Science Journal

 

Researcher
(Researcher)
ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly
Volume 9 - Issue 8 (Cumulated No. 98), August 25, 2017
Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher0908
 
The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from July 12, 2017. 
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Predicting the relative water content of sunflower plant using RGB reflectance

 

Atefeh Nouraki 1, Samira Akhavan 1, Yosef Rezaei 2

 

1. Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2. Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

akhavan_samira@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: With an increasing request of fresh water resources in arid/semi-arid parts of the world, researchers and practitioners are relying more than ever on remote sensing techniques for monitoring and evaluating crop water status and for estimating crop water use. The goal of the present study was to evaluate relative water content (RWC) to different levels of irrigation and deploy a digital imaging system for high spatial and temporal monitoring using of vegetation indices and investigate their relationship with RWC. According to results, with increase in water stress degree the RWC value decrease. The results of this study show that significant linear relationships between the image parameters and RWC. There was a strong relationship between the normalized difference red blue index (NDRBI) and RWC with correlation coefficient of 0.90**. Overall, the results of this study show the potential of using vegetation indices derived from digital Red, Green and Blue (RGB) images as a low-cost technique for assessing RWC under different levels of irrigation availabilities.

[Nouraki A, Akhavan S, Rezaei Y. Predicting the relative water content of sunflower plant using RGB reflectance. Researcher 2017;9(8):1-5]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090817.01.

 

Keywords: RWC, digital RGB imaging, image processing technology, vegetation indices

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2

Geological Assessment Of The Pindiga Limestone For Cement Production, Northern Benue Trough, Northeastern Nigeria

 

Maimuna Halilu1, Suleiman Raji,1, Fauziya Rufai Ahmed1 and Abubakar Maunde1

 

1Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria

* Corresponding author: Email: mkmyers45@gmail.com; Tel: +2348051440114

 

Abstract: Limestone beds of the Pindiga formation are assessed for the suitability for cement production. Cyclic sea movement during the Cretaceous lead to unique basin conditions necessary for the deposition of carbonate rocks. Presence of marine gastropods and foraminifera fossils in the limestone and accompanying shale suggest relatively shallow marine environment of deposition during the period of sedimentation. Chemical analysis of the limestone by X-ray fluorescense analysis reveal a mean composition of CaO (47.134), MgO (0.597), Fe2O3 (2.468), Al2O3 (3.348), SiO2 (7.8122) and Na2O (0.108). The limestone was classified as pure limestone and found suitable for cement production.

[M. Halilu, S. Raji,, F.R. Ahmed and A. Maunde. Geological Assessment Of The Pindiga Limestone For Cement Production, Northern Benue Trough, Northeastern Nigeria. Researcher 2017;9(8):6-9]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090817.02.

 

Keywords: Limestone, Portland Cement, Northern Benue trough, Pindiga, Mineralization

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3

Environmental Pollution in the Niger Delta and Consequential Challenges to Sustainable Development of the Region: the Role of an Individual

 

Leera Solomon, Okorite George-West and Isetima Kelsy Alalibo

 

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic, Rumuola, P. M. B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

sololeera@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The changing lifestyle of modern man is not only polluting our environment, but is also over-utilizing our natural resources base, particularly the non-renewable resources, like metals, minerals, and fossil fuels. Such lifestyles, involving excessive consumption of natural resources and the increasing human’s disconnection from nature via their unwholesome environmental practices are likely to deprive our future generations from the availability of such resources, which take millions of years in their regeneration. All such unsustainable human actions are finally likely to cause harmful effects on our environment, human health and may possibly lead to the extinction of man from planet Earth. Public pressure will be developed only when the public knows the values and the importance of the environment, and of the harmful effects being caused by the different types of human activities. The paper discusses environmental pollution in the Niger Delta and its consequential adverse effects on sustainable development, stating the role of an individual in pollution mitigation. The paper argues that environmental pollution is central to the Niger Delta problems, as it has hampered rural economic activities and posed threat to sustainable development. The information provided here can catalyze strategic policies upon how the individuals or group of individuals will function in a way that truly benefits the lives and livelihoods of the communities now and in the near future.

