Science Journal


ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly
Volume 8 - Issue 11 (Cumulated No. 89), November 25, 2016
 Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher0811

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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Antimicrobial Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Aloe vera


1J. Ladan, 2B.T. Thomas, 1Q.C. Ogueri and 3O.A Oso


1Department of Disease Control and Immunization, National Primary Health Care Development Agency, Abuja

2Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

3Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-araba, Lagos, Nigeria


Abstract: This study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Aloe vera using standard techniques. Results obtained revealed reasonable antimicrobial activities on the tested organisms to varying zone of inhibitions. The activities however were found to be concentration dependent while no apparent statistical disparity was observed with the different extracting solvents (tvalue = 0.88, p>0.05). The minimum inhibitory dilution of both extracts range from 25-100mg/ml. It can thus be inferred that the tested Aloe vera has good antimicrobial properties.

[J. Ladan, B.T. Thomas, Q.C. Ogueri and O.A Oso. Antimicrobial Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Aloe vera. Researcher 2016;8(11):1-5]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj081116.01.


Keywords: Aloe vera, microorganisms, antimicrobial

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Ecological Factors Determining the Distribution and Abundance of Vectors of Human Mosquito Borne-Infections in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.


Ebuzoeme, Vincent


Department of Biological Science, University of Abuja, Nigeria.


Abstract: The study of ecological factors determining the distribution and species abundance of vectors of human mosquito borne-infections was undertaken in four selected communities in some parts of Gwagwalada, an Area Council in Abuja, Nigeria. These sites are Tunganmaje, Paiko Kore, Kutunku and Dobi. Approximately sixty three percent (63%) of the mosquitoes bred in clear water while 18.50% mostly Culex was found to breed in water containing turbid matter. All mosquito genera encountered were collected from shallow water and none were found in deep water habitats. All genera of mosquito breed in shaded and sun-lit habitats. Culex mosquitoes breed in all types of habitat both with and without vegetation cover, while none were found in floating plants. Culex was only collected in habitats with vegetative cover except the presence of algae while Anopheles preferred both habitats with or without vegetation cover except those with floating plants. The Simpson’s indices of diversity for the types of breeding sites, species of mosquito and their seasonal distribution varied significantly (P<0.01) in this study. Most identified habitats were largely associated with human activities. When seeking novel avenues for ecological control of mosquitoes and mosquito borne diseases, mosquito breeding behavior should receive more attention.

[Ebuzoeme, Vincent. Ecological Factors Determining the Distribution and Abundance of Vectors of Human Mosquito Borne-Infections in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Researcher 2016;8(11):6-10]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj081116.02.


Keywords: Distribution, larvae, habitats, ecological factors

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The effect of capital structure on agency costs of free cash flow in companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange


Ahad Rezaei monfared1*, Mahmod Ghaytasvand2**


*Department of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, khorramshahr, iran

**Department of Accounting, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad university, Abadan, iran


Abstract: The aim of this study is to verify capital structure on agency costs of free cash flow in companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. In the line of reach to this aim, it is explain three hypotheses and has tested by selecting 130 companies among companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange during 6 years, since 2009 to 2014. Present methodology is application in terms of end and is descriptive and correlational and it has used from combinatory regression and panel data models to test the hypothesis. The results of the statistical analysis of hypotheses show hat company agency costs is under the effect of financing costs (capital structure), so the main hypothesis was accepted.

[Ahad Rezaei monfared, Mahmod Ghaytasvand. The effect of capital structure on agency costs of free cash flow in companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. Researcher 2016;8(11):11-15]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj081116.03.


Keywords: capital structure, agency costs, free cash flow, exchange.

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The New Prime theorems491-540


Jiang, Chun-Xuan


Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL34682-1577, USA

And: P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, China,,,,


Abstract: Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This is the Book proof. In this paper using Jiang function  we prove that the new prime theorems (491)-540) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions.From (6) we are able to find the smallest solution. . This is the Book theorem.

