Science Journal

 

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ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly
Volume 9 - Issue 4 (Cumulated No. 94), April 25, 2017
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Review On Bovine Mastitis And Its Economic Importance

 

Addisu Gebru, Mengestie Abebaw, Daniel Workneh

 

Faculity of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health science, University of Gondar, P.O. Box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

manabebaw@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Mastitis is a major disease problem, which appears to be worldwide in distribution and affects all species of animals. Mastitis is a disease having multiple etiologies including infectious and non-infectious agents. It is classified as sub clinical and clinical depending on the manifestation of clinical signs. The causation of mastitis involves a complex relationship of three factors: host, microbial agent and the environment. The sources of mastitis pathogens may be infected cows, cow’s environment or natural environment. The pathogenesis of mastitis is well explained in terms of three stages: invasion, infection and inflammation. It is recorded as the most costly disease of dairy herd worldwide, which results in economic loss by increasing the cost of production and decreasing productivity. Several tests including screening and specific laboratory tests have been developed for detecting the presence of microorganisms in the mammary gland of lactating cows. Intra mammary antimicrobial therapy, parenteral antimicrobial therapy, supportive and dry cow therapy is the major options of treatment. There are different mastitis management techniques developed to reduce incidence of mastitis in dairy cattle. Eliminating existing infection, prevent new infection, and monitor udder health are the basic principles of mastitis control program. Loss of milk production, replacement of culled cows, extra labor, discarded milk from cows with treatment, and cost of control measures are the major economic losses to bovine mastitis. Mastitis has both economic and public health significance. Hence, coordinated action of all stakeholders is recommended.

[Addisu Gebru, Mengestie Abebaw, Daniel Workneh. Review On Bovine Mastitis And Its Economic Importance. Researcher 2017;9(4):1-9]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090417.01.

 

Key words: Bovine, Clinical mastitis, Mammary gland, Subclinical mastitis

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2

Surgical Management and Facial Reanimation after Facial Nerve Injury

 

Ahmed Hamed Abd El Maksod, Hussein Gamal Elgohary, Ehab Mahroos Oraby and Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed Hasab-Allah

 

General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

Hasaballa21.mh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: There are many options of treatment, which are available for the patient with facial nerve paralysis. The treatment goals are directed to the functional and cosmetic deficits that are present and are individualized to suit the patient's needs. Even after surgery, medical line of treatment is important which includes steroids, antibiotics and physiotherapy under supervision. The outcome of the surgery depends on the processor regeneration. The timing of surgery should be such that maximum ability of nerve regeneration is achieved before degenerative changes occur. There are various factors which influence regeneration like age, nutrition, type and duration of injury, infection, hematoma formation, fibrosis of cut ends of the nerve and hormonal. Improved facial tone and symmetry preceded initial facial movements. In all patients, facial movements appeared at 4-18 months and were usually first observed in the mid-face. We observed that the longer the duration before the operation, the poorer the result. When the duration of paralysis exceeded 2 years, recovery of the muscles of facial expression was poor. Synkinesis was observed in most patients, but no mass movements or gross hypertonia was present. Initial anesthesia due to ablation of the greater auricular nerve appeared insignificant to all patients. Problems with speech, mastication or swallowing were not seen. In a small percentage of patients, slight asymmetry due to reduction in the size of the homolateral tongue was observed. Another small percentage of patients showed no improvement at all.

[Ahmed Hamed Abd ElMaksod, Hussein Gamal Elgohary, Ehab Mahroos Oraby and Mahmoud Mohamed AhmedHasab-Allah. Surgical Management and Facial Reanimation after Facial Nerve Injury. Researcher 2017;9(4):10-19]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090417.02.

 

Keywords: Surgical Management, Facial Nerve Injury

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3

Potential impact of cropping system for Carbon dioxide capturing, case study of Vision Agribusiness Farm in Rwanda

 

SIBOSIKO Consolée1 and G.N. Pandey2

 