[Solomon, L., George-West, O. and Alalibo, I. K. Environmental Pollution in the Niger Delta and Consequential Challenges to Sustainable Development of the Region: the Role of an Individual. Researcher 2017;9(8):10-15]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090817.03.

 

Key words: Environmental pollution, human health, harmful effects, sustainable development.

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4

Influence of Pedological Regimes on Plants Distribution in a Lacustrine Wetland in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

 

Ita, Richard Ekeng, Ogbemudia, Felix Okpako and Udo, Nsikak Sebastian

 

Department of Botany and Ecological Studies, University of Uyo, P.M.B.1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: alwaizfwesh247@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: Studies on the influence of pedological regimes on plant distribution in a lacustrine wetland in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria revealed variations in density and frequency of plant species as a function of the soil parameters. A quadrat size of 5m x 5m through systematic sampling was used to sample the vegetation spaced at regular intervals. The vegetation parameters determined were density and frequency. Soil samples were collected at different depths (0 – 15 cm and 15 – 30 cm) and analyzed using standardized methods. Results obtained revealed a total of fourteen (14) plant species belonging to twelve families (12). Elaeis guineensis dominated in terms of density (50673.80 stems/ha) and frequency (80%). Species such as Dioscorea bulbifera (16000.25 stems/ha) Mallotus oppositifolius (16002.21stems/ha), Pentaclethra macrophylla (1600 0.21 stems/ha), Podococcus barteria (1600 0.30 stems/ha) and Synsepalum dulcificum (1600 0.20 stems/ha) had low density values, respectively. Species such as Albizia zygia, Alchornea cordifolia, Andropogon gayanus, Barteria nigritiana, Dioscorea bulbifera, Mallotus oppositifolius, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Podococcus barteria had low frequency values of 20% each. The results revealed that lacustrine wetlands are conservatories for diverse plants species whose composition, growth and distribution are dependent upon the soil nutrient and substrate conditions. In the light of this, there is need to assess the anthropogenic activities that can alter soil properties and enforce proper conservation strategies in the management of this and other wetland ecosystems.

 [Ita, Richard Ekeng, Ogbemudia, Felix Okpako and Udo, Nsikak Sebastian. Influence of Pedological Regimes on Plants Distribution in a Lacustrine Wetland in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Researcher 2017;9(8):16-21]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090817.04.

 

Keywords: Influence, Pedological regimes, plant distribution, lacustrine, wetland, density, frequency

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5

Effect of time and pH on fluoride release from dental adhesives

 

Gamal Raghip1, W.M. Etman2, Hussein yhya2

 

1Conservative Dentistry Department, Delta University, Egypt

2 Operative Dentistry, Tanta University, Egypt

Wonderkindmedo.86@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: to measure the amount of fluoride release from dental adhesives and the effect of time and pH on releasing fluoride. Materials and methods: class V cavities were prepared on buccal surfaces of molars with the dimensions 2*3*4 mm. All prepared specimens were stored in 0.01 ml of lactic acid to induce demineralization. These teeth were divided into two main groups according to type of dental adhesives. Fluoride release in artificial saliva was measured using digital microprocessor fluoride meter after one day. One week and one month in two different storage media according to pH (6.8 & 4). Results: fluoride release was maximum after one day and decrease after one week and one month, There is no significance difference between two pH storage media.

[Gamal Raghip, W.M. Etman, Hussein yhya. Effect of time and pH on fluoride release from dental adhesives. Researcher 2017;9(8):22-28]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090817.05.

 

Keywords: Effect; time; pH; fluoride; release; dental adhesive

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6

Response of Tropical Sickle Pod (Senna obtusifolia) Seed Meal to Varying Soaking Periods

 

Augustine, C.

 

Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.

