Science Journal


ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi:10.7537/marsrsj, Monthly
Volume 9 - Issue 1 (Cumulated No. 91), January 25, 2017
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Assessment of knowledge attitude and practice of mothers regarding diarrhea and its management after twenty five years of the National Control of Diarrheal Disease Project


Arafa Mahmoud Ismail1, Hassan Ali Hassan1, Osama Abd Elaziz Fakher2 and Mahmoud Taher El Mogy1


1Pediatrics and neonatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt


Abstract: Background: Diarrhea occurs worldwide and causes 4% of all deaths. It is most commonly caused by gastrointestinal infections which kill around 2.2 million people globally each year, mostly children in developing countries. In 2008, Egypt prevalence of diarrhea in children aged under five years who receiving Oral Rehydration Solution is 28.4 %. Aim of the study was to assess mothers' knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dairrhea and its management after twenty five years of the National Control Of Diarrheal Disease Project. Subject and Method: cross sectional study was used. It included 600 randomly selected mothers from Al Hussien University Hospital, El Sayed Galal Universiry Hospital, Kom Hamada Hospital and Manshiet El-Bakry Hospital. Data Collection from mothers through two tools; first tool was interview questionnaire sheet. It consisted of two parts; first part included Socio-demographic data and the second part mothers' knowledge. Results: The mean age of mothers SD was 26.08 5.401, with no significant relation between mothers' age and their knowledge regarding diarrhea. As regards level of education, it was observed that about than two fifth (40.7%) of mothers were illiterate, while only 9.3% of them were high education. 57.8 % of mothers had satisfactory knowledge of about diarrhea. While, 86.2% of them had positive attitude towards diarrheal disease. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between mothers' knowledge and their education level. Also, there was a significant difference between numbers of diarrheal episodes and type of feeding. Recommendations: It is very important to provide good sanitation and improvement of housing conditions especially in rural areas.

[Arafa Mahmoud Ismail, Hassan Ali Hassan, Osama Abd Elaziz Fakher and Mahmoud Taher El Mogy. Assessment of knowledge attitude and practice of mothers regarding diarrhea and its management after twenty five years of the National Control of Diarrheal Disease Project. Researcher 2017;9(1):1-9]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090117.01.


Keywords: Diarrhea; Management; Knowledge; Attitude

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Immediate and short-term effect of balloonmitral valvuloplasty on circumferential strain, global and regional biventricular systolic function: a two-dimensionalstrain echocardiographic study


Mohey Alabaady, Abdelrhman Ali, Mostafa Alsawasany, Mohammed Al-Deftar and Ahmed Saeed Swailum


Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.


Abstract: Background: Two-dimensional strain has been developed for the quantitative assessment of global and regional myocardial function. Two-dimensional strain represents a novel technique to predict subclinical ventricular dysfunction in many diseases as ischemic heart disease with preserved ventricular function and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We use this technique in assessing regional, global longitudinal strain of both LV and RV and circumferential strain of LV before and after BMV done for patients with Rheumatic MS. Introduction: Mitral stenosis (MS) is the most common valve lesion in chronic RHD. Several mechanisms have been postulated to explain left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction in patients with MS, including chronically reduced preload, resulting in adverse LV remodeling, and the extension of inflammatory process from the mitral valve apparatus into the adjacent myocardium. Systolic dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV) is well documented in patients with rheumatic MS; RV dysfunction is usually overlooked before the emergence of clinical signs of systemic venous congestion because of difficulties in the quantitative of RV function. Aim of the study: Assessment of the immediate and short term effect of balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV) on circumferential strain, global and regional biventricular systolic function using 2D TTE strain. Methods and results: Twenty patients with mitral stenosis (MS) and 20 healthy subjects underwent full echocardiographic examinations, including left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) regional and global longitudinal strain (GLS) measurements. In MS patients, measurements were repeated within 24 h and 1 month after BMV. Patients with MS had lower LV and RV GLS compared with control (15.151.76 vs 20.951.43, P<0.001) and (17.552.45 vs -19.352.54 VS, P=0.031), respectively, at baseline before BMV. Significant decrease was noted in the basal and septal segments compared with the apical LV segments and basal RV free wall. BMV resulted in significant improvement in LV and RV GLS within 24 h post-BMV compared with baseline values (P < 0. 001 and <0.001, respectively), an improvement which was maintained after month. There was significant positive correlation between both LV and RV GLS at baseline and mitral valve mean pressure gradient and RV systolic pressure and significant inverse correlation between LV GLS and MVA. Conclusion: MS patients have subclinical LV and RV systolic dysfunction by GLS despite normal ejection fraction and fractional area change. BMV results in marked improvement in LV and RV GLS as well as CS immediately post-BMV with trend towards normalization at follow-up after 1 month. A mixed etiology theory involving a myocardial as well as a hemodynamic factor is believed to be the cause for this subclinical biventricular dysfunction and its improvement at short-term follow-up post-BMV. Recommendations: The presence of subclinical affection of LV function in patients with MS and the significant sustained improvement in GLS of LV & RV also CS during short-term follow-up post-BMV proved in this study should have their impact on the current guidelines for BMV, so that we may consider in the future BMV for patients with impaired LV GLS in order to protect these patients from developing progressive LV systolic dysfunction. In addition, we recommend further study of the CS of LV in order to detect subclinical affection in patients with MS.

