Science Journal

 

Researcher
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ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly
Volume 9 - Issue 5 (Cumulated No. 95), May 25, 2017
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Isolation And Identification Of Species Of Phytoplankton In Efugo Fish Farm In Kuje Area Council Of Fct Abuja.

 

Solomon, R, J. And Uchai, O, D.

 

Department Of Biological Sciences, Faculty Of Science, University Of Abuja, Nigeria.

johnsol2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The phytoplankton identification and species composition in fish ponds in Efugo farms in Kuje Area council in FCT Abuja were studied for a period of 2 months (June – July 2015). A total of twenty-eight genera belonging to five taxonomic groups were recorded from the fish ponds. The phytoplankton species composition was surpassed by Chryophyta with 9 species consisting of 28.6%. This was followed by Cyanophyta (6 species) consisting of 21.4%, Euglenophyta with 3 species consisting of 10.7% and Pyrrophyta consisting of 7.2%. The highest in abundance is Cyanophyta consisting of 39.6%, 38.4% and 29.6% for earthen pond, concrete pond and shaded concrete pond respectively while the highest in the number of species is the genus Chrysophyta. The low nature of species of phytoplankton and abundance observed in this study must have being caused due to the frequent or regular changing of the water.

[Solomon, R, J. And Uchai, O, D. Isolation And Identification Of Species Of Phytoplankton In Efugo Fish Farm In Kuje Area Council Of Fct Abuja. Researcher 2017;9(5):1-12]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090517.01.

 

Key words: Phytoplankton, Chryophyta and Efugo farms.

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2

SEM Observations on some species of genus PALMULA Lea 1883 (benthic foraminifera) and the Identification of a new genus HANENOPALMULA

 

Hatem A. Aly

 

Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

hateem135@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The morphological features, inner and outer surface structures, and ultrastructure of the shell walls of Palmulawoodi Nakkady 1950, P. pilulata Cushman, 1938, P. ansaryi Anan 1994, P. suturalis Loetterle 1937, P. mokattamensis and unknown Palmula. sp. Aly et al., 2011 species of genus Palmula Lea 1883 are studied carefully by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The studied specimens of these species of genus Palmula Lea 1883 were collected from Kharga Shale Member (upper part of the Dakhla Shale Formation) early Paleocene at Naqb Refuf, Kharga Oasis, Western Desert; Esna Shale Formation, early Paleocene at the North Gunna section, Western Desert and from El Fashn Formation late middle Eocene at Bayad El Arab section, Beni Suef area, Nile Valley Egypt. The analysisof the examined specimens led to identification of a new benthic foraminiferal genus Hanenopalmula n. gen., of the Family Vaginulinidae Reuss, 1860. The new genus differs from the Palmula Lea 1883 in a number of ways. Its wall structure is made from one solid layer, in which prismatic calcite crystals extends from the inner to the outer surface. The proloculus portion is bullate, rises up to the shell surface. Chambers are coiled around the early stage in an arch-like manner. The widest point is very close to the primordial chambers. Finally, the outer shell surface is smooth and glistening. Furthermore, this study identifies the Hanenopalmula dabbosensis n species. This species differs from the Hanenopalmula woodi Nakkady, Hanenopalmula bignoti Anan 2002 in possessing wide and thick raises suture lines.

[Hatem A. Aly. SEM Observations on some species of genus PALMULA Lea 1883 (benthic foraminifera) and the Identification of a new genus HANENOPALMULA. Researcher 2017;9(5):13-25]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090517.02.

 

Keywords: Benthic foraminifera, systematic, new genus, Paleocene, Egypt.

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3

Review On Bovine Parafilariosis In Ethiopia

 

Abebe Mequanent

 

University of Gondar College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Gondar, Ethiopia, P.O. Box: 196.

