Science Journal

 

Researcher
(Researcher)
ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly
Volume 9 - Issue 12 (Cumulated No. 102), December 25, 2017
Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Researcher0912
 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

An Overview of Enzyme Immobilization

 

*Ajayi, A. A., Onibokun, E. A.

 

Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, Ota

*Corresponding author: adesola.ajayi@covenantuniversity.edu.ng

Orcid ID0000-0001-7771-4130

 

Abstract: The use of enzymes as biological catalysts has gained increasing importance in industries. Although enzymes can be obtained from plant and animal origin, microbial enzymes have several advantages over enzymes derived from other sources. Due to the high cost of separation of enzymes from product, the instability of enzymes and reduced enzyme activity, several strategies are now been explored to develop immobilized enzymes. Immobilized enzymes have been produced by cell immobilization techniques. Immobilized enzymes have found several industrial applications where they provide the advantages of easy separation of the enzyme from the product, reuse of the enzyme, convenient handling, high stability under extreme physical and chemical conditions, being applicable for all types of reactors with varied interior design, and provides easier process control. However, despite these advantages, enzyme immobilization techniques continue to pose some challenges. These challenges notwithstanding, the development of industrial by-products based on immobilization techniques is very promising.

[Ajayi, A. A., Onibokun, E. A. An Overview of Enzyme Immobilization. Researcher 2017;9(12):1-7]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 1. doi:10.7537/marsrsj091217.01.

 

Keywords: Enzymes; Immobilization; Adsorption; Entrapment, Covalent binding, Crosslinking

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2

Screening of different carrot varieties against Alternaria leaf blight and its chemical management.

 

Muhammad Mubashar Zafar1*, Muhammad Abrar1, Muhammad Umar2, Muhammad Anas Bahoo1, Noman Ahmad Khan2, Muhammad Salahuddin2, Ahmad Bilal3, Abdullah4.

 

1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

2Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

3Institute of Business Management sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

4Wheat Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

*Corresponding author’s email: m.mubasharzafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The experiment was performed for the proper management of ALB of carrot. Five carrot varieties (Gold Mines, Mah Rani, Long Red, Deep Red, and Red Core) under RCBD with three replications were sown. From infected fields diseased samples were collected and fungus Alternaria dauci was isolated in lab of plant pathology by using PDA media. By inoculation in healthy crop disease was established. Field screening experiment was performed to evaluate their resistance against A. dauci. The results of screening trials concluded that Long Red showed resistant response while Red core showed moderately resistant response. Deep Red showed moderately susceptible response. Mah Rani and Gold Mine showed susceptible response. For the chemical management of Alternaria blight of carrot, five chemicals viz. Bravo (Chlorothalonil), Equus (Chlorothalonil + Carbendazim), Cuprofix Dispress (Basic Copper Sulfate), Kocide (Copper Hydroxide) and Champ (Copper Hydroxide) were applied at their standard doses in the field on the standing carrot crop. Among five chemicals, Equus (Chlorothalonil) showed effective response in reducing the pathogenic activity of Alternaria dauci while Champ (Copper Hydroxide) was least effective amongst all chemicals as compared to untreated one after three sprays.

[Muhammad Mubashar Zafar, Muhammad Abrar, Muhammad Umar, Muhammad Anas Bahoo, Noman Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Salahuddin, Ahmad Bilal, Abdullah. Screening of different carrot varieties against Alternaria leaf blight and its chemical management.. Researcher 2017;9(12):8-14]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj091217.02.

 

Key words: Alternaria leaf blight (ALB), carrot, Potato dextrose agar (PDA).

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3

Pain Management in Hepatic Patients Following Abdominal Surgery

 

Prof. Dr. Laila Ali El-kafrawy, Dr. Mona Refaat Hosney and Michael Harby Habeeb

 

Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt

mike.anae2016@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Pain management in patients with cirrhosis is a difficult clinical challenge for health care professionals, and few prospective studies have offered an evidence-based approach. In patients with end stage liver disease, adverse events from analgesics are frequent, potentially fatal, and often avoidable. Severe complications from analgesia in these patients include hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, and gastrointestinal bleeding, which can result in substantial morbidity and even death.

