Science Journal

 

 
World Rural Observations

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), Quarterly

Volume 2 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 3), March 30, 2010
 
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All in one file
  

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Land and resources sustainable management:

 

 

1

Study of Pesticide (Dichlorvos) Removal from Aqueous Medium By Arachis Hypogaea (Groundnut) Shell Using GC/MS

 

C E. Gimba1, Aminu A. Salihu2, J. A. Kagbu1, M. Turoti3 A. U. Itodo4 and A.I.Sariyya5

1Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

2Department of Petroleum Resources, Sokoto, Nigeria

3Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

4Department of Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria

5Department of Electrical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

aminusalihu08@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: KOH, H3PO4 and ZnCl2 catalyzed Groundnut shells, subjected to a one and two steps activation methods were employed to study pesticide (Dichlorvos) uptake. The study examined activation method, nature of activating agents and concentration of the pesticide, as factors affecting removal of the pesticide. Quantitation, using GC/MS gave a percentage removal of over 98% by all the sorbent in the series. The percentage removal for the one step method follows the trend 1S/KOH/10 (100%) > 1S/H3PO4/10 (99.780%) > 1S/ZnCl2/10 (99.240%). Physicochemical data and close proximity of equilibrium results (qe) to those of similar biowaste as reviewed in literatures are indication that Groundnut Shell based sorbent in this study could compete favorably well for pesticide(dichlorvos) uptake.

[World Rural Observations 2010; 2(1):1-9]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). 1

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.01

 

Key words: GC/MS, Sorption, Groundnut shells, Activated carbon, Dichlorvos

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2

Empirical Analysis of China Carrying out Forest Carbon-sink Trade Potential

 

Haiyan Shen1 , Ping Zhao2

1. Department of World Economics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, China

2. Department of International Economics and Trade, Harbin Institute of TechnologyHarbin, Heilongjiang 150001, China

sdrzshy@126.com

 

Abstract: Climate warming ranks the top of ten ecological problems that human beings have to face. The greenhouse effect is the root of climate warming, which is formed by over-emission of carbon dioxide (co2) and other heat-trapping gases. In December of 1997, the 3rd Conference of the United Nations Framework Convention was held in Kyoto, Japan, during which 149 countries signed the “Kyoto Protocol”, whose purpose was to limit greenhouse gas emissions of the developed countries to curb global warming. The Kyoto Protocol allowed the developed countries to invest in forest carbon sink project in the developing countries and make forest carbon sink trade so as to receive the reduced co2 emission amount. Through the empirical analysis on the trade potential of Chinese forest carbon sinks, it can be found that forest volume per unit area affects Chinese forest carbon sink potential. By 2050, if the forest volume per unit area maintains current level as 84.73 cubic meters/ha, Chinese total forest carbon sink potential will be 8.64109 C, which accounts for 54.34% of existing carbon reserve. Whats more, if the forest unit area changes to be the international average volume as 100 cubic meters/ha, Chinese entire forest carbon sink potential will be 13.06109C, which accounts for 82.14% of existing carbon reserve. Through studying on the trade potential of Chinese forest carbon sinks, we observe that China has potential on the forest carbon sinks trade, moreover, the potential is huge and can be improved. Therefore, China should actively participate in project of international greenhouse gas emission reduction, turn the potential of forest carbon sinks trade into reality, and promote the development of Chinese forestry economic.

[World Rural Observations 2010; 2(1):10-17]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online)

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.02

 

Key words: Orest carbon-sink, Trade potential, Comparative advantage

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3

Sorption Efficiency Study of Pesticide Adsorption on Granulated Activated Carbon from Groundnut Shell Using GC/MS

 

A.S.Aminu1; C.E.Gimba2; J. Kagbu2; M.Turoti3; A.U. Itodo4 and A.I. Sariyya5

1Department of Petroleum Resources, Sokoto, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

3Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

4Department of Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria

5Department of Electrical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

itodoson2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: KOH, H3PO4 and ZnCl2 catalyzed Groundnut Shells, subjected to a one and two steps activation methods were employed to study Insecticide (Dichlorvos) uptake. Quantitation, using GC/MS gave a percentage removal of over 98% by all the sorbent in the series. The percentage removal for the one step method follows the trend 1S/KOH/10 (100%) > 1S/H3PO4/10 (99.780%) > 1S/ZnCl2/10 (99.240%). Physicochemical data and close proximity of equilibrium results (qe) to those of similar biowaste as reviewed in literature are indication that Groundnut Shell based sorbent in this study could compete favorably well for pesticide (dichlorvos) uptake.