E-mail: abebemequanent@gmil.com

 

Summary: Bovine parafilariosis is a well-known seasonal parasitic disease that has been present for a long time in Asia, Africa and South America. In Europe, reports on bovine parafilariosis are comparably scarce. Treatment with ivermectin was successful, leading to a good clinical outcome. Ovipositional bleeding was strongly seasonal with blood spots first appearing in winter (June), reaching a peak in autumn (September-November) and thereafter declining rapidly as summer progressed. The prevalence of blood spots in cattle of different ages and sex varied markedly. This review on parafilariosis and the preliminary epidemiologic study give evidence to the presence of a disease in different parts of Africa especially Ethiopia.

[Abebe M. Review on Bovine Parafilariosis in Ethiopia. Researcher 2017;9(5):26-28]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090517.03.

 

Key words: Bovine, Cattle and Parafilariosis

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4

Economic Analysis of Gari Marketing in Osun State Nigeria

 

Oluwatusin, Femi Michael

 

Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension Services, Ekiti State University, P. M. B 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

E-mail: femi.oluwatusin@eksu.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Gari is a fermented, gritty, starchy food which is fast becoming a marketable product among the rural and urban populace in Nigeria. The study was done in Osun State Nigeria. In order to increase income and to ensure food security among the marketers of gari in the study area, economic analysis of gari marketing was carried out. Specifically, factors influencing the income realized from the sales of gari were determined while the profitability of the business was also examined. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed to randomly select 120 respondents while a structured questionnaire was administered to retrieve information from the selected gari marketers. The data were subjected to descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis and Ordinary Least Square multiple regression analysis. It was found out that the mean age of the marketers was 41 years. Also, most (92.5%) of the marketers were female and 88.3 percent had formal education. Few (13.3%) were single while the mean marketing experience was 14 years. The mean household size was 5 persons and the main source of capital to most (40%) marketers was Esusu. Averagely, 575.25kg of gari were sold weekly by the marketers. Profitability analysis revealed that gari marketing was profitable with gross margin of N13,751.86 per week while it was showed that the main determinants of the income realized from the sales of gari were marketer’s age (X1), gender (X2), access to credit (X3), household size (X5), marketing experience (X6), and labour ( X7). In order to expand gari marketing business, it is recommended that gari marketers should be encouraged to take bank loans.

[Oluwatusin, Femi Michael. Economic Analysis of Gari Marketing in Osun State Nigeria. Researcher 2017;9(5):29-34]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090517.04.

 

Keywords: Gari, profitability, regression, techniques, marketers

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Epidemiological Study on Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Trypanosomosis in Cattle of Jawi District of the Amhara Region, North Western Ethiopia

 

Belete Afele1, Birhanu Eticha*2 and Haile Worku*2

 

1 Benishngul- Gumuz Regional State, Mandura Woreda Agriculture office, Gelgel Beles, Ethiopia

*2 Benishngul Gumuz Regional State, Livestock and Fisheries Resource Development Agency, P.O.Box:30 Assosa, Ethiopia; E-mail: brihanueticha12@gmail.com and workuhaile29@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to May 2014 in Jawi district of Amhara regional state, north-west Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of cattle trypanosomosis, associated related risk factors of the disease, and to identify the prevailing species of trypanosomes. Blood samples collected from (n= 300) randomly selected cattle (Bos indicus) was examined using parasitological (buffy coat technique) and thin smear under Giemsa stain. An overall, (18/300, 6%) prevalence was recorded. The infection was caused by Trypanosoma vivax (10/300, 56%) and Trypanosoma congolense (8/300, 44%). The prevalence trypanosomosis was significantly higher (P<0.05) in animals with poor body condition (21.43%) when compared to animals with medium (3.21%) and good (5.55%) body condition. Although it was not found statistically significant (p>0.05), the prevalence was slightly higher (7%) in Woblase study site that has higher vegetation coverage followed by Workmeda (6.06%), whereas relatively lower prevalence was registered in Fendika (4.95%) a study site with low vegetation coverage. Similarly, prevalence of trypanosomosis was not statistically significant among the different age categories and between the two sex groups (P> 0.05) of study animals. Therefore, the result of the present finding showed moderately high prevalence of trypanosomosis in the study area implying the need for strategic and integrated approach to control the vector and to minimize the impact of the disease in the district.