[Jiang, Chun-Xuan. The New Prime theorems491-540. Researcher 2016;8(11):16-67]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj081116.04

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Studies On Physicochemical Parameters Of Lakes In And Around Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India


Sayed Tasin1, Shaikh Parveen R. 2, & Sirisha D. 3


1Department of Civil Engineering, VIF College of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2School of Earth Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur, Maharashtra, India

3Department of Environmental Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Advance studies, Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the water quality of five important lakes - Osman Sagar, Himayat Sagar, Langer House Lake, Jeedimetla Lake, Patan Cheruvu Lake which are located in and around Hyderabad. The sampling points were selected on the basis of their importance. The surface water samples were taken from the above said lakes during the period of winter in the month of October and November 2011. Water samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters like pH, conductivity, turbidity, chlorides, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), phosphate, sulphate, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The present study showed detailed physico-chemical characteristics and quality of water of five studied important lakes. From the present investigation, it indicated that Langer House Lake, Jeedimetla Lake and Patancheru Lake are polluted, hence making it unsuitable for human consumption. The Lakes Osman Sagar and Hiamayat Sagar shows concentrations of all the physicochemical parameters well below the desirable limit recommended by BIS, thus the water of Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar most suitable for survival of the fishes and for supply of drinking water to the Hyderabad city. A direct effect of human activities on the pollution status was observed in all the lakes. The overall objective of this work was to investigate the lake water quality and suggests the means to improve the lake water quality.

[Sayed Tasin, Shaikh Parveen R., & Sirisha D. Studies On Physicochemical Parameters Of Lakes In And Around Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Researcher 2016;8(11):68-72]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj081116.05.


Keywords: Hyderabad, Lake Pollution; Physico-chemical Parameters; water Quality

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A review on Lumpy Skin Disease


Haile Agonafir1, Mebrie Zemene2, Beruktayet Wondu3* Gashaw Getaneh3, Mengestie Abebaw1, Ayalew Negash3 and Yergashewa Mamuye1


1University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Medicine.

2 University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pharmacy, Gondar, Ethiopia, B.O.B. 196.

3*University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biomedical science, Gondar, Ethiopia, B.O.B. 196.


Abstract: The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology, clinical sign, diagnosis, economic significance, control and prevention of lumpy skin disease. Lumpy skin disease is an acute infectious disease of cattle endemic in most Sub-Saharan African countries. It is caused by lumpy skin disease virus in the genus Capripoxvirus. It is a disease with a high morbidity and low mortality rate that affects cattle of all ages and breeds. However, Bostaurus cattle breeds are more susceptible than Bosindicus breeds, and young animals often experience more severe disease than adults. The most important method of transmission is mechanically through biting flies. The incidence of lumpy skin disease is high during wet seasons when biting-fly populations are abundant. The disease is characterized by fever, development of firm, well demarked nodules on the skin, mucous membranes and internal aspects of the body and enlargement of the local drainage lymph nodes. The diagnosis of lumpy skin disease is based on history, clinical signs and laboratory confirmation. There is no specific treatment for lumpy skin disease, but animals can be treated with antibiotics to prevent secondary infections. Vaccinations, animal movement restriction, quarantine, insect control, slaughter and proper disposal of animals and contaminated material are the basic methods to control lumpy skin disease. The disease has a significant economic importance to cattle industry due to reduction in production, damaged hides and deaths. Therefore, appropriate control and prevention methods should be carried out to overcome the economic loss associated with the disease.

[Haile Agonafir, Mebrie Zemene, Beruktayet Wondu Gashaw Getaneh, Mengestie Abebaw, Ayalew Negash and Yergashewa Mamuye. A review on Lumpy Skin Disease. Researcher 2016;8(11):73-80]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj081116.06.


Key words: Cattle, Lumpy skin disease, lumpy skin disease virus, vaccination.

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Chemical water quality monitoring in terms of agriculture and drinking in the city of Fasa


Marjan TalebInia1, Khadijeh Rahimi Balkanlou2, Saeed Shojaei3*


1M.S. student of Combating Desertification, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran

2Ph.D. Student of Desertification at University of Kashan, Department of Desert Engineering, Faculty of Natural

Resources and Geo Sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

3Ph.D. Student of Desertification, Department of Management the Arid and Desert Regions, College of Natural Resources and Desert Yazd University, Yazd, Iran


Abstract: In past years, Water resource limitation is one of most important challenges of human life. Poor management of this resource, growing competition in fresh water consumption and quality degradation; only exacerbate the problem of water scarcity (dairy et al). Increasing concentration of population is the one of important factors that affect quality of water resources. This is common factor of excessive stress on arid regions water resources.

[TalebInia M, Rahimi Balkanlou K, Shojaei S. Chemical water quality monitoring in terms of agriculture and drinking in the city of Fasa. Researcher 2016;8(11):81-84]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj081116.07.


Keywords: Chemical; water; quality; monitoring; agriculture; drinking; city; Fasa

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A Study on Physico-chemical and Microbiological Parameters of Ground Water in Different Locations of Gwalior City (M.P.), India.