[Laila Ali El-kafrawy, Mona Refaat Hosney and Michael Harby Habeeb. Pain Management in Hepatic Patients Following Abdominal Surgery. Researcher 2017;9(12):15-33]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 3. doi:10.7537/marsrsj091217.03.

 

Keywords: Pain; Management; Hepatic Patient; Abdominal Surgery

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4

Evaluating differences in institutional ownership and earnings management using fuzzy method

 

Hamid Reza Ranjbar Jamalabadi1, Hamed Paydar2, Naser Yazdani Far3

 

1- Master of Accounting, Yazd Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

2- Master of Accounting, Finance officer, Yazd, Iran (corresponding author)

3- Master of Accounting, Finance Officer, Mashhad, Iran

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of potential ownership of shares on the profit management method through Fuzzy method. In this research, the criterion of potential ownership and optional accruals items are used as independent and dependent variables, respectively. 101 companies were studied from 2006 to 2011 and the selected companies were among adopted ones in Tehran security exchange. During this study, Jones' moderated method was applied to calculate profit management, and the first model of Fuzzy method having better index was used to predict the effect of potential ownership on profit management. The results indicated that potential ownership is effective on profit management and the liquid funds related to investors have the most effects on profit management among potential ownership variables.

 [Hamid Reza Ranjbar Jamalabadi, Hamed Paydar, Naser Yazdani Far. Evaluating differences in institutional ownership and earnings management using fuzzy method. Researcher 2017;9(12):34-39]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 4. doi:10.7537/marsrsj091217.04.

 

Key words: accrual items, Fuzzy method, potential ownership, profit management.

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5

Obtaining NDVI zoning map of SEBAL model during harvesting season in Salman Farsi sugarcane cultivation fields

 

Sh. Kooti1, A. Naseri 2, S.Boroomand Nasab 3

 

1M. Sc. Student of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran. Shila.kt.1992@gmail.com

2Professor of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran. abdalinaseri@scu.ac.ir

3Professor of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran. Boroomand@scu.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In order to obtain maps for NDVI from SEBAL model 9 fields has been observed and 7 satellite images were downloaded and by SEBAL algorithm were changed to NDVI maps. The research was carried out at Salman Farsi cultivation and industrial company. The results showed that the values of NDVI given from SEBAL algorithm were near to the standard value of NDVI of the study area.

[Sh. Kooti, A. Naseri, S. Boroomand Nasab. Obtaining NDVI zoning map of SEBAL model during harvesting season in Salman Farsi sugarcane cultivation fields. Researcher 2017;9(12):40-44]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 5. doi:10.7537/marsrsj091217.05.

 

Keywords: SEBAL, Sugar cane, Satellite images, NDVI

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6

Review On Infertility Of Female Animal’s Due To Nutrition’s And Managements Problems

 

Balemual Abebaw1, Birara ayalneh2

 

1University of Gondar College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Department of veterinary clinical Medicine, Gondar, Ethiopia P.O. Box: 196

2University of Gondar College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Department of paraclinical study, Gondar, Ethiopia P.O. Box: 196

balemual.abebaw@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Nutrition plays a major role on enhancing reproductive efficiency in all animals. Energy and protein are the major nutrients required in the greatest amounts and should be in the topmost priority in order to optimize reproduction in dairy cattle. Minerals and vitamins also cannot be neglected and must be balanced in the diet. In the other hand, the nutrient should not be over-fed as this may also impairs the reproduction. Deficiencies of various trace minerals, inadequate vitamin intakes, energy, protein imbalances and excessive protein intakes are mentioned as contributors to infertility and poor reproductive performance. Progress in improving the fertility of domestic animals has been achieved by studying genetic, nutritional, endocrine, disease and manages mental factors as they contribute to both fertilization failure and embryo mortality. Heat stress affects the fertility and reproductive livestock performance by compromising the physiology reproductive tract, through hormonal imbalance, decreased oocyte quality and poor semen quality, and decreased embryo development and survival. Heat stress decreases the secretion of luteinizing hormone and estradiol resulting in reduced length and intensity of estrus expression, increased incidence of anestrus and silent heat in farm animals.