[Belete A, Birhanu E, and Haile W. Epidemiological Study on Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of trypanosomosis in Cattle of Jawi District of the Amhara Region North West Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(5):35-40]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj090517.05.

 

Key Words: Jawi District, Prevalence, Trypanosoma, Trypanosomosis

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Epidemiological Study of Lameness in Male Working Horses In and Around Mekelle Town, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.

 

1 Mubarek Kider*2 Haile Worku and *2 Birhanu Eticha

 

1 Benishngul Gumuz Regional State, Homosha Woreda Agriculture office, Homosha, Ethiopia

*2 Benishngul Gumuz Regional State, Livestock and Fisheries Resource Development Agency, P.O. Box: 30 Assosa, Ethiopia Email: workuhaile29@mail.com and brihanueticha12@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 in three selected sites in and around Mekelle twon (Mekelle, Quiha and Adigudom ) of Tgray Region, Northern Ethiopia. The study employed was clinical and Questionnaire surveys to determine the prevalence of lameness in male working horses. A total of 360 working horses were randomly selected from the study areas and the overall prevalence of lameness was (10.83%). The prevalence rate of lameness was found to be 33/300(11%), 4/35(11.43%) and 2/25(8%) in Mekelle, Quiha and Adigudom study sites respectively and it was not found statistically significant (X2=0.246, P=0.884). Higher prevalence 22/112 (19.64 %) was registered in working horses with poor body condition when compared to horses with medium 8/84(9.52%) and good 9/164(5.49%) body condition and the association was found statistically significant (x2=13.574, p=0.01). Prevalence of lameness was found to be affected by management condition and it was higher in horses with bad management condition (17.65%) when compared to horses with fair (8.92%) and good (6.66%) management condition and it was found statistically significant (X2=8.578, P=0.014). In case of grade types, higher prevalence of lameness (41%) was registered in grade 2 type horses followed by grade 1(25.64) and grade 3 (23.07%) the least prevalence lameness (10.255) was recorded in horses with grade 4 type. In conclusion, the result of the current study showed that lameness is a major health problem of working horses in the study areas so that comprehensive horses health care and welfare promotion program is very important to alleviate the problem. [Mubarek K, Haile W and Birhanu E. Epidemiological Study of Lameness in Horses in and Around Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(5):41-46]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj090517.06.

 

Key Words: Clinical examination, horses, Lameness, Prevalence, Tigray.

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7

Investigation Impact of E-learning (Moodle Learning Management System) on Self-expression Skills and Students' Social Adjustment

 

Narges Saedi1 (Corresponding author), Esmaeil Sadipour2

 

1. MA in Educational Technology Allameh Tabatabai University

2. Associate Professor, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabatabai University

n_saedi73@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Using learning management system can provide a variety of web-based content, which in recent years it has been used significantly by people. One of the aspects that are taken into consideration in this study to determine impact of e-learning (Moodle learning management system) on self-expression skills and students' social adjustment. The research method was quasi-experimental and control groups. Target population was all of Allameh Tabatabai University students in 2016-2017. 170 questionnaires were distributed among the students of Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences and then according to data obtained by 50 students were selected by convenience sampling. Social Adjustment Scale Instrument Bell & Gamble and assertiveness were Ridgecrest. Educational content to help prepare instructional design models Reigeluth and the experimental group received eight sessions of sixty minutes using virtual training in assertiveness skills training and received social adjustment and control group were trained in a routine manner. Data between software SPSS version 20 was analyzed by covariance. The results showed a significant difference between control and experimental groups, and the difference in favor of the test group. Based on a study it can be concluded that e learning would be conspicuous escalation skills, self- esteem and social adjustment.

[Narges Saedi, Esmaeil Sadipour. Investigation Impact of E-learning (Moodle Learning Management System) on Self-expression Skills and Students' Social Adjustment. Researcher 2017;9(5):47-53]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090517.07.