Raushani Raj* and Roushan K. Thakur


Department of Biotechnology, I.A.S.C.A, ITM University, Gwalior, (Madhya Pradesh), India.



Abstract: The present study was aimed at assessing the ground water quality characteristics of Gwalior City. A comprehensive physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was conducted after the ground water samples were collected from different sampling locations. The study was carried out by collecting four ground water samples (two bore wells and two municipal supply water) during January-March 2012. The results were compared with Standards prescribed by WHO and ISI-10500-91. The parameters include temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total alkalinity (TA), Chlorides (Cl-), Total hardness (TH), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Total aerobic microbial count (TAMC) and Bacterial count (MPN/100 mg/l coliforms). The observation of the study strongly suggests that water of Gwalior region is of very high TDS and needs to be lowered down within prescribed limits before using it for drinking purposes. The present work is primary attempt to examine the water quality of various potable water resources in and around Gwalior City of M.P., India.

[Raushani Raj and Roushan K. Thakur. A Study on Physico-chemical and Microbiological Parameters of Ground Water in Different Locations of Gwalior City (M.P.), India. Researcher 2016;8(11):85-90]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj081116.08.


Keywords: - Ground Water, MPN, Microbiological, Physico-chemical analysis, TPC

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The Prevalence Of Malaria In Yangoji And Gwagwalada Communities Of The Fct, Abuja.


Ayeni JoshuaAyokunle, Malann Yoila David.


Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Abuja, Nigeria.


Abstract: A survey of the prevalence of malariaamong subjects presented with fibril illness in Yangoji and Gwagwalada areas of the Federal Capital Territory, was conducted from June 2015 to January 2016 at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital in Gwagwalada and the Primary Health Care Centre in Yangoji, Kwali Area Council. A total of 500 individuals resident in Gwagwalada and Yangoji were examined for the presence of malaria parasiteamia microscopically. In Yangoji a rural community, of the 250 individuals sampled, the result showed a prevalence rate of 54.40% while the 250 number of individuals examined in Gwagwalada an urban settlement a prevalence rate of 47.20% was established. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of malaria between Yangoji and Gwagwalada (P-value > 0.05). There tends to be higher prevalence of malaria parasiteamia among males in both rural and urban areas 61.90% and 52.21% than females 48.96% and 43.07% respectively. Parasite intensity ranges from 102.00l to 1590.90l. Plasmodium falciparum was found to be the most prevalent species 87.78% and 89.87%, followed by P. vivax 6.49% and 5.26, while mixed infection was 5.73% and 4.86% respectively in the urban and rural areas. No observation of P.malariea and p. ovale. was encountered.

[Ayeni J.A, Malann Y.D. The Prevalence Of Malaria In Yangoji And Gwagwalada Communities Of The Fct, Abuja. Researcher 2016;8(11):91-96]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj081116.09.


Keywords: Prevalence, Malaria, Parasite Intensity.

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Empowerment of rural women and micro-credit programs in world


Zeynab Behzadi


Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran



Abstract: Rural women constitute about half of the world’s population and in the world production supply they have energetic communion and constitute a great part of agriculture workforce. They constitute 50% of the workforce and they participate in the production of half of the foods in the agriculture section. As an example the rural women constitute about 70 to 80% of agriculture workforce in sub-Saharan Africa, 65% in Asia, 45% in Latin American & Caribbean, 80% in Nigeria & Tunisia and 80% in India, but their role in production system is the men’s supplements roles and this causes a big responsibility inside their mother & wife duties and it takes a great time and energy of them. Studies in this field show that women spend about two thirds of their time for production, management & organize of their house as the men spend only one third of their time for such things. rural woman helps to prepare farm, then she plows, harvests, does weeding and transplants, does milking and also acts as shepherd, weaves carpet, tries to make tools and handicrafts, bakes bread, cooks, does housekeeping duties, fetches water from water sources and from distances, fetches firewood, cares children, spins wool and makes curd, buttermilk, yogurt, butter and oil. In addition to all these, she is mother and family supervisor too. In spite of that rural women in developing countries are producer of about 80% of foods and responsible of supervising of about 30% of rural families, but their activities wasn’t considered as economic activity and simply are removed from agriculture and rural development programs.

[Zeynab Behzadi. Empowerment of rural women and micro-credit programs in world. Researcher 2016;8(11):97-101]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj081116.10.


Keywords: empowerment, rural women, micro-credit

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from November 5, 2016. 

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