Science Journal

 

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ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly
Volume 9 - Issue 7 (Cumulated No. 97), 25, 2017
Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher0907
 
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

 Correlative Assessment of the Bacteriological and Physicochemical Parameters of Water Sources in Magama and Bolgang Villages of Langtang South, Plateau State, Nigeria

 

Ocheme Julius Okojokwu *1, Denfa Dennis Butko 1, Andefiki Ubandoma 2, Michael Macvren Dashen 1, Tarfena Yoila Amapu 3, Hezekiah Yusuf Azi 1, Otumala John Egbere 1, Patricia Fremu Chollom 1

 

1. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

3. Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Natural Sciences,

University Jos, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: okojokwuoj@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the relationship between bacteriological and physicochemical parameters of water from wells, streams, ponds and boreholes which serve as drinking water sources to inhabitants of Magama and Bolgang villages of Langtang South Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. The water sample were collected from fourteen (14) wells, two (2) streams, two (2) ponds and two (2) boreholes in three (3) batches making a total of 60 samples and subjected to physicochemical tests and bacteriological analysis by membrane filtration techniques. In Magama village, total heterotrophic counts showed bacteria growth in varying degrees with water samples from pond being the most contaminated (7.7 105 0.0 105 cfu/ml), followed by wells (6.3 105 0.7 105 cfu/ml) and the least contaminated was from boreholes (1.9 105 0.0 105 cfu/ml). the total coliform was highest in well water (5.2 x 105 0.3 x 105 cfu/ml) followed by ponds (5.1 x 105 0.0 x 105 cfu/ml) while borehole water had the least count. The heterotrophic bacterial count in Bolgang was highest in ponds (7.6 x 105 0.0 x 105 cfu/ml) and borehole had the least count (1.1 x 105 0.0 x 105 cfu/ml). On the other hand, the total coliform count was highest in well water (5.2 x 105 0.3 x 105 cfu/ml) and least in borehole. Only two of the water samples (Magama and Bolgang Centre boreholes) met the WHO standard for drinking water of 0 coliform as coliforms were isolated from other sources except two. The enteric bacteria isolated included Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhi and Proteus mirabilis. The water from the two villages were found to be unsuitable for consumption and recreational purposes without treatment. Generally, correlation studies revealed that pH, alkalinity and total hardness have a strong positive association with total heterotrophic and coliform counts. Therefore, as compared to standards, the waters studied could be regarded as physicochemically acceptable but bacteriologically unsafe for use as raw water for drinking, animal herding, recreational activities and the irrigation of food crops to be consumed raw. There is need to control the faecal bacteria, the indicator for the faecal pollution of the water bodies. Improvement in water quality and availability will aid hygienic practices and interrupt the transmission of enteric pathogens through contaminated water in the study area. Public health education aimed at improving personal, household and community hygiene is imperative. The waters studied was considered physicochemically acceptable but bacteriologically unsafe for use as raw water for drinking, animal herding, recreational activities and the irrigation of food crops to be consumed raw.

[Okojokwu OJ, Butko DD, Ubandoma AMD, Dashen MM, Amapu TY, Azi HY, Egbere OJ, Chollom PF. Correlative Assessment of the Bacteriological and Physicochemical Parameters of Water Sources in Magama and Bolgang Villages of Langtang South, Plateau State, Nigeria. Researcher 2017;9(7):1-10]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.01.

 

Key words: Water, Well, Stream, Bore-hole, Bacteriological quality, Plateau State.

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2

Updates in Laminoplasty Techniques for Treatment of Multilevel Cervical Stenosis

 

Mohammed Hosam Eldin Abo shahba, Hedaya Mohamed Hendam, Ahmed Mohamed Taha, Abd-Allah Mohamed Abd-Alwahab Slama

 

Neurosurgery department (Damietta), Faculty of medicine- Al-Azhar University- Egypt

Abdallasalama133@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The main goal of laminoplasty is to provide decompression of the spinal cord by widening the spinal canal and also used to gain wide access to the spinal canal to perform additional procedures (e.g., adequate dissection around the dural tube, duraplasty, and removal of spinal cord tumor). Methods: 20 patients with multilevel cervical canal stenosis undergoing cervical laminoplasty. Results: Post-operative improvement of Nurick grade score, Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores and neck pain visual analog scale score. Conclusions: Laminoplasty is becoming an increasingly popular treatment for multilevel cervical stenosis due to cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Laminoplasty minimizes the risk of certain complications associated with other surgical options, such as graft and fusion-related complications.