University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Rwanda

Email: consolata@weclearn.net, consibo@gmail.com

Department of Engineering and Technology, Arunachal University of Studies

Email: pandey63@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The carbon sequestration plays a major role in balancing climate change for environmental protection and the cropping system is one of different alternatives that were utilized in this study. With the Vision Agribusiness Farm novel methodology to cultivate beans in Rwanda, there is conservation of forest, more aeration, more productivity and this implies more carbon captured. During our analysis by using oxidation and back titration methods, we obtained significant quantities of Carbon tone per hectare per year (CTha-1 yr-1) and carbon dioxide tone per hectare per year (CO2T ha-1 yr-1) in different parts of bean. For C T ha-1 yr-1 was ranging between 0.12 ± 0.005 in roots, 0.89 ± 0.2 in stems, and 1.13 ± 0.5 in seeds. On the other hand, for the captured CO2 T ha-1yr-1, the results ranged between 0.44 ± 0.1 in roots, 3.28 ± 0.8 in stems, and 4.14 ±1.8 in seeds respectively. In the same line of idea, the quantity of CO2 emitted in the air was reduced and hence mitigating the environmental pollution problem while returning back the biomass residues to the soil and in turn maintaining the soil health.

[SIBOSIKO Consolée and G.N. Pandey. Potential impact of cropping system for Carbon dioxide capturing, case study of Vision Agribusiness Farm in Rwanda. Researcher 2017;9(4):20-30]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090417.03.

 

Keywords: Cropping system, Beans, Carbon dioxide, Sequestration, Biomass oxidation, back titration, Mitigation.

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4

Physico-Chemical And Bactriological Investigation Of Selected Fish Pond In Kuje Area Council, Nigeria.

 

Ogeneogaga, O, I, And Solomon, R, J.

 

Department Of Biological Sciences, Faculty Of Science University Of Abuja, Abuja.

johnsol2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Bacteriological analysis of fish pond water is very important in aquaculture as this gives and insight to the likely hazard that may occurs in fishes, farmers and consumers. Bacteriological studies of selected fish ponds in Kuje area council of Abuja FCT, Nigeria were investigated to evaluate the water quality of the ponds. Some physicochemical properties shows the temperature ranged from 23.00 ± 0.030C to 27.00 ± 0.030C, while pH ranged from 7.00 ± 0.02 to 8.00 ± 0.02, Dissolve oxygen from 5.20 ± 0.22mg/L to 7.10 ± 0.08mg/L, Total hardness ranged from 132.65 ± 0.12mg/L to 185.75 ± 0.14mg/L, COD content also varied from 6.80 ± 0.01mg/L to 7.38 ± 0.06mg/L. the bacterial load ranged from 79.83x105cfu/ml  to 154.83x105cfu/ml . Similarly, the coliform count ranged from 110x104cfu/ml in to 201.3x104cfu/ml in. Bacteria of public health importance like E.coli and Samonella spp. were also detected. The frequencies occurrence of isolated bacterial species were as follows: E.coli 25%, Flavobacterium spp. 16.7%, Psuedomonas spp. 8%, Samonella spp. 8%, Bacillus spp. 16.7%, Bacillus cereus 8% and Staphylococcus spp. 16.7%. The presence of this organism show a lack of tentative pond management services which could be harmful to fishes and humans. There is therefore a need to monitor water quality and detect the actual source of contamination and subject the water through a form of treatment to prevent an epidemic outbreak.

[Ogeneogaga, O, I, And Solomon, R, J. Physico-Chemical And Bactriological Investigation Of Selected Fish Pond In Kuje Area Council, Nigeria. Researcher 2017;9(4):31-45]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090417.04.

 

Key words: Bacteriological analysis, Kuje and physicochemical properties.

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5

Investigating Different Functions of Monorhyme in Ultra Lyrics

 

Gholamreza Kafi1, Zohre Ameri2

 

1. Associate professor of Persian literature, Shiraz University

2. MA in Resistance Literature, Shiraz University

 

Abstract: Literary developments in last three decades on one hand and tendency toward traditional embodies such as lyrics on the other hand created significant evolutions regarding this pleasant aspect that led to “Ultra-Lyrics”. This course shows its identity in constructs such as rhyme, meter, motorhyme, and vocabulary. Ultra-lyrics is a course that takes advantage from all of the capacities of free verse and at the same time, preserves its traditional nature. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate different functions of monorhyme in this type of lyrics. The application of incomplete monorhyme, exiting change in monorhyme, changing the monorhyme, and use of visual monorhyme are among the findings of this study.

[Gholamreza Kafi, Zohre Ameri. Investigating Different Functions of Monorhyme in Ultra Lyrics. Researcher 2017;9(4):46-49]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090417.05.