Email: audaggai@gmail.com. GSM +2348132946167

 

Abstract: A laboratory analysis was conducted to determine the effects of varying soaking period on the proximate composition, amino acid profile and levels of anti-nutritional factors of Senna obtusifolia seeds soaked in water. The seed were subjected to different soaking periods of 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Each representative sample was analysed in triplicates for the proximate composition, amino acid profile and levels of anti-nutritional factors using standard laboratory procedure. The results indicated a decreasing trend for some of the proximate composition, amino acid profile and level of anti-nutritional factors as the soaking period progresses. Crude protein for instance was observed to decrease from 25.33 to 20.08% and ash 4.11 to 3.01%. The amino acid contents and level of anti-nutritional factors indicated a similar reduction trend. Methionine and lysine decreased from 2.55 to 1.78 g/100g and 1.19 to 0.64g/100g, respectively. While tannins and oxalates decreased from 5.42 to 2.59g/100 g and 1.95 to 0.18g/100g/, respectively. It can be concluded that soaking treatments for up to 24 hours slightly reduced the proximate composition, amino acid profile and levels of the anti-nutritional factors of Senna obtusifolia seeds. However, soaking for up to 24 hours was more effective in reducing levels of the anti-nutritional factors with less depreciation in the nutritional properties of Senna obtusifolia seeds and is therefore recommended for processing of Senna obtusifolia seeds. Further studies should be conducted to investigate the chemical composition of Senna obtusifolia seeds soaked beyond 24 hours.

 [Augustine, C. Response of Tropical Sickle Pod (Senna obtusifolia) Seed Meal to Varying Soaking Periods . Researcher 2017;9(8):29-32]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090817.06.

 

Keywords: Tropical sickle pod, varying soaking period, proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors

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7

Recent Approaches to Toxicity Prevention in Animals

 

Akefe IO, 1 Adamu AM, 2 Yusuf IL, 3 Anaso EU, 4 Umar MS. 5

 

1. Physiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

2. Department of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja

3. Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri.

4. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Abuja

5. Department of Theriogenology and Production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

akefeisaac@yahoo.com, 08034986335, 08156353662

 

Abstract: Acute or chronic exposure of animals to concentrations of toxic chemicals beyond the minimum permissible exposure level induces deleterious health effects including terminal malignancies. Regulatory agencies have assigned acceptable levels of exposure, known as permissible exposure levels (PELs), time weighted averages for 8 hours of exposure (TWAs) and no observed effect concentration values (NOECs) at which exposures presumably have no toxic effects. Many pollutants, such as heavy metals and persistent organics, bio-accumulate in the body, and remediation strategies to remove these chemicals from the environment are extremely difficult and capital intensive. Environmental pollutants induce signaling pathways that respond to oxidative stress; these same pathways are associated with the etiology and early pathology of many chronic diseases. Consequently, strategies that modulate the effect of toxicants on pathophysiologic processes involved in disease etiology and progression will be of public health importance. Clients, clinicians, nutritionists, policy makers and regulatory agencies have a major role to play in surveillance, monitoring and prevention of toxicity especially in high risk population.

[Akefe IO, Adamu AM, Yusuf IL, Anaso EU, Umar MS. Recent Approaches to Toxicity Prevention in Animals. Researcher 2017;9(8):33-41]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090817.07.

 

Keywords: Toxicity; Poison; Environment; Prevention; Chemicals; Animals

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8

Leaves Of Nypa Fruticans Wurmb A Biomaterial Used In Elimination Of Certain Organic Colourants In Aqueous Solution.

 

Obosi, Ekemini J., Osu, Charles I. and Horsfall Jnr, M.