[Mohammed Hosam Eldin Abo shahba, Hedaya Mohamed Hendam, Ahmed Mohamed Taha, Abd-Allah Mohamed Abd-Alwahab Slama. Updates in Laminoplasty Techniques for Treatment of Multilevel Cervical Stenosis. Researcher 2017;9(7):11-15]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.02.

 

Keywords: multilevel cervical stenosis, Laminoplasty

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Ante and Post Slaughter Defects of Hide and Skin in Ethiopia

 

1Abraham Jemberu, 2*Ayana Wubie (DVM), 2wale Firew (DVM)

 

1Mekelle University, College of Veterinary Medicine; Mekelle, Ethiopia

2 Lecture at Burie Poly Technic College; Department of Animal Health; Burie; Ethiopia P.O. Box. 75;

Email: ayanawb10@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Ethiopia has 56.71 million cattle, 29.33 million sheep, and 29.11 million of goats. Besides, hide and skin has a large contribution to the leather industry in the country. Archaeological studies have shown that hide and skins have been used since antiquity as clothes, vessels, bedding, and possibly structurally in ancient dwelling places. Hides are broadly defined as the external integuments of large animals, while skins are the outer coverings of small stock (goats and sheep). The best sources of hides and skins from domesticated animals are cattle, and sheep and goat respectively. Hide and skin defects are classified under ante-slaughter defects and post-slaughter defects. Ante-slaughter defects are those created or acquired during the life of the animal such as: mechanical damage (brand marks, bruises, scars/wound and scratches), natural defects, parasitic infestation, skin diseases (fungal disease, bacterial disease, and viral disease) while post-slaughter defects are those occur during and after slaughtering of animals, which consist of flay cut, knife damage, bad bleeding, poor pattern, preservation, storage and transportations defects. Among the most significant problems during ante-slaughter defects, external parasitic infestation accounts for about 65%. While flaying cuts due to improper using of tools as well as lack of flaying skill, storage and preservation are the commonest post-slaughter problems. The main objective of this seminar paper is therefore; to indicate the major ante and post slaughter defects of hide and skin in Ethiopia.

[Abraham Jemberu, Ayana Wubie, wale Firew. Ante and Post Slaughter Defects of Hide and Skin in Ethiopia. Researcher 2017;9(7):16-26]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.03.

 

Key words: Ante-Slaughter, Ethiopia, Hide, Post-Slaughter, Skin.

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Determination of Coliform load and prevalence of E. coli in Broiler meat at Debre zeit Agricultural research center poultry farm

 

Asmamaw Aki Jano

 

Regional Veterinary Diagnostic, Surveillance, Monitoring and Study Laboratory, P.O. Box: 326, Asossa, Ethiopia, Email address: asmamawaki@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The current study was conducted from November 2007 to April 2008 with an attempt to determine the prevalence of E. coli, coliform load and the presence of E. coli 0157: H7 strains in broiler meat at DZARC Poultry farm. The Experimental broilers were fed adlibitum with commercial ration containing EM through all the study periods, which were available in form of solution and solid for commercial use and it was given at the dose rate of 1 ml/ ltr through drinking water to 1st groups, as biofeed at the dose rate of 30 gm/kg in feed to 2nd groups and both simultaneously to 3rd group continuously from 10 days of age to 56 days age. The forth groups served as control. Out of 100 broiler meat samples, 74 % of the isolates were E. coli positive. The overall isolation rate was 22(88%) in control groups, 15(60%) in groups fed with Bokash and normal water, 17 (68%) in groups fed with normal feed and EM with water, and 20 (80%) in groups fed with Bokash and EM with water. There is statistically significance difference (p<0.05) in isolation rates among the four treatment groups. The mean coliform count of positive samples was 5.25 x103 cfu/gm of chicken breast meat. The coliform load for each of the treatment groups was 7.0 x 103 cfu/gm for control groups, 4.0 x103 cfu/gm for the groups fed on Bokash with normal water, 4.5 x103 cfu/gm for groups provided with normal feed and EM with water and 5.5 x103 cfu/gm for group fed with Bokash and EM with water. Result of the present study showed that there is higher E. coli contamination rate of broilers’ meat.

[Asmamaw Aki Jano. Determination of Coliform load and prevalence of E. coli in Broiler meat at Debre zeit Agricultural research center poultry farm. Researcher 2017;9(7):27-32]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.04.

