Science Journal


ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly
Volume 9 - Issue 2 (Cumulated No. 92), February 25, 2017
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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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The Fundamentals and Principles of Islamic Management in Entrepreneurship Development


Hosein Aliahmadi1, Aref Azadegan2, Amid Azadegan3


1. Assistant Professor of Private Law and Faculty member of Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

2. MSc student of MBA Entrepreneurship, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

3. MSc of Curriculum, University of Birjand, South Khorasan Province, Iran


Abstract: In this paper, the principles of entrepreneurship from the perspective of Islamic management was introduced. As religious teachings and worship for all social behavior policy is set to work, and to emphasize development in human society. According to the Quran, God for man, has been appointed work and business and entrepreneurial vision of Islamic monotheism is a value and considering the importance of the business in an Islamic society, everyone should feel responsible, work is still to anyone on the size of your ability with quality, sincerity and good intentions. Business and entrepreneurship in Muslim society makes society do not dominated by aliens, and all the forces mobilized against enemies and the decline of Islamic society is prevented. Coordination between individuals and social units makes clear the need to manage to get things done. Islamic management principles based on religious teachings and principles saying that entrepreneurs can learn from these principles apply to the development of entrepreneurship in the country.

[Hosein Aliahmadi, Aref Azadegan, Amid Azadegan. The Fundamentals and Principles of Islamic Management in Entrepreneurship Development. Researcher 2017;9(2):1-4]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090217.01.


Keywords: principles, Islam, entrepreneurship, management, development

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Assessment Of Soil Ph Of Selected Land Use In Kabba, Southern Guinea Savanna Zone, Nigeria


Babalola, T.S, and Kadiri, W.O.J


Kabba College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural Colleges, Ahmadu Bello University. PMB 205, Kabba

Corresponding Author:, +2347030547750


Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the pH levels of soils of major land use types in Kabba College of Agriculture. An area that is representative of each land use was selected and soil samples were collected following standard procedures for laboratory analysis for pH in CaCl3. Laboratory results were analyzed using graph to show pH distribution across field, pH scale was used to determine the level of acidity or alkalinity of the soil; Standard nutrient availability chart was used to determine nutrient availability for the area while the lime requirement was calculated from the pH values. Results obtained shows that Forest land is having the highest pH value (5.3) followed by Oil palm plantation (5.2), citrus orchard (5.0) and Nursery site (4.9). The lowest pH value was recorded at the Arable land site (4.0). Also the soils of the study site are classified to be slightly acidic this may hamper nutrient availability to plants. Lime application is recommended for the area at Forest Land: 10t/ha, Nursery Site: 13t/ha, Oil Palm: 10t/ha, Arable: 13t/ha, Citrus Orchard: 12t/ha.

[Babalola, T.S, and Kadiri, W.O.J. Assessment Of Soil Ph Of Selected Land Use In Kabba, Southern Guinea Savanna Zone, Nigeria. Researcher 2017;9(2):5-8]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090217.02.


Keywords: pH value, Nutrient Availability, Lime requirement

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Performance Analysis of Technical Palm Oil Marketing in Ondo and Ekiti States Nigeria


Oluwatusin, Femi Michael


Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension Services, Ekiti State University, P. M.B 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria


Cell phone number: +2348034942647


Abstract: Nigeria has fallen from being the world’s leading producer and exporter of palm oil in 1960’s to being a net importer of the produce for both food and industrial uses. The produce is marketed throughout the year and the domestic food market focuses on technical palm oil (TPO) which is consumed by households and commercial enterprises. The study looked at the performance analysis of technical palm oil marketing in Ondo and Ekiti State, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling method was employed to select 180 marketers of TPO in the study area. Analytical tools used include, descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis, Shepherd Futrel model and regression analysis. The results showed that 54.45 percent of the marketers were below 41 years of age while the mean age was 40 years. Most (98.33%) of the marketers were women while 76.67 percent were married. The majority (86.11%) were able to acquire formal education while just 12.22 percent had access to various forms of loan. Also, 90.56 percent of the marketers believed that storage materials were inadequate. The level of marketing experience (mean = 8 years) in the study area was low. The majority (90.56%) of the marketers were members of cooperative societies while 70 percent used family labour. In addition, 67.22 percent started and ran the business with their personal capital. Most (68.33%) operated as retailers while 80.56 percent of the marketers got their supplies from the processors of TPO directly. Gross margin analysis revealed that the business was profitable while coefficient of marketing efficiency of 37.46% indicated efficiency use of resources. The main constraints to the business were high transportation cost/bad road, lack of capital and price fluctuation. The main determinants of profitability were age, educational level, marketing experience, access to loan, cooperative society membership and road condition. It is recommended that in order to solve problem of lack of capital, financial institutions should be coerced by government to give marketers loan at one digit interest rate.