 

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt. P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

charsike@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The elimination of some organic colourants in aqueous solutions using biomaterials from nipa palm leaves, a low cost agricultural adsorbent was investigated. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) method was used in this research to measure the percentage removal of three colourants in aqueous solution after being treated by biomaterials from leaves of nipa palm. The effect of initial concentrations and adsorbent dosage were determined. The maximum sorption capacities in terms of percent COD reduction of Bromophenol Blue (BP), Congo Red (CR) and Methyl Orange (MO) in aqueous solution were 99.22 %, 99.21 % and 96.58 % respectively for leaves biomass dosage and also maximum adsorption capacity for leaves carbon dosage were 92.85 %, 89.72 % and 81.59 % for BP, CR and MO respectively. Using the correlation coefficient values, the data for leaves biomass was fitted well to Freundlich model for CR and BP while the Langmuir model was best fit for MO. The data shows that the correlation of CR, BP and MO fits in well into the Langmuir model for leaves carbon. The capability of these adsorbents to eliminate colourants from contaminated solutions makes them acceptable for colourant treatment from industrial effluent.

[Obosi, Ekemini J., Osu, Charles I. and Horsfall Jnr, M.. Leaves Of Nypa Fruticans Wurmb A Biomaterial Used In Elimination Of Certain Organic Colourants In Aqueous Solution.. Researcher 2017;9(8):42-47]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090817.08.

 

Keywords: colorant treatment, biomaterials, chemical oxygen method

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9

Review on assessment of bovine tuberculosis and its associated risk factors for human health

 

Aklilu Biru1, Misgana Duguma1, Chala Mohammed *1, and Awel Hussein1

 

Wollega University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ethiopia

Corresponding Author: Dr. Chala Mohammed, Wollega University, School of Veterinary Medicine,

P.O. Box: 395, Ethiopia. Tel: +251-913-11-5805.

 

Abstract: Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and it is a worldwide problem. The genus Mycobacterium comprises more many species of mycobacterium that occur in the environment and are rarely associated with disease in humans or animals. Transmission of M. bovis can occur between animals, from animals to humans and vice versa and rarely, between humans. Transmission to humans is mostly through air droplets, consumption of unpasteurized milk and milk products and raw and improper cooked meat. Risk groups are elders, children, immunocompromised individuals, dairy workers and butchers and vulnerable people gathered together like prisons; homeless shelters and medical providers. Clinical symptoms may include chest pain and a prolonged cough producing sputum in humans. It is difficult to diagnose TB particularly in the early stages. The test used for TB in humans is similar in mechanism and function to the skin test used on cattle. Microscopic examination is an important laboratory diagnosis. Immunoassays are used for the confirmation of tuberculin screening skin test. Molecular diagnostic techniques are very important to identify the strain of the species. Treatment of TB should be early and the drugs should be taken properly. BTB can be controlled by test-and-slaughter or test-and-segregation methods. Affected herds must be re-tested periodically to eliminate cattle that may shed the organism and tuberculin test is generally used. Animals that have been in contact with reactors should be traced back. Raw milk and meat consumption is very common in Guto Gidda District especially in rural kebeles and sharing the same shelter with cattle. Human tuberculosis can prevented through consumption of pasteurized milk and milk products and proper cooked meat.

[Biru A, Duguma M, Mohammed C, Hussein A. Review on assessment of bovine tuberculosis and its associated risk factors for human health. Researcher 2017;9(8):48-60]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090817.09.

 

Key words: Bovine, Human, Transmission, Tuberculosis

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10

Review on Medicinal and Nutritional Value of Bee’s Honey: Senior Seminar on Animal Health

 

Negesa Tola 1, Geremew Haile1*, Negesse Mekonnen 2 and Walkite Furgassa1

 

1Wollega University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Nekemt, Ethiopia