 

Key words: Broiler, Coliform, Debre zeit, E. coli

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5

Evaluation Relationship between E-commerce and USA International Private Contracts

 

Samiyeh Sardarkelari

 

Master Student of Private Law, Department of Private Law, College of Laws and Politics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

samiye.kelari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States The legal field of conclusion of contracts is one of topical examples of further development if USA law, especially according to relative new form of such conclusion on basis of e-commerce. In the article are discussed therefore only the questions concerning to international private law and e-commerce. The Conception of development of civil legislation orientates USA legislator, USA legal praxis and doctrine on experiences of foreign law and international law.

[Samiyeh Sardarkelari. Evaluation Relationship between E-commerce and USA International Private Contracts. Researcher 2017;9(7):33-37]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.05.

 

Keywords: e-commerce, international private law, USA

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6

Determination the Relationship between Spiritual Leadership and Intellectual Capital Management (Case study: Agriculture Organization of Qom province)

 

Moslem Aghaei

 

MSc of Educational Management, Agriculture Organization of Qom province

moslem_aghayi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between spiritual leadership and intellectual capital management in Agriculture Organization of Qom Province. In this research, a descriptive method with correlation approach has been used. The research population consisted of all employees working in Agriculture Organization of Qom province who work officially, contractual, treaty and part-time (N = 370) in 2014-2015. From this population, 187 people were selected as the sample based on the Cochran formula. Simple random sampling method and data gathering tool was spiritual Leadership Standardized Questionnaire of Frye et al. (2005) and Bontis Intellectual Capital (2001). To assess the reliability of the questionnaire, 30 questionnaires were provided to the community. The obtained data was calculated using Cronbach's alpha method. The confidence coefficient of the Spiritual Leadership Questionnaire (0.932) and the Intellectual Capital Questionnaire (0.877) were calculated. In order to analyze the data, descriptive statistics method and after structural data were used, structural equations were used for data inference. The results of the research showed that there is a significant and positive relationship between intellectual leadership and intellectual capital as well as each aspect of the vision, love for friendship, membership, organizational commitment, performance feedback, faith in intellectual capital.

 [Moslem Aghaei. Determination the Relationship between Spiritual Leadership and Intellectual Capital Management (Case study: Agriculture Organization of Qom province). Researcher 2017;9(7):38-42]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.06.

 

Keywords: Spiritual Leadership, Intellectual Capital, Employed Personnel, Organization, Capital

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Sonographic evaluation of Myometrial Thickness as a Prognosticator for the Latency Interval in Pregnant Women with Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes and Oligohydramnios

 

Walid Abdelgalil Ibrahim Elshikh

 

Obstetrics and Genecology Department, Faculty of Medicine. Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

waleadalsheak@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Term labor is associated with global thinning of the myometrium. We hypothesized that a thickened myometrium at the time of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) predicts less myometrial wall stress and, consequently, a longer latency interval. Study design: Myometrial thickness was measured prospectively in 100 pregnant women enrolled in the following groups: preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), preterm non-labor control group (P-CTR), and term non-labor control (T-CTR). All preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) women had oligohydramnios. Myometrial thickness was measured ultrasonographically at the mid-anterior, fundal, posterior, and lower uterine segment wall in cases and controls. Setting: this is study carried out at Al-Azhar hospitals (Al Hussain and Bab Alsheria hospitals) during the period from January 2016 to June 2016. Results: Maternal weight, the number of previous pregnancies, gestational age and SEFW; there was no significant difference among the three groups (p>0.05). MT showed a significant difference between both P-CTR group and T-CTR group with post hoc significance =1 and p >0.001. The LUS was significantly thicker in PPROM group compared with both T-CTR and P-CTR groups (p<0.001). PPROM group had an obvious significantly lower AFI compared with both P-CTR group and T-CTR group. Regression analysis suggested that there was a very strong positive person correlation between the latency interval and both the AFI and the fundal MT. Conclusion: Significant thickening of the anterior and fundal walls of the uterus follows preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). A thick myometrium in non-laboring patients with PPROM is associated with longer latency interval. Sonographic evaluation of MT may represent an alternative clinical tool for the prediction of a short latency interval in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM).

[Walid Abdelgalil Ibrahim Elshikh. Sonographic evaluation of Myometrial Thickness as a Prognosticator for the Latency Interval in Pregnant Women with Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes and Oligohydramnios. Researcher 2017;9(7):43-50]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.07.