 

Keywords: ultra-lyrics, aside music, monorhyme, deconstruction

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6

Advanced Energy Saving Programs for Commercial Buildings

 

Alireza Nohesara

 

MSc in Mechanical Engineering, Field of Energy Conversion, Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran

alirezanohesara@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, advanced energy saving programs for commercial buildings were investigated. Currently in most buildings, the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are controlled by the present temperature in the building. Many countries have large energy production but due to the huge increase in domestic consumption and decrease of investment in energy sector become dependent on energy imports. In Future HVAC energy consumption will rise further due to increase in growing population, rapid expansion and call for new residential and commercial buildings, and rising global warming due to climate change. This will provide specific methodologies and information, for energy efficiency improvements for many countries. When the historical data of the building is available, the ANN approach is thought to be the most cost-effective method. Most of previous studies of ANN modelling of building temperature, have either focused on single throughout the building. The proposed modelling methodology can be extended to include other inputs, besides neighboring usage pattern of the building, so that the better intelligent control strategies can be developed for energy saving purposes, based on the more accurate predicted temperatures form the new model.

[Alireza Nohesara. Advanced Energy Saving Programs for Commercial Buildings. Researcher 2017;9(4):50-57]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090417.06.

 

Keywords: Energy Saving, Commercial Buildings, HVAC

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7

Role of Maulana Rumi’s Thoughts on World Class Literature

 

Maryam Kafshduz Zarrin1, Mir Nematollah Mousavi2

 

1. MA in Persian language, Payame Noor University, Tabriz, Iran

2. Assistant Professor in Persian language, Payame Noor University, Tabriz, Iran

 

Abstract: In this paper, role of Maulana Rumi in literature has been investigated, and also his great role in various dimension of literature all around the world. Therefore, world-class aspect of Maulana Rumi is somehow unrecognized and we tried to study his role in literature. Instead of several differences in their perspectives like, homeland, language and bringing up in different social environment and backgrounds, there is clear manifestation of the similarities in his philosophies. In this regard, five components of Molavi’s point of view have been studied and they are wisdom, responsibility, determinism and authority, nature and spirit.

[Maryam Kafshduz Zarrin, Mir Nematollah Mousavi. Role of Maulana Rumi’s Thoughts on World Class Literature. Researcher 2017;9(4):58-62]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090417.07.

 

Keywords: Maulana Rumi, Literature, point of view

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8

Drop in water level of the aquifer of Isfahan plain – Borkhar, making it by artificial recharges

 

Fariba moradi, heidar zarei, ali mohammad akhunali

 

Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.

frb1991@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Studies on this research shows that aquifer of Isfahan plain – Borkhar due to excessive harvesting and the indiscriminate use of underground water by reducing the water table or faces piezometric, so any subsequent operation after it has been banned and the need to compensate for this loss replacement by using artificial recharges. Regarding the regional situation and the lack of adequate surface water, the use of recycled sewage is clear and studies have shown that the use of artificial recharge of aquifers can be done after passing through various stages of treatment and passing through the membrane filter in addition to increasing the level of the water table and to remove remained contaminants dramatically effective and useful. And other forms of surface water, during storage treatment process will be provided.

[Fariba moradi, heidar zarei, ali mohammad akhunali. Drop in water level of the aquifer of Isfahan plain – Borkhar, making it by artificial recharges. Researcher 2017;9(4):63-66]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090417.08.

 

Keywords: Recharging underground water, Sewage, Water level drawdown, Membrane filter.

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9

Isolation And Identification Of Staphylococcus Aureus From Mastitic Dairy Cows And Their Drug Resistance Patterns In Asossa District, Western, Ethiopia

 

Asmamaw Aki Jano

 

Regional Veterinary Diagnostic, Surveillance, Monitoring and Study Laboratory, P.O.Box:326, Asossa, Ethiopia; email address: asmamawaki@gmail.com; Celephone: +251922232353

 