[Mohey Alabaady, Abdelrhman Ali, Mostafa Alsawasany, Mohammed Al-Deftar and Ahmed Saeed Swailum. Immediate and short-term effect of balloonmitral valvuloplasty oncircumferential strain, global and regionalbiventricular systolic function: a two-dimensionalstrain echocardiographic study. Researcher 2017;9(1):10-20]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090117.02.


Keywords: Two-dimensional strain - Global longitudinal strain – Circumferential strain –balloon mitral valvuloplasty - mitral valve area – Rheumatic heart disease - mitral stenosis.

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Quality Evaluation of Instant Noodles Produced From Composite Breadfruit Flour


Tijani, Akeem O. 1, Oke, Emmanuel K. 2, Bakare, Henry A. 3 and Tayo, Tawakalitu R.1


1. National Biotechnology Development Agency, Owode Yewa, Ogun state, Nigeria

2. Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

3. Department of Hospitality and Tourism, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria


Abstract: Noodles are widely consumed throughout the world and their global consumption is second only to bread. Wheat flour and breadfruit flour were used in ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 to produce instant noodles from wheat-breadfruit composite flour. Proximate, chemical and sensory attributes were investigated. The moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre, protein and carbohydrate ranged from 2.50 to 3.50%, 0.80 to 1.74%, 5.0 to 18.0%, 0.86 to 1.26%, 12.4 to 19.0% and 64.4 to 69.8% respectively. The result obtained from the proximate analysis showed that increase in percentage of breadfruit flour in the noodles sample gave an increase on total ash, crude fibre and protein content respectively. Significant differences (p< 0.05) were observed in the chemical composition (free fatty acid and peroxide value) and the sensory attributes (colour, aroma, appearance, flavour, taste and texture) of the instant noodles produced from wheat-breadfruit flour. However, noodles produced from 100% wheat flour were the most accepted by the panelist.

[Tijani, A.O., Oke, E.K., Bakare, H.A, Tayo, T.R. Quality Evaluation of Instant Noodles Produced From Composite Breadfruit Flour. Researcher 2017;9(1):21-26]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090117.03.


Keywords: Breadfruit, wheat, instant noodles

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Predictive Factors for Safe and Effictive Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Children


Abdel-Rahman I. Ebeid, Gamal I. Selmy, Hisham A. Elhelaly, Ibrahim S. Ibrahim and Hussin Galal


Urology Department; Faculty of medicine; Al Azahar University, Cairo, Egypt.