 

Keywords: PPROM, Myometrium, Oligohydramnios, latency interval.

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Evaluation of Liver Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (L-FABP) as a Biomarker in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy

 

El-Saeid, M. E. El-Bawab1, Abdelzaher M.H2, Ashraf Abo Kebir3, Hussein M. Eldeeb4a,b

 

1,2,4a, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt

3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt

4b Medical Biochemistry Department Collage of pharmacy, Qassimuniversity, Buraidah Saudi Arabia

elsaeidelbawab@yahoo.com, abdelzaher_gerga@yahoo.com, husseineldeeb@qumed.edu.sa, Ashraf_abokebir@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Liver-type fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP) is a 14 kDa small molecule that is expressed in the cytoplasm of human proximal tubules. Studies of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes demonstrated that urinary excretion of L-FABP derived from proximal tubules is a suitable biomarker for predicting and monitoring deterioration of renal function in diabetic nephropathy. Aim: The aim of present study is to investigate the urinary level of L-FABP as biochemical marker that can determine the severity of tissue injury resulting from diabetic nephropathy. Methods: This study was carried out on 86 patients and classified into four groups; Control group, Normal albuminuria, Micro-albuminuria and Macro-albuminuria. We assessed urinary levels of LFABP, urinary albumin, urinary creatinine, Albumin/creatinine ratio, serum creatinine, urea, HbA1c and eGFR. Results: We found an increase in the level of urinary L-FABP and positive correlation with the progression of kidney disease. Also we found that significant positive correlation between L-FABP and both HbA1c (P < 0.05) and urinary albumin. The results of the present study showed that by ROC curve, urinary L-FABP is a significant marker in diagnosing of microalbuminuric group (AUC=0.62), (P<0.001) and macroalbuminuric group (AUC=0.80), (P<0.001). Conclusion: Measurement of L-FABP in urine provides a marker for the severity of diabetic nephropathy and considered as a good marker of diabetic nephropathy.

 [El-Saeid, M. E. El-Bawab, Abdelzaher M.H, Ashraf Abo Kebir, Hussein M. Eldeeb. Evaluation of Liver Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (L-FABP) as a Biomarker in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy. Researcher 2017;9(7):51-58]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.08.

 

Keywords: Liver-type fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP) - Diabetic nephropathy

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Evaluation of Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) for sunflower under different Irrigation Regimes

 

Atefeh Nouraki 1, Samira Akhavan 1, Yosef Rezaei 2

 

1. Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2. Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

akhavan_samira@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Deficit irrigation is a common practice to cope with limited water availability. The main objective of this research is to evaluate crop water stress index (CWSI) on sunflower under various irrigation regimes in the northern Khozestan, Iran. Canopy temperatures were measured throughout the growing season with an infrared thermometer (IRT), and vapor deficit of air (VPD) was used for calculating empirical the CWSI. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with 3 replications. The lower (non-stressed) and upper (fully stressed) base lines for the determination of Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) of sunflower crop were estimated. A non-water stressed baseline (lower baseline) equation for sunflower was developed using canopy temperature measured from full irrigated plots as, Tc −Ta = -0.1 12VPD + 1.88; R2=0.98 and Tc −Ta = -0.1 34VPD + 1.70; R2=0.97 for September and October respectively. The trends in CWSI values were consistent with the soil water contents induced by the deficit irrigations. The CWSI value was useful for evaluating crop water stress in sunflower and should be useful for timing irrigation.

[Nouraki A, Akhavan S, Rezaei Y. Evaluation of Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) for sunflower under different Irrigation Regimes. Researcher 2017;9(7):59-63]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.09.

 

Keywords: Infrared thermometry; crop water stress index; irrigation scheduling; sunflower

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Prevalence Of Addiction Among Medical Students

 

Feriha Fatima 1, Faiza Shabir 2

 

1 Department of Biochemistry, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS), Jamshoro, Pakistan.

2 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS), Jamshoro, Pakistan.

ferihafatima@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: Present study was conducted to find out the prevalence and reasons of different addictions among medical students. Study Setting: Department of Biochemistry, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro. Study Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire based. Methodology: This study was conducted among first year and second year MBBS students of Liaquat university of medical and health sciences. 164 students participated in study and filled the structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 16. Results: Prevalence of addiction was found to be 20.7% with prevalence of 64.7% of males predominantly. The most common addiction among students was eating betel nuts (38.2%) followed by cigarette smoking (23.5%), paan eating (17.6%), sheesha smoking (8.8%), alcohol (6%), whereas 5.9% had other addictions. The most important factor for the initiation of addiction were pleasure, impersonating others and failure in love. The majority of addicted students (47.1%), had motivation from friends to start addiction. Conclusion: Addiction among medical students in spite of having knowledge regarding their hazards is alarming. Awareness, counseling, and proper education can prevent the addiction among future doctors who will have to serve the community.