[World Rural Observations 2010; 2(1):18-24]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online)

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.03

 

Key words: GC/MS, Sorption, Groundnut shells, Activated carbon

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4

Potential Analysis on Carrying out Forest Carbon-sink Trade in China

 

Yuqiang Wang, Ping Zhao

Department of International Economics and Trade, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, China

Hit.xiaoqiang@163.com

 

Abstract: The greenhouse effect is the major cause of global warming, while carbon dioxide is the main component of greenhouse gases. The Kyoto Protocol, which aims at limiting greenhouse gas emissions and protecting the ecological safety, allows developed countries to invest and carry on forest carbon-sink trade in developing countries. After Copenhagen meeting China has the necessity of forest carbon-sink trade from which China could benefit according to the theory of comparative advantage. To improve the potential of forest carbon-sink trade, China should plant forest on a big scale to increase forest coverage and strengthen forest management. On this basis, China has to reduce the cost of forest carbon-sink in order to enhance its trade potential.

[World Rural Observations 2010; 2(1):25-27]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online)

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.04

 

Key words: Forest carbon-sink, Trade potential, Comparative advantage

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Rural life and environment protection:

 

 

5

Determinants of Aggregate Household Demand for Edible Oils in Imo State

 

*N. N. O. Oguoma, *N.C. Ehirim *G.N. Benchendo, *I. Nnadi and **E. N. Okoronkwo

*Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State.

**Department of Food Technology, Akanu Ibam Federal Polytechnic, Uwana Afikpo, Ebonyi State.

ehinadykus@yahoo.com

 

AbstractEdible oils substitutes seem to face a stiff competition in Imo State. This is because they are put to the same use in human diet. Groundnut oil seem to be the worse hit as demand for it is going down in the state, hence, the need to estimate its response to changes in it own price, and that of its substitute as well as consumers’ income. The data for the study were obtained from a stratified random sample of 92 consumers of the two products across the three agricultural zones in the state, using a well structured questionnaire. Analysis was done using both economic models and econometric tools like demand elasticities and choice dichotomous (logit) model. The study revealed that palm Kernel oil is price elastic but may not be a close substitute to groundnut oil as a piriori expected since its cross price elasticity is less than unity and negative. Surprisingly, increase in consumer’s income will lead to less than proportionate increase in demand for palm kernel oil but gives a more than proportionate increase in the demand for groundnut oil in the area. This makes Palm kernel oil an inferior product when compared with groundnut oil though the high cost of production has reduced the relative competitiveness of the two edible oils of plant origin in the state. At 10 percent significant level, the likelihood that palm kernel oil will be preferred to groundnut oil when its own price increases. The likelihood may decreases with increase in consumers’ income. Similarly, at 5 percent significant level, its preference may decreases with an increase in consumers’ age, and formal educational attainment. The reasons may be high level of education and may be age exposes low quality of Palm Kernel oil and high risk of cardiovascular problems associated with it than with groundnut oil. The study suggests that palm kernel oil revenue can be increased if the product is sold at a reduced market price while higher prices will favour the revenue generated from groundnut oil. Palm Kernel oil should be refined further to improve its taste, colour and texture to enable it stand the competition posed by refined groundnut oil in the area.

[World Rural Observations 2010;2(1):28-33]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online).5

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.05

 

Key words: Palm kernel oil, Groundnut oil, Consumers’ preference and demand elasticity

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6

The Pattern Research of Agricultural Ecological Civilization of China

 

Yinxia Hou

1 School of Humanities and Social Science Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, China

houyinxia2006 @yahoo.com.cn

 

Abstract: Ecological civilization is the more advanced one beyond modern industrial civilization and it may become a common sense and an optimum choice of all mankind. Its formation could go back to agricultural civilization thousands of years ago. The 17th CPC National Congress report proposed explicitly “the construction of ecological civilization”. The agricultural ecological civilization construction is the significant strategic target in China’s economy and society development. This paper analyzes the pattern of agricultural ecological civilization of China and elaborates emphatically the measures of realizing agricultural ecological civilization so as to provide the reference for the agricultural ecological civilization construction.

[World Rural Observations 2010;2(1):34-36]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). 6

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.06

 

Key words: Ecological civilization, Pattern, Eco-agriculture

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7

The Research of Interaction Behavior of Landless Peasants during the Social Adaptation

-Taking Harbin Songbei Town as an Example

 

Kuiyu Tang 1, Yinxia Hou 1, Yumei Yi 2

1. School of Humanities and Social Science Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, China

2. School of Literature Heilongjiang University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150006, China

tky19800188@sohu.com, houyinxia2006@yahoo.com.cn

 

Abstract: With the accelerated urbanization process, there are more and more landless peasants who are made a requisition of land partly or wholly. They face not only the problem of economic adaptation, but also the problem of social adaptation. Especially the problem of social adaptation is reflected in the process of nature generation and adaptation of social interaction prominently. It will contribute to improve the economic social adaptability and quality of communication life of landless peasants generally so as to make them change to the “modern individual” as soon as possible to make a discuss on the economic sociology of their interaction behavior.