 

Keywords: e-learning, self-expression, social adjustment

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8

Application of RETC Model in Determining the Hydraulic Functions of the Unsaturated Soil

 

Mansour Sorkheh Nezhad1, Saeed Boroomand Nasab2

 

1Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Ahvaz, Iran

2Irrigation and Drainage Dept. Faculty of Water Sciences Eng. Shahid Chamran Univ, of Ahvaz Iran. Postal:61357-8-3151. Tell: +98 611 3135589, Fax: +98 611 3365670

m.sorkheh1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the unsaturated medium soil transfer takes place as liquid or gas with translational motion or diffusion process. Translational motion is resulted by mechanical forces such as gravity and pressure difference and the diffusion induced displacement is caused by the chemical and thermodynamic potential gradient. In other words, the driving force of water in unsaturated soils is the total potential gradient. In the unsaturated state hydraulic conductivity is a function of soil moisture and soil moisture is a function of the metric potential or suction force. Thus the relationship between these two quantities and moisture is not a linear relationship and this non-linearity makes the differential equations governing the unsaturated flow nonlinear the solution of which is not easily possible for any limiting condition. Determining soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is time-consuming and expensive in the laboratory and the field. In this study using a number of suction and moisture measurement points, Brooks-Corey model, Van Genuchten’s 5-variable model and fitting these models by RETC software the relationship between suction and volumetric moisture content of the soil as well as the relationship between suction and hydraulic conductivity were determined. Finally, using this software, the comparison is made between the two models. It is observed that Brooks and Corey model has a good fit in the dry section of the soil moisture characteristic curve. Van Genuchten’s model that has been limited by n and m in addition to high R2 coefficient is more appropriate because of estimating a wide range of data and including the entire range of moisture.

[Sorkheh Nezhad M, Boroomand Nasab S. Application of RETC Model in Determining the Hydraulic Functions of the Unsaturated Soil. Researcher 2017;9(5):54-57]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090517.08.

 

Keywords: Unsaturated zone, diffusion, analytic functions, RETC software, soil moisture characteristic curve (SMC)

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The Comparison of Hydraulic Conductivity Coefficient of Guelph Permameter and Inverted Auger Hole Method in Heavy Soil of Khuzestan Region

 

1Mansour Sorkheh Nezhad, 2 Mehdi Dehghan, 3 Abd Ali Naseri.

 

1Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Ahvaz, Iran

2Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

3Irrigation and Drainage Dept. Faculty of Water Sciences Eng. Shahid Chamran Univ, Ahvaz Iran.

Tel: Tell: +98 6133135589; Postal: 61357-8-3151, Fax: +98 61 33365670

m.sorkheh1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: One of the important features of soil physics is hydraulic conductivity of soil saturation with wide applications in soil and water science. The accuracy of two methods of inverted auger method as the most common method and Guelph permameter as a new, cheap methods evaluated in determination of hydraulic conductivity at above groundwater level. To do this, a part of Khuzestan region field with silt clay with area of 500 m2is selected. At 30 sites, some auger holes were augured to determine hydraulic conductivity of two methods. The comparison of the results of two above methods showed that inverted auger hole averagely estimated hydraulic conductivity coefficient 20.9 times more than Guelph permameter method. In addition, the best relationship between hydraulic conductivity coefficient of two methods was a linear equation with correlation coefficient 0.51.

[Sorkheh Nezhad M, Dehghan M, Naseri A.A. The Comparison of Hydraulic Conductivity Coefficient of Guelph Permameter and Inverted Auger Hole Method in Heavy Soil of Khuzestan Region. Researcher 2017;9(5):58-61]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090517.09.