[Feriha Fatima, Faiza Shabir. Prevalence Of Addiction Among Medical Students. Researcher 2017;9(7):64-67]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.10.

 

Key Words: Addiction, medical students

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Bone Changes in Dental Implant Combined with Laser Therapy: A Split Mouth Study

 

Ali Fahd1, Yousef Abd-El Ghaffar2, Hanaa El-Shenawy3, Mohamed Khalifa4, and Mushira Dahaba4

 

1. Oral and maxillofacial Radiology department, Faculty of oral and dental medicine, South Valley University, Egypt

2. Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Misr University for Science and Technology, Egypt

3. Oral Surgery and Medicine, National Research Centre, Egypt

4. Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

dr.hanaa.shenawy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Dental implant placement is a good option for teeth replacement. Laser therapy is an additive tool for dental application and can offer a lot of advantages in the field of dental implant. One of the uses of laser therapy is biostimulation which may enhance dental implant osseointegration. This work was undertaken to assess bone changes after dental implant surgery biostimulated with laser therapy in comparison to placebo control in a split mouth study through standardized digital intraoral dental radiographs. Material and Methods: Twenty-one bilateral dental implants were randomly assigned to right or left side lased groups and the outcome was relative bone density changes and relative bone level changes measurd by Digora software for standardized digital intraoral periapical radiographs taken at baseline, three and six months postoperatively. Results: Relative radiographic bone density in the study sample decreased at three months from baseline comparison then increased again to over baseline at six months due to normal bone metabolism and healing mechanism, a finding that is not attributed to the effect of laser intervention. Relative radiographic bone loss occurred around dental implants during the first six months and despite of lower occurrence in the laser group, yet this finding was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Laser therapy may enhance bone-implant interface. A randomized clinical trial is recommended to reach a solid evidence based conclusion.

[Ali Fahd, Yousef Abd-El Ghaffar, Hanaa El-Shenawy, Mohamed Khalifa, and Mushira Dahaba. Bone Changes in Dental Implant Combined with Laser Therapy: A Split Mouth Study. Researcher 2017;9(7):68-74]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.11.

 

Keywords: Digital Imaging - Implant Dentistry - Lasers - Oral Implantology - Osseointegration - Radiology

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Carcass Characteristics and Blood Parameters of Broiler Chickens fed Four Local Varieties of Sorghum as Replacement for Maize in Semi-arid Zone of Nigeria

 

C.I., Medugu1, J. U., Igwebuike2, I.D., Kwari2, S.B., Adamu2, C., Augustine3*, Clement3*, S., Nuhu2, and E., Odumu2.

 

1. Borno State Agricultural Development Programme, P.M.B. 1452, Maiduguri, Borno State – Nigeria

2. Department of Animal Science, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State – Nigeria

3. Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, P.M.B. 25, Mubi, Nigeria

e-mail: auddagga@gmail.com; Phone No: +2348132946167.

 

Abstract: Effect of dietary replacement of maize with four local varieties of sorghum on carcass characteristics, haematology and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens were determined. Two hundred and twenty-five (225) 14 day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to five (5) dietary treatments containing forty five (45) chicks having three (3) replicates with fifteen (15) chicks each. The dietary treatments were: (maize), 1 control, 2 (“Masakwa” sorghum), 3 (“Kafi-moro”) sorghum, 4 (“Kamawanza” sorghum) and 5 (“Chakalere” sorghum). The design of the experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The study covered both starter and finisher stages. The results showed that there were no significant (p>0.05) difference in the live weight, slaughter weight, plucked weight, dressed weight and dressing percentage in all the treatment groups. Significant (p<0.05) differences were observed in the thighs, neck, intestinal weight and caeca. Significant (p<0.05) differences were also noticed in the packed cell volume, red blood cells, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and white blood cells among treatment groups. Similarly, significant (p<0.05) differences exists in neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Some significant (p<0.05) differences were observed in the serum biochemical indices which include albumen, globulin, creatinine and conjugated bilirubin among treatment groups. These results conclude that replacement of maize with sorghum in broiler chicken diets had no adverse effects on carcass, haematological and serum biochemical indices.