Abstract: Purpose: This study proposed to assess the safety and efficacy of PCNL in children less than 18 years of age with renal stones. Materials and Methods: All children below 18 years of age with renal stones who will be undergoing PCNL at Urology, Department of Al-Hussein and Bab El-shaarya University Hospitals January 2007 to July 2015. Results: A total of eighty children with renal calculi was admitted for PCNL. The cases included 50 (62.5%) males and 30 (37.5%) females; Mean patient age was 13.11 4.22 years (range 5 - 18 years, median 11.5 years). Mean hospitalization was 4.012.0 days. Intraoperative complications include bleeding (11.25%), extravasations (22.25%), colonic injury (1.25%) and pelvic injury (3.75%). Postoperative complications include early complications as fever (5%), urinary leakage (13.75%) and intolerable pain (2.5%). Conclusion: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the treatment of choice for most renal calculi in children. The proficiency is effective and safe in children, with a high success rate and a less rate of major complications.

[Abdel-Rahman I. Ebeid, Gamal I. Selmy, Hisham A. Elhelaly, Ibrahim S. Ibrahim and Hussin Galal. Predictive Factors for Safe and Effictive Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Children. Researcher 2017;9(1):27-31]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090117.04.


Key Words: Minimally invasive, pediatric urolithiasis, Guy’s stone score, PCNL

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Investigation Different Aspects of Crime against Women and Foreigners in United States of America


Mostafa Bazzialahri


MSc of Criminal Law and Criminology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Khorasan Razavi, Iran.


Abstract: The main purpose of this study is investigation different aspects of crime against women and foreigners in United States of America. USA is one of the most dangerous countries for foreigners and unfortunately, many of basic human rights specially for black women are ignored. Several organizations tries to gather accurate information about level of crimes, distribution of crimes, and type of crimes throughout of USA. However, there are many difficulties to achieve the huge information about discrimination and crime that imposed on women and foreigners as tourists or residents in USA. In the surveys performed in the United States of America, the survey with the date of 2016 takes our attention. Just in one minute of time, 24 people becomes a victim of spousal violence by raping, physical violence and stalking 15% of women is exposed to be raped, physical violence and stalking. Finally, strategies that Black women use to cope with gendered racial micro aggressions were discussed. Of course, it is important to note the difference between the number of crimes, which take place, and the number that are reported.

[Mostafa Bazzialahri. Investigation Different Aspects of Crime against Women and Foreigners in United States of America. Researcher 2017;9(1):32-36]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090117.05.


Keywords: Crime, Black Women, Foreigners, USA

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Proximate and Sensory Evaluation of Kunun-zaki with Defatted Soybean and African Yam Bean


Akinsola, Akinjide O.,*1 Idowu, Oyeyemi A., 2 Oke, Emmanuel K.,3 Laniran, Abigail M.1 and Sumonu, Basirat A.2


1.  Department of Home Economics, Federal College of Education (Special), Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria

2.  Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria

3.  Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria


Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the proximate and sensory evaluation of Kunun-zaki samples enriched with defatted Soybean and African yam bean (AYB). Soybeans, sorghum grains and African yam bean (AYB) were sorted, wet milled and defatted respectively. 100% Sorghum was used as the control sample in production of the kunun-zaki (Sample A) while defatted Soybean was substituted with Sorghum at a ratio of 50:50 (Sample B) and African yam bean (AYB) was substituted to sorghum at the ratio of 50:50 for the production of kununzaki (Sample C). All the kunun-zaki samples produced were subjected to proximate analysis and sensory evaluation using nine point hedonic scale of preference. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significant means were separated using Duncan multiple range test. Moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, total ash and carbohydrate content of the kunun-zaki ranged from 81.32 to 88.53%, 4.18 to 6.08%, 0.30 to 0.35%, 1.08 to 1.77%,1.71 to 1.99% and 2.30 to 10.86%. The sensory evaluation of kunun-zaki produced from sorghum, defatted soybean and African yam bean were all acceptable by the panelist. In conclusion, the study shown that the use of defatted soybean substitution as well as African yam bean (AYB) is feasible in kunun-zaki beverage production at an acceptable ratio of 50:50.

[Akinsola, A.O., Idowu, O.A., Oke, E.K, Laniran, A.M, Sumonu, B.A. Proximate and Sensory Evaluation of Kununzaki with Defatted Soybean and African Yam Bean. Researcher 2017;9(1):37-40]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090117.06.


