishery targeting shark as a single species. Gill net, long line and purse seine are the three shark fishing gears. Gill net and long line caught shark as a target species in multispecies ‘big fish’ fishery while purse seine caught shark as a by-catch in bonga fishery. There was no significant difference between the weights of shark caught by the three gears (F-test P > 0.05). The total weight and number of ‘shark’ caught by gill net, long line and purse seine were (408.82kg, 131) (536.9kg, 139), and (443.9kg, 110) respectively. Catch per unit effort was highest (6.28kg/man/hour) in long line ray fishery and the least (0.08kg/man/hour) was obtained in purse seine ray fishery. The result is discussed in terms of shark exploitation for protein food and shark conservation for future.

[Eyo Ambrose and Isangedighi Isangedighi. Estimate of catch per unit effort of ‘shark’ in inshore Atlantic off Ibaka, Nigeria. Researcher 2016;8(9):63-69]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080916.07.

 

Key Words: Red list, Shark, Inshore Atlantic, Nigeria.

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8

Assessment Of The Antibacterial Activities Of Some Aqueous Plant Extracts Against Erwinia Carotovora. Subsp. A Soft Rot Bacterium Of Vegetables

 

Ijato, J.Y

 

Department Of Plant Science, Faculty Of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, P.M.B 5363, Ekiti State, Nigeria

E-mail: considerureternity@gmail.com; GSM: 08067335124

 

Abstract: Erwinia carotovora is a gram-negative bacterium that causes soft rot disease on variety of crops. Jatropha curcas, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia amygdalina, Azardirachta indica and Bauhinia monandra were evaluated for their antibacterial effects on the growth of E. carotovora. Hundred grams of powdered leaves of each was mixed with 200ml of distilled cold H2O and left overnight. This was filtered and the filtrate served as extracts. The antibacterial activities of the test plant were determined using agar diffusion method. The effects of cold water leaf extracts of A. indica ranged from 0.55-2.85cm. It was most and least inhibitive at 5% and 20% on E. carotovora by 0.55cm and 2.85cm respectively, followed by J. curcas which had the highest and lowest inhibition at 5% and 20% on E. carotovora by 0.52cm and 1.68cm. V. amygdalina mostly reduced the growth of E. carotovora at 5% and 20% by 0.52cm and 0.73cm, followed by M. oleifera which was most antimicrobial on E. carotovora at 5% by 0.12cm while 20% of M. oleifera extracts highly reduced the growth of E. carotovora by 2.27cm. B. monandra was most and least inhibitive at 5% and 20% on E. carotovora by 0.20cm and 1.69cm respectively. The results showed that, the higher the concentration of different aqueous leaf extracts, the higher the inhibitory capacity on E. carotovora.

[Ijato, J.Y. Assessment Of The Antibacterial Activities Of Some Aqueous Plant Extracts Against Erwinia Carotovora. Subsp. A Soft Rot Bacterium Of Vegetables. Researcher 2016;8(9):70-72]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080916.08.

 

Keywords: antibacterial activities, E. carotovora, aqueous leaf extracts

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9

Antibacterial effects of guava plant (Psidium guajava Linn) on some pathogenic microbes

 

1* Ijato, J.Y and 2Onisuru, O.O

 

1Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

2CHI pharmaceuticals Limited, 14 chivita Avenue, Ajao Estate Isolo, Lagos

E-mail: considerureternity@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Various parts of guava plant are used in the tropic as herbs in curing dysentery, gastro intestinal disorder, typhoid fever, diarrhoea and other bacterial infections due to their antibacterial activities. Antibacterial sensitivities of ethanol, hot and cold water extracts of guava leaf, bark and fruit were tested against ten human pathogenic bacteria using cup plate agar diffusion method (plate diffusion method). The result showed that ethanol fruit extracts of guava exhibited the highest phytotoxicity against Bacillus subtilis (1.80cm,) this was closely followed by Klebsiella pneumonia and Streptococcus faecalis (1.70cm) while clostridium sporogenes and Staphylococcus aureus showed resistance to both leaf and fruits extracts, except the bark extracts. Staphylococcus aureus was most inhibited by both cold and hot water fruit extract of guava by 1.40cm and 7.00cm respectively. Moreover, Staphylococcus aureus (2.10cm) was most inhibited by leaf extract of guava, followed by Bacillus cereus (1.90cm). However, Bacillus cereus (1.70cm) was most inhibited by cold water extract of guava leaf. Hot water leaf extract of guava was most inhibitive by 1.80cm against Bacillus cereus, Clostridium sporogenes, and Bacillus subtilis. Ethanol bark extract of guava most inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.00cm). Hot water leaf extract of guava was most antibacterial on Klebsiella pneumonia (1.40cm) while Escherichia coli (1.50cm) was most retarded by cold water of leaf extract of guava. The activity of guava extracts is bactericidal on the test pathogenic microbes.