[Abebaw B, Ayalneh B. Infertility Of Female Animal’s Due To Nutrition’s And Managements Problems. Researcher 2017;9(12):45-54]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 6. doi:10.7537/marsrsj091217.06.

 

Key words: Infertility, Nutrition, Heat stress, Reproduction and Livestock

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7

Ticks infestation on Cattle in Ethiopia

 

Birara Ayalneh Tamiru

 

College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Paraclinical Studies, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

Tel. +251923547361. Email biraraayalneh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Ticks are obligate blood feeding ecto parasites of vertebrates and induce huge production loss in livestock industry and creating serious public health problems in the world. Ethiopia is believed to have the largest livestock population in Africa. This livestock sector has been contributing considerable portion to the economy of the country and still promising to rally round the economic development of the country. In Ethiopia livestock production remains crucial and represents a major asset among resource-poor small holder farmers by providing milk, meat, skin, manure and traction force. However it has been estimated that about 80% of the world population of cattle are infested with ticks. Ticks have considerable impact on animals either by inflecting direct damage or by transmission of tick borne diseases. Tick borne haemo parasitic diseases of ruminants such as Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis and Theileriosis remain most important in tropical countries. Tick and tick born disease affect 90% of the world’s cattle population and are widely distributed throughout the world. The country's environmental condition and vegetation are highly conducive for ticks and tick- borne disease perpetuation. The objective of this seminar paper is to review the epidemiology, diagnosis pathogenesis, treatment and control options of Ticks on Cattle.

[Birara Ayalneh Tamiru. Ticks infestation on Cattle in Ethiopia. Researcher 2017;9(12):55-61]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 7. doi:10.7537/marsrsj091217.07.

 

Key words: Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Ethiopia, livestock, Theileriosis, Tick

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8

The Role of Strategic Thinking in Human Resources Empowerment in Baghdad Province Council

 

Reyam Ayad 

 

rema.bmf@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This research includes two variables (strategic thinking according to the Liedtka-1998 model) as an independent variable (and human resource empowerment according to the Sarah-Bodner-2005) model. The independent variable included five dimensions (time thinking, strategic intent, opportunistic thinking, creative thinking, the systemic thinking). The dependent variable consists of three dimensions (capacity, commitment, power). The Baghdad governorate office was chosen as the place of application. The sample of the study is the staff of the governorate office. The present study aims to identify the impact of strategic thinking on the senior leadership in the organization, which is concerned with the process of empowering human resources, namely the staff of the Baghdad governorate office. The study relied on the analytical descriptive approach along with the method of field study using questionnaire as a main tool for collecting the basic data of the study and a set of official interviews for selected staff. The researcher used the comprehensive survey method for the study society consisting of 300 employees of Baghdad governorate According to their departments or administrative units.

[Reyam Ayad. The Role of Strategic Thinking in Human Resources Empowerment in Baghdad Province Council. Researcher 2017;9(12):62-70]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 8. doi:10.7537/marsrsj091217.08.

 

Keywords: Role; Strategic; Human Resource; Empowerment; Baghdad Province; Council

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9

Micromorphological Studies On Rhizome Of Corallocarpus Epigaeus Benth. ex Hook. f.

 

Poonam Sethi

 

Assistant Professor, Guru Nanak College, Chennai India.

poonam123.73@rediffmail.com

 

Absract: Rhizome of Corallocarpus epigaeus Benth ex Hook. f, Cucurbitaceae were studied and detailed pharmacognostical evaluation was done. The synonym of this plant is Bryonia epigaea. It is commonly called as Indian Bryonia and in tamil it is called as Karutan kilangu, Kollan kovai or Akasagarooda Morphology of the rhizome have been studied to aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification using camera lucida diagrams, parameters presented in this paper may be proposed to establish the authenticity of this plant and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other. The alkaloid Bryonine from this plant is used in syphilis, chronic dysentery, chronic mucus enteritis and rheumatism. Plant has antirespiratory, anticancer and antimalarial properties also. It is used for external application in conjunctivitis and chronic veneral complaints. Tuber boiled with coconut oil is used to cure leprosy in siddha system of medicine.