 

Keywords: Hydraulic conductivity, Inverted auger, Guelph permameter

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Review on capture Myopathy in Wild life and its effect on health of Animals

 

Abebe Mequanent 1, Getinet Ayalew 2, Habtamu Addis 1

 

1 University of Gondar College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Gondar, Ethiopia, P.O. Box: 196

2University of Gondar, college of computational and natural science, department of biotechnology

E-mail: abebemequanent@gmil.com

 

Summary: Capture myopathy the name is given to Complex Disease that is usually involves transport. It can be caused by a single factor, but follows more a series intertwined events. The range of clinical signs begins in the early stages as hyperthermia (body temperature is above normal - animal is hot - sweats, pants), trouble breathing, fast heart rate. The animal with clinical signs of myopathy and its prognosis is poor. There are several interrelated ways in which capture myopathy can develop in animals. In the most acute form there is a very rapid buildup of acid in the animal’s blood it can die within a minute. Capture myopathy occurred when the muscle is exerted (used) its metabolism changes from aerobic (uses oxygen) to anaerobic (uses stored energy in the muscles). This leads to the buildup of lactic acid causes acidosis.

[Abebe M, Getinet A, Habtamu A. Review on capture Myopathy in Wild life and its effect on health of Animals. Researcher 2017;9(5):62-65]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090517.10.

 

Key words: myopathy, capture, acidosis

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The Effect of Leaching in Reducing Salinity and Alkalinity in Parts of the Lands of South of Khuzestan Province

 

Sorkheh-Nezhad, M. 1 and Mousavi, S.M.S.2

 

1Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Ahvaz, Iran

2Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

m.sorkheh1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In regions such as south of Khuzestan province where the surface of water table is salty and high, due to bullish movement of water through capillary tubes and the evaporation of water, minerals are moved into the earth, causing a brackish or salty and dirty soil. Considering the importance of soil as the best substrate for plant growth, as well as the most important human food supplier, reforming the saline and sodic soils is inevitable. This research was conducted in south of Khuzestan province in Darkhoein of Shadegan city. Source of water salinity and alkalinity of the soil is caused by the advance and retreat of wetland, and also due to the high, water table of the region, caused by rising saline groundwater under the influence of extreme volatility in the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of flooding intermittent leaching in soil improvement as well as drawing curves of desalination and desodification to determine the leaching of water. Leaching was done in four metal plots with dimensions of 1 1 m and carried out according to test and treatment plans. And after reaching the soil moisture of field capacity, sampling was done in depths of 0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100. Before the test, the three points of the plan were randomly divided into four sampling depths and sent to the laboratory to determine the physical and chemical properties. The results of field tests were analyzed by SPSS statistical software. The result indicates the fact that the results of the exponential equation showed good correlation with the results of field. Finally, using the exponential equations of model we attempt to draw curves of desalination and desodification. The results of sodium varieties of soils show that, for the improvement of the soil there is no need to use a soil amendment and modifying them is possible by using appropriate water.

[Sorkheh-Nezhad, M, Mousavi, S.M.S. The Effect of Leaching in Reducing Salinity and Alkalinity in Parts of the Lands of South of Khuzestan Province. Researcher 2017;9(5):66-72]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090517.11.

 

Keywords: saline and sodic soils, leaching, desalination, desodification, soil modification, periodic flooding

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Review integrality index in architecture and urbanism studies in USA

 

Elham Ramazani1, Rezgar Salimi2 (Corresponding author)

 

1. MSc of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Ayatollh Amoli Branch, Mazandaran, Iran

2. BSc in Architecture, Shomal Unversity, Amol, Mazandaran, Iran

Salami.rezgar70@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, integrity index in architecture and urbanism studies in USA was reviewed. urban system is so complex that it requires an integral involvement through different levels. The conclusion is that it is needed to invest more energy in improving the existing study system in USA and in establishment of a higher level of integrity in the implementation of the study process. What we experience with our bodies and senses differs dramatically from the theoretical concepts of pure space as proposed by scientists. Space can be defined by surfaces, lines, points. But besides this obvious physical nature of the space there exists its character, not measureable as easily – the phenomenal space. Our own human experience of space is quite different from a hypothetical concept of pure space because we are embodied beings and experience our environment with all senses available to us.