[Oluwatusin, Femi Michael. Performance Analysis of Technical Palm Oil Marketing in Ondo and Ekiti States Nigeria. Researcher 2017;9(2):9-16]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090217.03.


Key words: palm oil, profitability, efficiency, marketing, retailers.

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Results Of Research On Meterology


Gangadhara Rao Irlapati


H.No.5-30-4/1, Saibaba Nagar, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad – 500 055, Telangana State, INDIA

Email ID:


Abstract: Meteorology  is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere. Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meterorolgy, I have conducted researches in the field of meteorology and invented some related discoveries & inventions which may also be useful in understanding the extent of the meterorolgy.

[Gangadhara Rao Irlapati. Results Of Research On Meterology. Researcher 2017;9(2):17-52]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090217.04.


Keywords: Cyclones, Low pressure systems, Monsoons

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Efficacy of Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in Early Treatment of Post-Surgical Scar


Fatma Mounir Aly; M.B., B.Ch


Supervised by:

Prof. Dr. Attia Abdallah Attia, Professor of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Faculty of Medicine-AL-Azhar University

Dr.Shady Mahmoud Attia, Lecturer of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Faculty of Medicine-Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Medicine AlAzhar University


Abstract: Background: Surgical scars represent an entirely highly challenging frustrating clinical problem. Various modalities and protocols were suggested. Fractional CO2 laser has proved marked improvement in scars. Aim of work: In this study we will assess the safety and efficacy of treating surgical scars using an ablative carbon dioxide fractional laser during the early postoperative period. Patients and methods: We performed a prospective, split-scar on the postoperative scars of 20 egyptian patients. Patients began treatment 3 weeks after surgery and were treated in 3-5 sessions of CO2 fractional laser therapy on half of the scar at 2-week intervals with clinical assessment using the Vancouver Scar Scale(VSS)and the patients were asked to rate their overall satisfaction using a quartile grading scale. Results The mean of total score of VSS showed significant improvement in comparing before (5.15 2.75) and 3 months post-treatment (2.302.40) (P≤0.001). Among the individual parameters in the VSS, the most significant improvements were found in vascularity, height and pliability. Patient's subjective satisfaction scores showed a significant greater degree of satisfaction(40%) after laser treatment. Conclusion Fractional ablative CO2 laser is an effective and safe treatment modality for surgical scars in the early postoperative period.

[Fatma Mounir Aly; M.B., B.Ch. Efficacy of Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in Early Treatment of Post-Surgical Scar. Researcher 2017;9(2):53-56]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090217.05.


Keywords: Efficacy; Fraction; Carbon Dioxide; Laser; Treatment; Post-Surgical Scar

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Limitations of Conventional Decomposition Method in Comparison with Modified Decomposition for Simulating the Instability of Nano-Switches


Ali koochi1, Asiehsadat Kazemi2, Mohamadreza Abadyan3


1. Mechanical Engineering Group, Naein Branch, Islamic Azad University, Naein, Iran

2. Engineering Department, Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran

3. Engineering Group, Naein Branch, Islamic Azad University, Naein, Iran 


Abstract: Herein, the conventional Adomian decomposition (CAD) and modified Adomian decomposition (MAD) methods are applied to solve the forth-order nonlinear deferential equation of nano electromechanical switches (NEMS). The pull-in instability parameters of the switch have been determined and compared with those of numerical solution. It is found that using conventional decomposition method in solving NEMS problems can lead to physically incorrect results. The values of instability parameters computed by CAD series might converge to the values which differ from that obtained by numerical methods. The inaccuracy becomes more highlighted in the case of doubly-supported NEMS compared to cantilever one. This shortcoming is not observed for MAD and therefore, modified decomposition method could easily utilize to simulate the pull-in performance of the beam-type NEMS.

[Ali koochi, Asiehsadat Kazemi, Mohamadreza Abadyan. Limitations of Conventional Decomposition Method in Comparison with Modified Decomposition for Simulating the Instability of Nano-Switches. Researcher 2017;9(2):57-63]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090217.06.