[Poonam Sethi. Micromorphological Studies On Rhizome Of Corallocarpus Epigaeus Benth. ex Hook. f.. Researcher 2017;9(12):71-73]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 9. doi:10.7537/marsrsj091217.09.

 

Key words: akasagaroodan, camera lucida, Corallocarpus, Krutan Kilangu. leprosy, pharmacognostical, phytochemical, rhizome.

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10

Economies of E-commerce in Developing Countries (A Case study of India and Sudan)

 

Mukhtar, ELfatih 1, Ali, Siddig 2

 

1.  Department of Marketing Management, Community College, Taif University, KSA.

Email: drelfatih@hotmail.com

2.  Department of English Language, Community College, Taif University, KSA.

Corresponding author: E-mail: drelfatih@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This research dealt with the description and analysis of e-commerce and its economic effects on developing countries (the case of India and Sudan). Showing the concept of e-commerce, pointing to the areas of e-commerce, analyze the economic impact of e-commerce on India and Sudan. The most Important results of this research that the most important factor in the success of the Indian experience in the IT sector and e-commerce is the interest in the development and the development of its human resources enormous by providing universities and technical institutes, as well as the presence of the structure of strong connections in the centers of the information industry and e-commerce, and the most important research results also that the most important factors responsible for the delay of Sudan and its underdevelopment in the optimal use of e-commerce is the lack of interest in the development and the development of its human resources by providing universities and technical institutes for coming out sufficient numbers of information technology specialists, in addition to the lack of structure strong connections in the centers of the information industry and electronic commerce. Based on the research results were the recommendations and proposals that Sudan should take advantage of the Indian experience in the IT sector, telecommunications and electronic commerce through its attention to the development and the development of its human resources by providing universities and technical institutes, as well as to provide a structure strong connections in the centers of the information industry and electronic commerce.

[Mukhtar, ELfatih, Ali, Siddig. Economies of E-commerce in Developing Countries (A Case study of India and Sudan). Rep Opinion 2017;9(12):74-78]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj091217.10.

 

Key words: e-commerce, IT, information industry, ecommerce system, human resources, economic effects

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11

Insulin-Like Growth Factor -1- And Interleukin -6- As Key Cytokines In Pathogenesis Of Multiple Myeloma

 

Neemat M. Kassem, MD 1, Magda Erian, BSc2, Olfat G. Shaker MD3, Rasha Salama MD 4

 

1Clinical pathology department, Cairo University,

Faculty of Science, clinical pathology department, Cairo university, Egypt

3Biochemistry department, Cairo University, Egypt

4Clinical Oncology department, Cairo University, Egypt

roshy.salama@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rationale: Increased angiogenesis has recently been recognized in active multiple myeloma (MM) and is associated with poor prognosis. The underlying mechanism for increased angiogenesis in MM remains unclear, with various factors implicated such as interleukin-6 (IL6) and insulin Growth Factor-1 (IGF1) which promote the proliferation and survival of myeloma cells. Purpose: The present work is intended to study the level of IL-6 and IGF-1, their role in the pathogenesis of MM and to define the effect of thalidomide on BM angiogenesis and angiogenic cytokines when used as initial therapy as a part of treatment. Materials and method: This study includes 40 newly diagnosed MM patients referred to Kasr AL Aini Centre of Clinical Oncology and Radiation-Cairo University during the period 2012-2014. ELISA technique was used to measure IGF-1and IL-6 in subjects' sera. Results: This study showed that IGF-1 and IL-6 post treatment were lower than pretreatment levels but IGF-1 level was more significantly responding to treatment (102.8 61 ng/ml before vs. 65.7 51.4 ng/ml after, P value 0.028). Conclusion: Our study delineates the importance of anti-angiogenic drugs such as thalidomide against MM and further suggests the clinical utility of novel treatment paradigms targeting not only the tumor cell directly, but also cellular interactions and cytokine secretion in the BM milieu. We suggest that IL6 and IGF-I should be further studied in future clinical trials as useful monitoring biomarkers for MM.