2National Animal Health Diagnosis, Sebeta, Ethiopia

*Corresponding author: Wollega University, School of Veterinary Medicine, P. O. Box 395, Nekemt, Ethiopia, Email: geremewlov@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Honey is the name given to the sweet, yellowish liquid that is produced by honey bees and stored in honey combs. Bee's honey is one of the most valued and appreciated natural substances known to mankind since ancient times. According to modern scientific view, the best bee's honey is made by Apies mellifera (Family: Apidae). Nutritionally, it is composed of carbohydrate, water, minerals, protein, vitamins and enzymes like invertase, diastase and glucose oxidase, which are uses for nutritional values. The main nutritional and health relevant components are carbohydrates, mainly fructose and glucose that are used for athletic performance and infant nutrition increase digestion and absorption. The medicinal activities as antimicrobials, antifungal, anti parasitic and antiviral uses are due to its acidic and hydrogen peroxide. It is used as health inhancing by mixing with many natural products such as lemon, clover, milk, cinnamon and water for treatment of various ailments and other health disorders like: hearing loss, bad breath, obesity, influenza, bronchial asthma, artiritis, toothache, hair loss, bladder infections, skin infection and as well as use in beauty industry for cosmetic purpose. Honey as any other natural food can be contaminated from the environment, for instance pesticides, antibiotics; poison plants, which produce nectar containing toxic substances, can affect health status. The awareness of society on function of honey is not equally known with utilization of it. So, awareness creation in society about nutritional, medicinal and harmful effects of bee’s honey well needed.

[Negesa Tola, Geremew Haile  Negesse Mekonnen  and Walkite Furgassa. Review on Medicinal and Nutritional Value of Bee’s Honey: Senior Seminar on Animal Health. Researcher 2017;9(8):61-70]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 10. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090817.10.

 

Key Words: Bee’s Honey, Honey Composition, Medicinal Value, Nutritional Value

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11

CRISPR/Cas9

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2

 

1 Brooklyn, NY 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are certain prokaryotic DNA segments that contain short repetitions of DNA sequences. Each repetition is followed by some short segments related to a bacteriophage virus or plasmid. The CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system. CRISPR spacers recognize and cut the exogenous DNA for an immunological function. CRISPRs exist in the bacterial genomes. The Cas9 nuclease and guide RNAs can cut genome in certain location and remove the existing genes. CRISPRs can be used for genome editing and gene regulation. Using CRISPR interference technique can alter the germline of animals and plants.

[Ma Hongbao, Margaret Young. CRISPR/Cas9. Researcher 2017;9(8):71-80]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 11. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090817.11.

 

Key words: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR); Cas9, gene editing, DNA; bacteriophage; immune system; life

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12

Effects of Training Programs on Knowledge and Attitudes of Nurses about Postoperative Pain in Patients Hospitalized in Surgical Units of Teaching Hospitals of Kerman, Iran, in 2014

 

Mansour Arab 1; Fatemeh Shirzadi 2*; Sakineh Sabzvari, PhD 3; Yones Jahani, PhD 4, Abdol Hamid Molazahi Dashtook5

 

1- instructor, Infectious Disease Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences and Research Committee HSR technologies and Nursing Care Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences

2- Msc in nursing, Razi Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences

Email: f_shirzadi@yahoo.com

3- Assistant Professor, Nursing education Phd, kerman university of medical science, kerman, iran

Email: s_sabzevari@kmu.ac.ir

4- Assistant professor, statistic group, Kerman University of Medical Sciences

Email: yonesjahani@gmail.com

5- BSN in Khatam al anbiya hospital, Iranshahr University of Medical sciences, Iran

 

Abstract: Introduction: Postoperative pain is a common experience in patients hospitalized in surgical units. Therefore, controlling and mitigating it are one of the priorities in nursing. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of training on the knowledge and attitudes nurses about postoperative pain in patients hospitalized in surgical units of teaching hospitals of Kerman, Iran, in 2014. Methods: This study uses a quasi-experimental design and is conducted on 60 nurses working at surgical units of teaching hospitals of Kerman, Iran, who were selected randomly through cluster sampling. For data collection, we used the Zanolin attitudes questionnaire and the Brockopp-Warden Pain Knowledge/Bias Questionnaire (BWPKBQ). We analyzed the data with the SPSS software product, v19, using parametric and nonparametric statistical tests (paired t-test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient). The mean score of knowledge increased from 13.61 3.76 before the intervention to 19.35 2.16 after the intervention. The mean score of attitudes grew from 80.58 7.09 before the intervention of to 86.91 5.49 after the intervention. A significant increase was observed in the scores of knowledge and attitudes after the intervention (P<0.0001). Conclusions: Pain management training programs both increased the knowledge and changed the attitudes of nurses about pain management and control.