Abstract: A cross- sectional study was carried out from November 2016 to March 2017 to estimate the prevalence of mastitis caused by S. aureus, to assess the associated risk factors and determine the antimicrobial resistance pattern in Asossa town. From 384 lactating cows tested, 28.4 % had mastitis, of which 12.76% (49/384) and 15.62% (60/384) showed clinical and sub clinical mastitis, respectively. The quarter level prevalence was 29.68 % (456/1536); from which the clinical form was 12.8 % (196/1536) and the subclinical was 16.92 % (260/1536). Of 196 quarters with clinical cases, 26 had blind teats while 170 had active mastitis. A total of 109 (49 from clinical and 60 from subclinical cases) milk samples were collected and cultured for S. aureus of which 85 resulted in growth of the bacterium (37 from clinical and 48 from subclinical cases). The risk factors of mastitis like age group, stage of lactation, previous mastitis history, and pregnancy status had significant effect on (p<0.000) S. aureus isolation whereas, milking hygiene and parity had no effect on (p>0.05) isolates of S. aureus. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that S. aureus was highly susceptible to Kanamycin (80.0%), Chloramphenicol (79.31%) followed by Cloxacillin (61.53%), Streptomycin (55.55%) and Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (53.57%). In contrast, isolates were highly resistant to Penicillin G (92.86%), Clindamycin(78.57%), Cefoxitin (70.83%), Bacitracin (65.0%), Tetracycline (57.57%) and Gentamycin (57.14%). The most frequent multi drug resistance pattern consisting of three drugs is exhibited for kanamycin, chloramphenicol and cloxacillin with a resistance of 7 (75.0 6%) of the isolates. 42.85% of the isolates were resistant to different combinations of two or above tested antibiotics. In conclusion, this study confirms the importance of S. aureus as a mastitis causing bacterium and identifies risk factors associated with the disease in the study area.

[Asmamaw Aki Jano. Isolation And Identification Of Staphylococcus Aureus From Mastitic Dairy Cows And Their Drug Resistance Patterns In Asossa District, Western, Ethiopia. Researcher 2017;9(4):67-74]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090417.09.

 

Key words: antimicrobial susceptibility test, mastitis, prevalence, risk factors, S. aureus

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10

Review on Advances in improving quality of bovine embryo transfer

 

Habtamu addis, Abebe mequnent, Temsegen sendekie

 

University of Gondar College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Department of veterinary clinical, Gondar, Ethiopia, P.O. Box:196

Email: yohansaddis68@gmail.com

 

Summary: Embryo transfer is a breeding techniques where by a sexually mature female (donor) is injected with exogenous hormones to produce more ova which are then fertilize in vivo, remove prior to their implantation and transferred to the reproductive tract of a surrogate mother (recipient). This seminar paper is prepared to review recent advances in improving bovine embryo quality, give highlight on the general embryo transfer technology and review the noble cryopreservation techniques. At present embryo transfer is mostly utilized for genetic improvement, twining, importation and/or exportation of genetic material, disease control and applied research in animal production. Cryopreservation is a process where embryos, cells, whole tissues, or any other substances susceptible to damage caused by chemical reactivity or time are preserved by cooling to sub-zero temperatures. Cryopreservation methods seek to reach low temperatures without causing additional damage caused by the formation of ice during freezing. There are several ways that we can improve the quality of bovine embryo, among this artificial insemination, embryo culture media in vitro production of embryos represent techniques aimed at a better control of animal reproduction thereby embryo must be preserved by appropriate preservative methods before transferring to recipients and attentions should be concentrated on the culture media that the embryo grows.

[Habtamu addis, Abebe mequnent, Temsegen sendekie. Review on Advances in improving quality of bovine embryo transfer. Researcher 2017;9(4):75-83]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090417.10.

 

Key words: Artificial insemination, Cryopreservation, Embryo transfer, Invitro production of embryo

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11

Major Health and Welfare Problems of Camels in Dire Dawa Administration Council, Eastern Ethiopia

 

Jabir Teha1, Lishan Asefa1, Tadesse Birhanu1, 2* and Ayele Gizachew1

 

1School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Wollega University, P.O. Box:395, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

2Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Salale University, P.O. Box: 245, Fitche, Ethiopia

*Corresponding author: drbirhan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted from October, 2014 to April, 2015at selected districts of Dire Dawa administrative council, eastern Ethiopia to determine the major health and welfare problems of camel. Among 393 inspected camels, 38.4% were suffering from major health problems like enteritis (albatii) (23.9%), Cephalopina titillator larvae (Digir) (23.9%), camel contagious ecthzeyma (Afcarro) (13.2%), pneumonia (Qufa) (9.10%) and dermatophilosis (Citto) (8.90%). The study also indicated that overloading (33%), lack of feed and water (15%) and poor attitude (12%) were the main welfare problems in the study area. There was also an association between sex and working activities, a higher proportion of males (79.0%) were engaged in loading than females (27.0%) which was statistically significant (p=0.00). The informants of this study were indicated parasites, pneumonia and enteritis were the major health problems whereas overworking, malnutrition and poor attention were the major problems in study area. Thus, strategic community education should be done in order to improve management system of the camel.