[Ijato, J.Y and Onisuru, O.O. Antibacterial effects of guava plant (Psidium guajava Linn) on some pathogenic microbes. Researcher 2016;8(9):73-76]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080916.09.

 

Keyword: guava plant, human pathogenic microbes, plant extracts

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10

Review On Diagnostic Cytology: Techniques And Applications In Veterinary Medicine

 

Lema Ayele, Chala Mohammed, Lama Yimer

 

Wollega University, School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box: 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia

Tel: +251917081237; E-mail: lemayimer@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Cytology is a science of cells that is used to differentiate between normal cells, neoplastic cells and inflamed cells. It has great acceptance than any other diagnostic methods due to its quickness, inexpensiveness and simplicity. It uses the techniques such as fine needle aspiration, impression, scraping, swabs, centesis and catheterization for sample collection. Also slide preparation uses a simple technique such as squash, blood smear; needle spread and line smear techniques. What makes cytology unique is that it can tell us the result of the diseases while the patient is with us. This science has also wide application on determining the external and internal diseases including neoplastic diseases. In case of neoplastic diseases it is important to differentiate between neoplastic nucleus, neoplastic cytoplasm and neoplastic structure of different cells with their normal cells. In addition to these, it also used in direct therapy, to form prognosis and to determinate next diagnostic procedures. Character of the lesion and tissue sampled play pivotal roles in the diagnostic value of cytology. Familiarity with preferred sampling methods and reported accuracy is critical for veterinary practitioners and sample of good quality is imperative. Different specimen sampling methods and specimen processing methods should be properly practiced.

[Lema Ayele, Chala Mohammed, Lama Yimer. Review On Diagnostic Cytology: Techniques And Applications In Veterinary Medicine. Researcher 2016;8(9):77-88]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080916.10.

 

Key words: Diagnostic Cytology, Techniques, Tumor

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11

Identification of some cyanobacterial strainsby molecular methods

 

Nermin Adel El Semary1,2, Mohamed Osman2 and Heba El Sayed2

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Faisal University, Al Hofuf, Al Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Post code: 31982

2Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.  Postcode: 11795, Egypt

nelsemary@kfu.edu.sa, nerminel_semary@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Cyanobacteria are reported to be aprolificsource of bioactive compounds and enzymes. Different protocols were tested for the extraction of DNA of cyanobacterial strains.  23S rRNA gene molecular analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction the reaction yielded single PCR amplicon for each cyanobacterial strain tested.

[Nermin Adel El Semary, Mohamed Osmanand Heba El Sayed. Identification of some cyanobacterial strains by molecular methods Researcher 2016;8(9):89-91]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online).http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080916.11.

 

Key words: Cyanobacteria, 23SrRNA gene,amplicon,phylogenetic analysis

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12

Exploration on Fabrication and Analysis of suitability composite leaf spring on vehicles and their advantages

 

Prabhakaran M1, Dr Rajendran M2

 

1.  Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

2.  Professor and Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.

Email: prabhakaranmphd@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The subject gives a brief look on the suitability of composite leaf spring on vehicles and their advantages. Efforts have been made to reduce the cost of composite leaf spring to that of steel leaf spring. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very replacement material for convectional steel. Material and manufacturing process are selected upon on the cost and strength factor. The design method is selected on the basis of mass production. From the comparative study, it is seen that the composite leaf spring are higher and more economical than convectional leaf spring.

[Prabhakaran M, Rajendran M. Exploration on Fabrication and Analysis of suitability composite leaf spring on vehicles and their advantages. Researcher 2016;8(9):92-96]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 12. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080916.12.

 

Keywords: Fabrication, Leaf Spring, Manufacturing and Process

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13

Problem Solving Performance in Mathematics: A survey of Secondary School’s Students in Pakistan

 

Dr Amir Zaman1, Dr Riasat Ali2

 

Department of Education, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan

amirzaman69@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main aim of this study was to assess problem solving performance of grade 9th students. A test of reasoning was administered to a sample of above 500 hundred. The results show differential performance of the students. Item wise performance with background variable as school sector shows that performance of private schools students was significantly better than students of public schools. Similarly male and urban students performed well than female and rural students respectively. Interaction analysis of gender, rural urban divide shows that some items show interaction effect by behaving differently in response to background variables.

[Dr Amir Zaman, Dr Riasat Ali. Problem Solving Performance in Mathematics: A survey of Secondary School’s Students in Pakistan. Researcher 2016;8(9):97-101]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 13. doi:10.7537/marsrsj080916.13.

 

Keywords: Problem Solving, Assessment, Mathematics Education

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from August 30, 2016. 

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