Keywords: Nonlinear differential equation, Conventional Adomian decomposition, Modified Adomian decomposition, Nano electromechanical switch (NEMS), Instability

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Simile’s Functions in Masnavi’s Satiric Stories


R. Ghodmanan 1, G. A. Zare 2


1. Golestan Non-Governmental Institute, Gorgan, Iran

2. Medical Science University of Golestan, Golestan Province, Iran


Abstract: The range of Molavai’s imagination faculty, among great poets, and his variety of poetical images are wonderful and unique, and his mystical love couldn’t restrain the progression of imagination in his poems, therefore the aim of this paper is determined to describe the general trends of the roles of simile in Molavi’s satirical stories. For investigation of simile’s roles in Masnavi’s satirical stories, similes in forty satiric stories are examined and were under analysis. Molana used ‘simile’ in satirical stories for different aims such as following:

1-   Joking and entertainment

2-   Simplification of concepts and contents

3-   Conciseness

4-   Description and circumlocution

5-   Content creating and composition

Those roles or functions are used by Molana for increasing the effect of his satiric writings. We have more attention to “joking and entertainment” than other functions, when we are describing the roles of simile in Molana’s satiric stories. The methods which are used by Molana for that function are as follows:

1-   Using animals

2-   Exaggeration

3-   The image which results from inconsistency with texture of writing

4-   Contradiction between parts of expression

5-   Allusion to satiric stories

6-   Contradiction between reality and imagination

7-   Satirical sceneries

Although Molana, in regarding to conditions of satire, for joking and entertainment in satirical stories used simile mainly, and for this aim, he used different methods, but he didn’t neglect other functions of simile and he used this technique for goals such as simplification of concepts and contents, conciseness, description and circumlocution, content creating and composition.

[R. Ghodmanan, G. A. Zare. Simile’s Functions in Masnavi’s Satiric Stories. Researcher 2017;9(2):64-70]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090217.07.


Keywords: Mental Masnavi; satiric; simile; simile’s functions

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A New Solution to Account Pseudo-skin Due to Partial Completion of Wells


Vahid Farokhi1, Shahab Gerami2


1. Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran

2. National Iranian Oil Co. (IOR Research Institute), Tehran, Iran,,


Abstract: To prohibit gas and/or water coning, it has been very common for wells to be completed over only a portion of their productive zone. Such procedure causes an additional pressure drop termed as pseudo-skin that reduces the well productivity. In order to figure out whether a partially-penetrated well required to be stimulated or not, it’s crucial to both qualitatively and quantitatively determine different components of the total skin. Hence, in a partially-penetrated well, accurate evaluation of pseudo-skin as one of the main components of total skin is extremely essential. Many authors have proposed mathematical methods that can be used to estimate the pseudo-skin factor due to partial completion. This paper aims to present a simple analytical model that can be used to accurately predict the pressure behavior as well as the pseudo-skin factor in a partially-penetrated well. In this model, the impacts of anisotropy and arbitrariness of the open interval location are taken into account. To better illustrate the validity and reliability of the model for estimating the pseudo-skin factor, a comparison of the values obtained by the presented model and those estimated by other available models with a numerical simulator as the comparison base has been made. The results have shown that the assumptions on the basis of which the model is developed are valid and furthermore, compared to other methods the analytical model has estimated the pseudo-skin factor favorably so close to that obtained by the simulator.

[Vahid Farokhi, Shahab Gerami. A New Solution to Account Pseudo-skin Due to Partial Completion of Wells. Researcher 2017;9(2):71-81]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090217.08.


Keywords: pseudo-skin factor, analytical model, partial completion, anisotropy, numerical simulator

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A Conductivity Study of Salt and Temperature Effect on Critical Micelle Concentration of Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid


Mohammad Ali Ahmadi1*, Seyed Reza Shadizadeh2


1) Department of Petroleum Engineering, Ahwaz Faculty of Petroleum Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran

2) Department of Petroleum Engineering, Abadan Faculty of Petroleum Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan, Iran


Abstract: After primary and secondary oil recovery methods, reservoir is faced to residual oil condition. Surfactants can reduce interfacial tension between rock surface and residual oil. Temperature and salt are two affective parameters that affect surfactants behavior in the reservoir in addition to critical micelle concentration (CMC) of them. The purpose of this experiment is measuring the (CMC) of two surfactants; this was to be done by conductivity method. Conductometry is a very promising technique, the CMC value of Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid (ABSA) as an anionic surfactant was determined by electrical conductivity measurements. The influences of salt and temperature conditions on CMC variation of selected surfactant are considered. It was found the addition of NaCl reduces the CMC of surfactants. The variation of CMC was investigated under different temperatures from 25C to 70C with increments of 5C. Results were shown when temperature rises, the CMC of surfactant reduces.