[Mansour Arab; Fatemeh Shirzadi; Sakineh Sabzvari; Yones Jahani, Abdol Hamid Molazahi Dashtook. Effects of Training Programs on Knowledge and Attitudes of Nurses about Postoperative Pain in Patients Hospitalized in Surgical Units of Teaching Hospitals of Kerman, Iran, in 2014. Researcher 2017;9(8):81-85]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 12. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090817.12.

 

Keywords: knowledge, training, nurse, pain relief, attitudes

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13

Review on uses of animals in scientific research

 

Habtamu addis, Abebe mequnent

 

University of Gondar College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Department of veterinary clinical, Gondar, Ethiopia p.o. Box:196

Email: yohansaddis68@gmail.com

 

Abstract: It is true that animals are used in a variety ways of in biological and biomedical research. The contributions of animal research to medical science and human health are undeniable. Scientific expertise, consensus and facts on the use of animal research must be weighed accordingly to have a honest, public discussion. Animal experimentation is necessary for scientists and different researchers at the current level of knowledge for studying the pathogenesis of different disease undertake drug trials, generate a variety of biological such as immunodiagnostics, vaccines to alleviate suffering in the human and animals themselves. Animals that are used for investigation and qualification of experiments and biomedical research are the base for different purposes of scientific studies we must use in a responsible and reasonable manner with no stress, pain and discomfort when we conduct studying with them based on the role and regulation of ethical arguments.

[Habtamu addis, Abebe mequnent. Review on uses of animals in scientific research. Researcher 2017;9(8):86-93]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 13. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090817.13.

 

Key words: Animal experimentation, biomedical research, immunodiagnostics, scientis

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14

Design And Construction Of A Small Scale Biodiesel Processor

 

Odesanmi Gbenga A1*., Oyedepo Oloyede C. Alamu Oguntola J.2

 

Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria1

Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Offa, P.M.B. 402, Offa Nigeria2*

gbenga.odesanmi@fedpoffaonline.edu.ng

 

Abstract: The design and construction of small scale biodiesel processor is brought about to reduce the effect of fossil fuel diesel scarcity or shortage in the country. This project will go a long way to improving the lay-down of getting normal diesel, in that the prototype designed is to transform used vegetable oil into biodiesel instead of the problem of digging the ground to get the diesel fuel. The biodiesel processor, from the history, uses transesterification process to convert the waste oil into usable fuel. Different feedstock has been used by different producers, such feedstocks are vegetable oil, palm kernel oil, soybean, rapeseed, peanut and Shea-butter e.t.c. The small scale biodiesel processor has different parts such as; the mixing tank, piping, sieving tank, taps, electric motor, pulley and belt arrangement, pump, and receiving tank. But majorly the operation of the production of biodiesel takes place in three tanks. The mixing tank; receive the feedstock and it is the place where the continuous agitation of the feedstock takes place. The sieving tank; it sieves the feedstock to separate the biodiesel from glycerin. The receiving tank; receive the biodiesel through the help of pumping machine. The testing of our biodiesel processor gave a clear result of biodiesel and glycerol as the by-product using sodium hydroxide as our catalyst and the efficiency of the biodiesel processor is 73%.

[Odesanmi Gbenga A ., Oyedepo Oloyede C. Alamu Oguntola J. . Design And Construction Of A Small Scale Biodiesel Processor. Rep Opinion 2017;9(8):94-100]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 14. doi:10.7537/marsroj090817.14.

 

Keyword: Biodiesel, Processor, ethanol, used palm kernel oil, small scale

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from July 12, 2017. 

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