[Neemat M. Kassem, MD, Magda Erian, BSc, Olfat G. Shaker MD, Rasha Salama MD. Insulin-Like Growth Factor -1- And Interleukin -6- As Key Cytokines In Pathogenesis Of Multiple Myeloma. Rep Opinion 2017;9(12):79-82]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11. doi:10.7537/marsroj091217.11.

 

Key words: IL6- IGF1-MM-anti-angiogenic drugs.

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12

Acute and Sub-Chronic Studies of Ethylacetate Leaf Extract of Mitracarpus villosus (Sw.) DC in Wistar Rats

 

John-Africa, L. B.,1, 2 Danjuma, N. M.,2 Anuka, J. A.,2 Chindo, B. A. 1, 2, 3

 

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Idu Industrial Area, P.M.B 21 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.

2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State.

3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: L. B. John-Africa Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Idu Industrial Area, P.M.B 21 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: lbjafrica@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Herbal medicines originate from nature; thus the perception that they are safe. However, herbs contain bioactive compounds that may potentially cause toxicity. This therefore requires medicinal plants to be subjected to safety investigations. Mitracarpus villosus is an herb used for management of diverse disorders in ethno-medicine that include painful and infective conditions, thus the need to determine the safety profile of the plant. The toxicity of the ethylacetate leaf extract of Mitracarpus villosus (MVEA) was investigated by acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies. Acute toxicity studies were carried out following OECD 423 guidelines. The sub-chronic toxicity (OECD 407) test was examined using albino rats by daily oral administration of MVEA (312, 625 and 1250 mg/kg) for 28 days during which mortality, toxicity symptoms, feed consumption and body weights were monitored. Subsequently, organ weights, haematological, biochemical and histological parameters were assessed. The dose of 2000 mg/kg produced no mortality in the acute toxicity test. In the sub-chronic toxicity studies, no significant difference was recorded in food and water intake, body or organ weights. Treatment with MVEA caused increased serum creatinine levels at 1250 mg/kg in female rats but did not cause alterations in other diagnostic haematological and serum biochemical parameters. Histological evaluation showed mild alterations of cellular structures of kidneys and hepatocytes. No remarkable changes were observed in the tissues of other organs. The extract produced no toxicity effects in the acute toxicity test and in sub-chronic administration the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) is 625 mg/kg/day for 28 days.

[John-Africa, L. B., Danjuma, N. M., Anuka, J. A., Chindo, B. A.. Acute and Sub-Chronic Studies of Ethylacetate Leaf Extract of Mitracarpus villosus (Sw.) DC in Wistar Rats. Rep Opinion 2017;9(12):83-90]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12. doi:10.7537/marsroj091217.12.

 

Keywords: Phytomedicine, Mitracarpus villosus, Herbal toxicity

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13

Fuzzy logic based modeling and estimation of global solar energy using meteorological parameters

 

Babak Mohammadi

 

Department of water Engineering, university of Tabriz, Tabriz. Iran

babakmsh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Global solar energy data is considered as the most important parameter in smart grid applications, particularly for sizing the photovoltaic system and demand driven supply. However the data of global solar energy is rarely available on hourly basis, even for those stations where measurement has already been done. Due to lack of such measured data, the estimation of global solar energy at the earth’s surface is an important study in the present scenario to meet the energy requirement from green energy sources. This paper is based on fuzzy logic approach for modeling and estimating the global solar energy using mean duration sunshine per hour, temperature, latitude, longitude, altitude and months of the year as input parameters. Fortunately, these important for accurate parameters estimation of solar energy are commonly available. Results obtained from fuzzy logic approach are used for the prediction of SPV system output for smart grid application.

[Babak Mohammadi. Fuzzy logic based modeling and estimation of global solar energy using meteorological parameters. Researcher 2017;9(12):91-95]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 13. doi:10.7537/marsrsj091217.13.

 

Keywords: Fuzzy; logic based modeling; estimation; global solar energy; meteorological parameter

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from December 12, 2017

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