[Jabir Teha, Lishan Asefa, Tadesse Birhanu and Ayele Gizachew. Major Health and Welfare Problems of Camels in Dire Dawa Administration Council, Eastern Ethiopia. Researcher 2017;9(4):84-88]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090417.11.

 

Key words: Camel, Dire Dawa Town, Group Discussion, Health Problem, Welfare Problem

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12

Prevalence of Bovine flukes in Irrigation Canals of Amibara District, Afar Region, North-East Ethiopia

 

Tsegaye Bertualem2, Tesfaye Kassa1 and Tadesse Birhanu1, 3*

 

1Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box: 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

2School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Wollega University, P.O. Box:395, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

3Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Salale University, P.O. Box: 245, Fitche, Ethiopia

*Corresponding author: drbirhan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November to April, 2016 in irrigation canals of Amibara District of Afar Region, Ethiopia with the aim of determining the prevalence of major bovine flukes. Simple random sampling was used to select both the study animals and Peasant Associations. Coprological examination using sedimentation technique was applied for the recovery of the flukes’ eggs from freshly collected fecal samples. The collected data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS 21 version software. Out of the total 400 fecal samples examined, 183 (45.8%) were infected with bovine flukes infection. The prevalence of Paramphistoma, Fasciola and Schistosoma bovis was 15.3%, 9.5% and 7.3%, respectively in the study area. The result indicated that the prevalence of the flukes was higher in females (46.3%) than males (42.4%). It was also slightly higher in young (< 2 years) cattle (46.4%) than adult ones (>2 years) (43.9%). Among the associated risk factors, the highest prevalence of infection with flukes was observed poor body condition animals (63.4%) and statistical significant difference was observed with the occurrence of flukes infection (p<0.05). There were mixed infection: Fasciolosis and Paraphistomosis, 31 (7.75%); Paraphistomosis and Schistosomiasis, 7 (1.75%); Fasciolosis and Schistosomiasis, 11 (2.75%) and Fasciolosis, Paraphistomosis and Schistosomiasis, 6 (1.50%) in study area. This study indicated that bovine flukes are the major cattle parasites in the study area. Thus, awareness creation should be done for the livestock owners about intermediate host (snail) and strategic deworming in order to reduce pasture contamination. Moreover; further study on snail dynamics and infection rates should be conducted so as to design effective prevention and control strategies.

[Tsegaye Bertualem, Tesfaye Kassa and Tadesse Birhanu. Prevalence of Bovine flukes in Irrigation Canals of Amibara District, Afar Region, North-East Ethiopia. Researcher 2017;9(4):89-94]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 12. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090417.12.

 

Keyword: Amibara, Bovine, Coprology, Ethiopia, Flukes, Sedimentation Test

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13

Effect of Polyethylene terphalet (PET) on mechanical and optical properties of Polylactic acid (PLA) for packaging application

 

Nadia A. Ali

 

Physics Department University of Baghdad, College of Science Iraq

Nadia2seb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract Blends of polyethylene terphalet (PET) with polylactic acid (PLA) were investigated to study the influence of the additive of PET on (tear, impact strength) and (transparency, color). The compositions were prepared in wt (20/80), (50/50), (80/20). Mechanical properties like tear strength and Impact Izod, and optical properties like colors and transparency were also reported. Polyethylene terphaletee decrease the tear strength when additive PET and Impact Izod strength of PLA was increased when additive PET when tested in the machine directions. Optical property such as colors was increased and the value of transparency was decreased as the loading of PET increased.

[Nadia A. Ali. Effect of Polyethylene terphalet (PET) on mechanical and optical properties of Polylactic acid (PLA) for packaging application. Researcher 2017;9(4):95-98]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 13. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090417.13.

 

Key words: PET, PLA, tear strength, impact strength, color and Transparency

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from March 28, 2017. 

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