[World Rural Observations 2010;2(1):37-40]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). 7

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.07

Key words: Land-less peasants, Social interaction, Social adaptation, Way of life, Interaction behavior

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8

A Research on the Issues Related to the Development of Forest Carbon Sinks in Heilongjiang Province

 

Zhang Xiao Xue1; Zhao Ping2; Zhang Xiao Shuang3

 

1. School of Humanities and Social Science, Harbin Institute of Technology , Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang, China

2. School of Humanities and Social Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang, China

3. Economy And Business Management Institute, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang, China

snower526@126.com

 

Abstract: Heilongjiang is forestry province in China whose rich forestry resources play an important role in developing forest carbon sinks and dealing with global warming. Though Heilongjiang Province has the necessity and the superiorities in the development of forest carbon sinks, it needs to solve the problems of the definition of forest property rights and compensation system of forest carbon sinks to get the better project about the development of forest carbon sinks.

[World Rural Observations 2010;2(1):41-46]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). 8

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.08

 

Key words: Forest resources, The forest carbon sinks, The carbon emission right, CDM project

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Rural development and economy:

 

 

9

Welfare in Rural and Urban Centres in Nigeria: A Test for Dominance

 

1Odozi J. C., 2Dr. N.N.O. Oguoma and N. C. Ehirim

1Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria

 

Abstract: The 1980s through the 1990s and the earliest part of the 2000s witnessed a number of development programmes particularly in rural centres in Nigeria. To relate the effect of these programmes on the level of aggregate welfare experienced by households in rural and urban centres, distributional analysis is often employed. This paper used stochastic dominance approach to test for rural and urban aggregate welfare preference. Household expenditure survey data collected by the National Bureau for Statistics in 2004 were used. Result showed rural centres had a better income inequality and consequently a better aggregate welfare only for the class of welfare function that is equity loving. For the class of welfare function that is equity and efficiency loving, welfare dominance of rural centres over urban centres was inconclusive. With further imposition of Pigou Dalton transfer condition using the generalized Lorenz curve, rural aggregate welfare showed dominance over urban aggregate welfare. The policy implication is that increases in the incomes of the very poor may have much more effect on aggregate welfare than similar increases for the better off. Therefore expenditure on basic education and health services would have had a larger impact on welfare relative to expenditures on bigger projects in both rural and urban centres.

[World Rural Observations 2010;2(1):47-55]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). 9

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.09

 

Key words: Welfare, Stochastic dominance, Income distribution, Equity and efficiency

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10

A Comparative Analysis of Returns from Cassava Farms under External and Internal Input Use in Imo State, Nigeria

 

Nwaiwu, I.U1;Odii M A.C.A1; Ohajianya, D.O1; Nwosu, F.O1; Oguoma, N.N.O1; Ben-Chendo, N.G1;

Amaechi, E.C.C2

1. Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

2. School of Business Management Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo Ohaji, PMB 1472, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

niuche2004@yahoo.com; dohajianya@yahoo.com; ofnwosu@yahoo.com; nnooguoma@yahoo.com; gnbenchendo@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: This study analyzed the returns accruing from smallholder cassava farms operated under external and internal input use. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting 100 each of the external and internal input user farmers respectively in the purposively chosen study area of Imo State. Questionnaire were administered to the farmers using cost-route approach. Data were collected on the farmers socio-economic characteristics and their input and output transactions. The net income analysis of the external and internal input user cassava farmers for a production cycle shows that the average internal input user farmer made a higher profit; N27,759 and N14,308.76 per cropping cycle and per hectare respectively than the average external input user that made N9,572 and N4125.86 of profit as above respectively. The comparative analysis of Z-test upholds a significant profit advantage of the internal input user farmer over the external input user farmer. Considering the global quest for sustainable farming, the adoption and maximization of internal input use should be encouraged and firms dealing on organic garbage recycling into organic fertilizers encouraged for large scale organic farming sustenance in Nigeria.

[World Rural Observations 2010;2(1):56-60]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). 10

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.10

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Agriculture Production:

 

 

11

Barriers for E-agriculture in Rural Areas with Special Reference to Jhabua District Madhya Pradesh, India

 

Anand Kumar Patel*, Swadesh Kumar Saxena, Avnish Chauhan*

*IRADe, New Delhi, India.