[Elham Ramazani, Rezgar Salimi. Review integrality index in architecture and urbanism studies in USA. Researcher 2017;9(5):73-78]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 12. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090517.12.

 

Keywords: Architecture, Urbanism, USA

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In-Vitro Antibacterial Effect Of Xanthium Strumarium And Combertum Molle On Staphylococcus Aureus And Streptococcous Agalactiae Isolated From Bovine Mastitis

 

Assefa Belay (DVM) 1, Ayana Wubie (DVM) 2*

 

1Addis Ababa University; College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture

2 Lecture at Burie Poly Technic College; Department of Animal Health; P.o.box.75;

Email: ayanawb10@gmail.com

*Correspondence for the Author Ayana Wubie (DVM) Lecturer at Burie Poly Tecnic College; Department of Animal Health.

 

Abstract:-In-vitro antibacterial sensitivity test of selected medicinal plants was conducted at AAU, College of veterinary medicine and agriculture, Debre zeit from December 2013 to May 2014. The study carried out with the objective of determining and comparing of the in-vitro antibacterial effect of ethanol extracts of two medicinal plants; namely, Xanthium strumarium and Combertum molle on three isolations of each S. aureus and S. agalactiae from bovine mastitis cases. The plants for this study were selected based on previous research works and collected from their natural habitats in Debre zeit and Gonder. The leaf of X. strumarium, C. molle leaf and C. molle seed were processed and extracted by 95% ethanol. In these study X. strumarium and C. molle seed had good antibacterial activity on S. aureus and S. agalactiae but C. molle leaf had low antibacterial activity on S. aureus and S. agalactiae. The crude extracts of both plants inhibit the growth of S. aureus and S. agalactiae at all concentration (0.63% to 10%) except C. molle leaf at 0.63% concentration had no antibacterial effect on S. agalactiae. Both type of plants extraction were a dose dependent inhibition zone on the tested bacteria showing greatest activity at highest concentration of crude extracts. A wider zone of inhibition was observed on X. strumarium at all concentration than other extracts. The efficacies of 10% crude extract of X. strumarium and C. molle seed were comparable with conventional antimicrobial agent like Gentamycine. The findings suggest that there is a potential in the discovery of novel antimicrobial agents from medicinal plants and further study should be made in order to identify the active phytochemical constituents and on toxicity of active plant principles to determine their safety use.

[Assefa Belay (DVM), Ayana Wubie (DVM). In-Vitro Antibacterial Effect Of Xanthium Strumarium And Combertum Molle On Staphylococcus Aureus And Streptococcous Agalactiae Isolated From Bovine Mastitis. Rep Opinion 2017;9(5):79-86]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 13. doi:10.7537/marsroj090517.13.

 

Key words: in-vitro antibacterial effects, crude extracts, medicinal plants, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus agalactiae, zone of inhibition

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The Effect of Form-Focused Versus Meaning-Focused Instruction on the Development of Adjective-Noun Collocations among Iranian EFL Learners

 

Mojtaba Aghajani 1, Mostafa Naraghi zadeh 2, Hassan Ali Beiglou 3

 

1. PhD candidate in TEFL, Khatam Al-Anbia University

2. PhD candidate in TEFL, Islamic Azad University

3. PhD candidate in TEFL, Malayer Branch

Corresponding email address: Mojtaba_Aghajani45@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, the effects of form-focused versus meaning focus instruction on the development of adjective-noun collocations among Iranian EFL learners are investigated. This research took place in the academic year of 2012-2013. Fifty five intermediate learners were divided into two groups, during a four- week treatment; the two groups were provided with two different types of instruction. They were randomly selected with form-focus instruction (Dictogloss task) (N: 26) and the other group with meaning-focused instruction (discussion task) (N: 31). The results of pre-test, post-test and the delayed post-test were analyzed using the paired samples t-test to find out the impact of form- and meaning-focused instruction on the development of adjective+noun collocations on the performance of the subjects. The data were analyzed using SPSS software to compare the means of the groups involved. The results revealed, learners’ Collocational knowledge improved as a result of the treatments provided in both groups. As the comparison between the results of the pre-test, post-test and delayed post-test showed, learners in the both groups as FFI and MFI groups significantly improved their Collocational knowledge on post test and delayed post-test. As a conclusion, it can be generalized that both types of instruction can promote the learners awareness of collocation specifically Adjective-Noun ones.