Keywords: Proximate, sensory, kunun-zaki

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Misbehavior Node Detection in Vehicular ad-hoc Networks: A survey, With Special Emphasis on Multihop Broadcast Protocols


Zahra Soltani Mohammadi 1, Kiarash Mizanian 1, Mehdi Agha Sarram 1, Salman Goli 2


1. Department of Computer Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

2. Department of Computer Engineering, Kashan University, Kashan, Iran


Abstract: VANETs are a subset of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) in which communication nodes are mainly vehicles. Communication in Vehicular ad hoc Network relies on cooperation between vehicles but, a node may behave malicious or selfish in order to get advantage over other vehicles. A misbehaving node may transmit false alerts, tamper messages, create congestion in the network, drop, delay and duplicate packets. Thus, detecting misbehavior in VANET is very crucial and indispensable as it might have disastrous consequences. This paper presents a detailed survey on some of the important research works proposed on detecting misbehavior and malicious nodes in VANETs. In addition to that we emphasis on misbehavior detection in multi hop broadcast protocols because of their importance in information dissemination in VANETs. This paper outlines several research scopes to make VANET more reliable and secure.

[Soltani Mohammadi Z, Mizanian K, Sarram MA, Goli S. Misbehavior Node Detection in Vehicular ad-hoc Networks: A survey, With Special Emphasis on Multihop Broadcast Protocols. Researcher 2017;9(1):41-46]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090117.07.


Keywords: Vehicular ad-hoc Networks; Misbehavior Node detection; Multi Hop Broadcast; Security

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Evaluation Of Sulphates Attack On Concrete


Olaolu G. Fadugba1 and Bamitale D. Oluyemi-Ayibiowu1, Adesola O. Adetukasi2


1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Federal University of Technology, Akure Nigeria

2Department of Civil Engineering, Yaba College of Technology, Lagos Nigeria


Abstract. This paper evaluates the effect of sulphates ion attack on concrete marine structures and deep foundations. The main variable investigated is the effect of three different industrial salts-sulphates: Sodium Sulphate (Na2SO4), Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO4) and Ammonium Sulphate (NH4)2SO4). Concrete cubes of 100mm by 100mm were cast and immersed into the sulphates solutions of 2.5g/l concentration. The compressive strength and Schmidt Hammer test on the mortar were studied at ages 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively, cubes immersed in sodium sulphate environment has an incredibly low compressive strength of 19.1N/mm2 at 28 days as against the normal 215N/mm2 specified by the BS 5328; Part 1; 1991. Surface hardness of the cubes in all the environments increased with age, with the cubes in the sodium sulphate environment having the least surface hardness which shows that Sodium sulphate environment causes severe attack on concrete.

[Olaolu G. Fadugba and Bamitale D. Oluyemi-Ayibiowu, Adesola O. Adetukasi. Evaluation Of Sulphates Attack On Concrete. Researcher 2017;9(1):47-52]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090117.08.


Keywords: Sulphate ions, Concrete cubes, Compressive strength, Schmidt Hammer

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A study on Anaemia among Adolescent Girls in District pulwama


Irshad Ahmad, Syed Bushra Muzamil


Employee department of Education Central University of Kashmir, Dept. of drinking water and sanitation of J&K


Abstract: India has the world’s highest prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among women, with 60 to 70 percent of the adolescent girls being anaemic. Adolescence is considered as a nutritionally critical period of life. The present study is an effort to study the prevalence of iron deficiency of anaemia among adolescent girls. The study was conducted on a sample of 60 adolescent girl students from four different secondary schools of district pulwama. Self constructed Questionnaire was developed by the investigator were used for data collection. Significant results were found that the students which belong to govt. school are more anaemic than private schools.

[Irshad Ahmad, Syed Bushra Muzamil. A study on Anaemia among Adolescent Girls in District pulwama. Researcher 2017;9(1):53-61]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090117.09.


Keywords: study; Anaemia; Adolescent; Girl; District; pulwama

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Is therapy based on acceptance and commitment may increase the efficacy of divorced women under welfare organization?


Mozhgan Shaker


1-1-department of Clinical Psychology, Yazd science and research branch, Islamic Azad university, Yazd, Iran.

2-1- Department of Clinical Psychology, Yazd branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd. Iran.