FDRA, Bhopal, MP, India.

avnishchauhan_in@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Perhaps this is the first type of research study from India especially focused on tribal communities from very remote areas in western part of MP (Madhya Pradesh) state, India. India is predominantly agriculture based country, agriculture employs about 60-70% and contributes about 20% of GDP in India and it is growing at around 2% per annum. ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is a potent tool in various sectors of activities in agriculture. Demand and supply, monitoring of inputs, dissemination of cheaper technologies relevant to Indian farming community through various user friendly techniques, marketing information, and input information at grass root level and selection of right crop are some of the promising usage of ICT in agriculture which has potential to boost crop production at middle and small farmer’s level. Jhabua is a predominantly tribal district (more than 85% population is tribal like Bhil, Bhilalla and Patelia) located in the western part of Madhya Pradesh. It is one of the most underdeveloped regions of the MP on almost all the indicators of socio-economic development.

[World Rural Observations 2010;2(1):61-65]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). 11

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.11

 

Key words: E-agriculture, E-bridge, ICT, Spatial gap, Regional broad cast, Socio-economic engines, Barriers

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12

Productivity of Intercropping Systems Using Amaranthus Cruentus Land Abelmoschus Esculentus (Moench) in Edo State, Nigeria

 

B.O. Obadoni, J.K. Mensah, S.A. Emua

Department of Botany, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Eeo State, Nigeria.

berndonis@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Amaranthus cruentus L. (Large green) and Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench) (Okra) were grown at various replacement ratios (100/0, 67/33, 50/50, 33/67 and 0/100) in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Experiments were conducted during the growing seasons (November – February) of 2006 and 2007 in Ekpoma in the rainforest zone of Nigeria. At 4 and 6 WAP, large green in equal proportions with okra significantly (P<0.05) produced higher dry matter per plant while at 8 and 10 WAP, 67% large green grown in mixtures with 33% okra gave higher dry matter yield. Dry matter yield in Okra did not significantly (P>0.05) vary at all planting combinations. There was a significant linear correlation (r=0.51) between total dry matter production and yield. Combining large green and okra at 67/33% respectively gave a higher yield and consequently greater monetary returns than all other planting frequencies. In the mixtures, large green yield was slightly significant while okra (fruit yield) varied depending on its proportion in the mixtures: the lower the proportion of okra, the higher its yield. It is therefore more economical to intercrop these two crops.

[World Rural Observations 2010;2(1):66-74]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). 12

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.12

 

Key words: Productivity, Inter-cropping, Large green/okra, Nigeria

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13

Fish consumption pattern in Kainji lake areas

 

Omojowo Funso Samuel, Olowosegun Toyin, *Omojowo Taiwo Mary

omojowofs@yahoo.com, toyin_motunrayo@yahoo.com, olarinde_samuel@yahoo.com

 National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research, P.M.B. 6006, New-Bussa, Niger-State.

*Federal College of Freshwater Fisheries Research (FCFFT), New-Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: Catch and consumption of fish were estimated for a year, from May 2004 to April 2005 using a sample of 341 households. The sample was taken in from a study area covering 6 fishing villages. Of the sampled household, 62.5% of households in the fishing communities were actively involved in fishing while the remaining 37.5% households are non-fishing households. The average annual catch per household was 1,300kg while the total production of fish in this six fishing communities was about 298 metric tonnes giving the average of 49.7 metric tonnes per fishing village. As expected the per capita consumption of fish by fishing households (38.4kg) was higher than the non-fishing household (28.8kg). While the average per capita consumption of fresh fish by all households in the fishing community is 33.6kg per annum. The total consumption of fish including the processed was estimated at 53kg per capita per annum in the fishing villages around the Kainji Lake areas. The fishing households consumed about 41.3% of the total fish catch. The total sold out is about 45% of which 20.7% is sold and consumed within the communities while 24.3% were only sold and consumed outside the communities.

[World Rural Observations 2010;2(1):75-79]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). 13

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.13

 

Key words: Consumption, Catch per household, Fishing household

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14

Analysis of dry season vegetable production in Owerri West Local Government Area Of Imo State, Nigeria

 

Ibekwe u.c.1 and o.m. Adesope2**

1. Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

2. Department of agricultural Economics and Extension,

University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

omadesope@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The study focused on the costs and returns of small-scale vegetable production in Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. A total of 45 respondents were interviewed using questionnaire. The production system and socio economic characteristics of the farmers were evaluated. Vegetable production was found to be profitable with a Benefit – Cost Ratio (BCR) of 1.64 and the return per capital invested was found to be 0.50k. The regression analysis showed that variables such as, cost of labour, cost of fertilizer, cost of planting materials, cost of irrigation, level of education, size of household, farming experience and farm size were significant at five percent level of significance. Formation of cooperative society by farmers provision of appropriate planting materials and technologies were the methods recommended for amelioration of vegetable farmers’ problem.

[World Rural Observations 2010; 2(1):80-86]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). 14

doi:10.7537/marswro020110.14

 

Key words: Dry season vegetable production

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