[C.I., Medugu, J. U., Igwebuike, I.D., Kwari, S.B., Adamu, C., Augustine, Clement, S., Nuhu, and E., Odumu.. Carcass Characteristics and Blood Parameters of Broiler Chickens fed Four Local Varieties of Sorghum as Replacement for Maize in Semi-arid Zone of Nigeria. Researcher 2017;9(7):75-80]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 12. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.12.

 

Keywords: Broiler chickens, carcass, haematology, serum biochemistry, maize, sorghum

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Prevalence and Prevention Methods of Malaria in the Case of Butajira Sub-City, Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia

 

1Etalem Alemayeh, 2*Ayana Wubie (DVM), 2Wale Firew (DVM), 2Hailehzeb Cheru (DVM)

 

1 Wolaita Sodo University; College of Natural and Computational Science; Department of Biology

2 Lectures at Burie Poly Technic College; Department of Animal Health; Burie; Ethiopia P.O.Box.75;

Email: ayanawb10@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Malaria is a parasitic disease transmitted by female anopheles mosquito. The causative agent of malaria is an obligate in intracellular protozoan in genus plasmodium. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative prevalence of malaria with respect to sex, age and season as well as prevention methods used by the communities of Butajira sub city Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia. During conducting of this research, 613 respondents were selected by simple random sampling technique and the data was collected by using interview and questionnaire. When performing this task, about 97% data was collected by using interview and the remaining 3% was covered by questionnaires. The secondary data was collected from patient registration book of Butajira hea1th center of 2015 and 2016. From those 200people, (32.6%) were positive for plasmodium parasite. Regarding plasmodium parasite, p.falciparum accounts 44%), p.vivax (36%) and double infection case was about (20%). Nothing was recorded about P.ovale and P.malariae. According to analysis of the result and interpretation, females were more infected groups that account (58.1%). In terms of age, patients less than 15 years were the most infected that account (36.1%), seasonally; high prevention was occurred in Autum followed by winter with regard to prevalence, Indoor residual spraying, environmental management and personal protection were used by the communities as prevention means. Thus, alternative strategies should be designed in order to minimize and control the problems in the study area were also recommended.

[ Etalem Alemayeh, Ayana Wubie (DVM), Wale Firew (DVM), Hailehzeb Cheru (DVM). Prevalence and Prevention Methods of Malaria in the Case of Butajira Sub-City, Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Researcher 2017;9(7):81-87]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 13. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.13.

 

Key Words: Double infection, Malaria, Morbidity, Mortality, Plasmodium species

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Distribution and Effect of Parthenium Hysterophorus L. In East Gojam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

 

Mengist Belay

 

Department of Natural Resource Management, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Debre Markos University, Ethiopia.

mengistbelay@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Invasive plant species have potential to damage our environment and hence scientists, academics, leaders of industry and land managers are realizing that invasive species are serious environmental threats for the 21st century. A study was conducted in East Gojam Zone, Amhara Region Ethiopia to determine the impact and distribution status of Parthenium weed, Parthenium hysterophorus L. in the area. To collect data related with the impact of parthenium, 15 Peasant Association (PAs) were purposefully selected along the high way. A total of 140 quadrats (1 m2 area each) from 15 PAs were selected by using stratified random sampling for herbaceous vegetation data associated with parthenium. The plant species found in each quadrat were counted, recorded and identified. The data collected from farmers’ perception on the impact of parthenium weed were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Shannon Diversity Index, evenness, species richness and Jaccards Similarity Index to determine parthenium impact on species diversity were calculated from the vegetation data. This study revealed that high infestation level of parthenium weed is confined to East Gojam Zone as. A total of 50 plant species under 20 families were recorded. The sampled PAs in Bichena town showed high infestation level with lower diversity index. Thus, it is an urgent task to draw the attention of relevant responsible bodies and public in general for managing and preventing further introduction and dissemination of the weed in this study area.

[Mengist Belay. Distribution and Effect of Parthenium Hysterophorus L. In East Gojam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Researcher 2017;9(7):88-93]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 14. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090717.14.

 

Key words: Invasive plant species, Parthenium weed, herbaceous vegetation, infestation

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from June 6, 2017. 

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