Abstract: This research is carried out targeting the assessment of effectiveness of group therapy based on acceptance and commitment on social avoidance and general self-efficiency among the divorced women from Yazd City who are supported by Welfare Organization. At first, two centers were selected among the clinics and communities associated with Welfare using availability method, the women were asked to complete the questionnaires on social pressure, and avoidance and general self-efficiency in the next stage, 60 people who scored the least from the questionnaires were randomly divided into two test and control groups. Then 8 therapy sessions were held for the test group. In the meantime, the control group received no therapy. After these sessions, both groups were post-tested again. The result of covariance analysis showed that in the post-test of the test group, the scores of general self-efficiency increased. Therefore, we could conclude that group training of this therapy is effective on increasing of general self-efficiency of divorced women.

[Mozhgan Shaker. Is therapy based on acceptance and commitment may increase the efficacy of divorced women under welfare organization? Researcher 2017;9(1):62-69]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090117.10.


Keywords: social avoidance, general self-efficiency, divorce, therapy.

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Nutritional Value of Spent Brewers’ Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae): A Potential Replacement for Soya Bean in Poultry Feed Formulation


Patricia Fremu Chollom1, Ediga Bede Agbo2, Umaru Dass Doma2, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1*, Amos Gana Yisa3


1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

2Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.

3Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author:


Abstract: Background: The increase in the world population results in a rising protein demand which becomes the most important factor in accelerating the development of the poultry industry. Poultry requires nutrients such as protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals for growth and development. Protein source within the poultry feed contributes to the major cost in the fish industry. Thus, an evaluation of single cell protein, the spent brewer’s yeast (Sacchamormyces cereviciae) as a feed material was carried out to determine its potential application in poultry feed formulation. Methods: Spent brewers’ yeast (Saccharomyces cereviciae) was inactivated by boiling and then machine dried analysis analysed for nutritional value. Results: The crude protein was 40.52% dry basis with crude fibre of 4.31% also on dry basis. It had a metabolizable energy of 2606.07 kcal/kg. The amino acid analysis showed that both essential and non-essential amino acids were present. The essential amino acids included leucine (8.42%), valine (6.07%), threonine (5.65%), isoleucine (5.37%), phenylalanine (5.30%), arginine (4.74%) histidine (2.93%), lysine (2.93%) and tyrosine (2.73%). Non-essential amino acids included glutamic acid (14.98%), aspartic acid (11.98%), alanine (7.26%), serine (5.75%), proline (4.84%) and glycine (4.83%). Cystic acid, methionine and tryptophan were absent. Conclusion: These results showed that the spent brewers’ yeast had nutritional value and can be used to formulate animal feeds such as poultry feeds as protein source to replace soya bean. However, methionine and tryptophan would have to be supplemented.

[Patricia Fremu Chollom, Ediga Bede Agbo, Umaru Dass Doma, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu, Amos Gana Yisa. Nutritional Value of Spent Brewers’ Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae): A Potential Replacement for Soya Bean in Poultry Feed Formulation. Researcher 2017;9(1):70-74]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 11. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090117.11.


Keywords: Spent Brewers’ yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Nutritional value, Poultry feed, Soya bean

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Results of Researches on Weather Changes And Natural Hazards


Gangadhara Rao Irlapati


H.No.5-30-4/1, Saibaba Nagar, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad – 500 055, Telangana State, INDIA

Public Service Commission, Andhra Pradesh, India

Email ID:


Abstract: I have conducted many studies and researches on disasters and natural calamities and proposed a number of models to forecast the disaster and natural calamities in advance, Mainly the first one is Global Monsoon Time Scale which can help to forecast the monsoon movements, cyclones, low pressure systems, depressions, heavy rains & floods, droughts & famines etc and the second one is Geoscope which can help to forecast the geological and geophysical disasters such as tsunamis, earthquakes, underground water, mines etc.

[Gangadhara Rao Irlapati. Results of Researches on Weather Changes And Natural Hazards. Researcher 2017;9(1):75-104]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 12. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090117.12.


Key words: Disasters, Natural calamitites, earth quakes, Global Monsoon Time Scale, Geoscope

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from January 4, 2017. 

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