[Mojtaba Aghajani, Mostafa Naraghi zadeh, Hassan Ali Beiglou. The Effect of Form-Focused Versus Meaning-Focused Instruction on the Development of Adjective-Noun Collocations among Iranian EFL Learners. Rep Opinion 2017;9(5):87-95]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 14. doi:10.7537/marsroj090517.14.

 

Keywords: Form- focused instruction, meaning-focused instruction, Collocations

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Investigation Quantitative Features of Quercus Kamarovit Longifolia Oliv in Arasbaran Region

 

Vali Seifi Ghadi1 (Corresponding author), Habib Fathi1, Dr. Ali Kialashaki2

1.  MSc of Natural Resources Engineering, Forestry Orientation, Islamic Azad University of Chaloos, Mazandaran, Iran

2.  Associate Professor in Forestry, Faculty member of Islamic Azad University of Chaloos, Mazandaran, Iran

saheb_1360@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Understanding the study area before you take any kind of administrative actions seem important, because it provides the possibility to please an appropriate assessment according to characteristics have Quantitative mass and given the potential to provide a good habitat management model. Arasbaran located in the north of Aras river, from the west to the highlands city of Tabriz and Sarab and the East border of Ardabil and East Azerbaijan province and also Marand and Jolfa and the West is limited. Data using SPSS software and Excel for charting and Duncan test and analysis of variance according to the characteristics of Quantitative separate groups were compared. With the help of statistical tests to compare multiple analysis of variance showed that the mean diameter at breast height, tree height, crown diameter, crown height to 95% there is no significant difference. Arasbaran forest area in the not too distant past has been a significant extent due to indiscriminate felling of forests for charcoal large area of the forest is gone, now Arasbaran 164000 hectares of forest area which this area of 148000 hectares as forest protection has been reported. The annual rainfall average area of 400-600mm is estimated. The number of foggy days this area is significant and increasing role in regional water balance which affects the amount of rain forests Arasbaran that make rainfall of 450 mm to 750 mm and perhaps, the main reason is the same Arasbaran diversity of species.

[Vali Seifi Ghadi, Habib Fathi, Ali Kialashaki. Investigation Quantitative Features of Quercus Kamarovit Longifolia Oliv in Arasbaran Region. Researcher 2017;9(5):96-100]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 15. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090517.15.

 

Keywords: Quercus Kamarovit Longifolia Oliv, ANOVA technique, Arasbaran

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16

Review on Cloning in Farm Animals

 

Habtamu addis

 

University of Gondar College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Department of veterinary clinical, Gondar, Ethiopia p.o. Box:196

Email: yohansaddis68@gmail.com

 

AbstractCloning is one of the breeding technologies like other new technologies. It must be assessed through a wide range of angles such as animal welfare, food safety, precautionary principles and ethical concerns. Cloning of plants (such as growing a plant from a cutting) has been a common practice of mankind for hundreds and perhaps thousands of years. Even cloning of small animals has a long history dated back to the 1960's (HRF, 2014. Cloning is already being used commercially in the livestock industry in some parts of the world for the replication of elite breeding animals. The use of cloning technology is therefore facilitating the development and commercialisation of genetically modified animals for food production purposes. SCNT produces animals that are genetically unlike any animal found in nature. Many species have been cloned since Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, was born in 1996. There are now estimated to be around 6000 farm animal clones worldwide.

[Habtamu addis. Review on Cloning in Farm Animals. Researcher 2017;9(5):101-110]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 16. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090517.16.

 

Key words: breeding, Cloning, Cloning in nature

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from April 20, 2017. 

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