[Mohammad Ali Ahmadi, Seyed Reza Shadizadeh. A Conductivity Study of Salt and Temperature Effect on Critical Micelle Concentration of Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid. Researcher 2017;9(2):82-87]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090217.09.


Keywords: Temperature, Salt, CMC, Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid, Anionic Surfactant

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A Taxonomy of Game Theory Approaches for Intrusion Detection in MANETs


Mohammad Masoud Javidi, Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani, Laya Aliahmadipour


Department of Computer Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran,


Abstract: MANETs are self configuring networks that are formed by a set of wireless mobile nodes and have neither fixed network infrastructure nor administrative support. Since transmission range of wireless network interfaces is limited, forwarding hosts may be needed each node in a wireless ad hoc network functions as both a host and a router, and the control of the network is distributed among the nodes. Due to their communication type and resources constraint, MANETs are vulnerable to diverse types of attacks and intrusions. Because of these, security is a critical issue. Network security is usually provided in the three phases: intrusion prevention, intrusion detection and intrusion tolerance phase. However, the network security problem is far from completely solved. Researchers have been exploring the applicability of game theoretic approaches to address the network security issues. This paper surveys the existing game theoretic solutions which are designed to enhance network security in the intrusion detection phase.

[Mohammad Masoud Javidi, Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani, Laya Aliahmadipour. A Taxonomy of Game Theory Approaches for Intrusion Detection in MANETs. Researcher 2017;9(2):88-96]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090217.10.


Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET); Intrusion Detection System (IDS); Host based; Game theory.

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On The Prime Equatons:


Chun-Xuan Jiang


P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, P. R. China


Abstract: Using Jiang function we prove that there exist infinitely many primes  such that each  is a prime.

[Chun-Xuan Jiang. On The Prime Equatons: . Researcher 2017;9(2):97-98]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 11. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090217.11.


Keywords: prime; theorem; function; number; new

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Effect of Methotrexate in Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis


Hesham Eldosoky Abd Elwahab, Saad Mahmoud Elzokm and Nansy Borham


Rheumatology, Physical medicine & Rehabilitation, Al-Azhar University - Faculty of Medicine, Damietta, Egypt.


Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent condition resulting to disability particularly in elderly population. Lacking of effective therapies available to relieve the symptoms of OA or to slow the disease associated structural progression is a major barrier for the reduction of the impact of OA. Emerging evidence is increasingly indicating a high prevalence of synovitis in OA that is found to be associated with severity of pain. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Methotrexate (MTX) in treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). This was a single blinded randomized controlled trial of parallel design, A total of 200 consecutive eligible patients with symptomatic radiographic primary KOA participated in the study that fulfilled ACR Criteria for radiologic and clinical KOA. Patients were recruited from the Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Outpatient Clinic of Al-Azhar University Hospital in Damietta, Egypt. The patients were randomized into two groups; (a) MTX-treated KOA group: included 100 patients that received oral MTX and (b) non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-treated KOA group: included 100 patients were received NSAIDs. The study was done at the period between April to November 2016. Clinical parameters including pain, tenderness and Ontario and McMaster Universities arthritis index (WOMAC) score were significantly lower in the MTX-treated group than in the NSAIDs-treated group at 3 months and at 6 months from treatment. On US examination, at 3 months of treatment the OA severity was significantly lower in the MTX-treated KOA group as compared to the NSAIDs-treated KOA group and the difference of osteoarthritis ( OA) severity between the two groups was more prominent at 6 months of treatment. From this study we found that MTX significantly reduced pain and tenderness and improved joint mobility. MTX had significantly improved synovitis and effusion and decreased cartilage damage. There was a significant improvement in physical function of MTX therapy. MTX may be a therapeutic option on the treatment of pain and inflammation related to KOA.

[Hesham Eldosoky Abd Elwahab, Saad Mahmoud Elzokm and Nansy Borham. Rheumatology, Physical medicine & Rehabilitation, Al-Azhar University - Faculty of Medicine, Damietta, Egypt. Researcher 2017;9(3):99-107]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). 12. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090317.12.


Keywords: Methotrexate and Knee Osteoarthritis

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from  February 17, 2017. 

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