Science Journal


World Rural Observations

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), Quarterly

Volume 2 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 5), September 30, 2010
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Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0202



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Agriculture Share of the Gross Domestic Product and its Implications for Rural Development


Anyanwu Sixtus O1*, Ibekwe U.C.2, Adesope Olufemi M3.

 1. Department of Agricultural Economics, Rivers State University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2. Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria

3. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria


Abstract: The study considered the relationship between Gross Domestic Product and output of major stapled food crops of Nigeria between 1990 and 2001. Data used were collected from various issues of Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, Annual Reports and Bureau of Statistics. Using correlation matrix, the result showed that there is a strong, positive and statistically significant relationship between GDP and these food crops except for wheat. Policies should therefore be put in place by the appropriate authorities geared towards providing production incentives to the rural farmers to enable them produce more of these stapled food crops that have significant impact on the GDP of Nigeria.

[Anyanwu Sixtus O, Ibekwe U.C., Adesope Olufemi M. Agriculture Share of the Gross Domestic Product and its Implications for Rural Development. World Rural Observations 2010;2(3):1-5]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 1



Key words: Gross Domestic Product; Rural Development

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Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP’s) in Low lands of Kanchanpur District of Nepal: Indigenous use and Conservation


Nabin Raj Joshi1, Laxman Singh Lodhiyal1 and Vishal Singh2

1Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, Kumaun University, Nainital-263002, India.

2 Centre for Ecology Development and Research, 41/I, Vasant Vihar, Dehradun 248006



Abstract: The present study intended to highlight the status and potential of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in community forests and the national forest of Kanchanpur district in far western region of Nepal. The human ecological approach, participatory rural appraisal, focus group discussions and interviews were used to gather the data and information for analysis. The results of the data analysis indicate that the study area harbors a high diversity of potential NTFPs. Altogether, 123 species belonging to 62 families and their traditional uses were recorded. 20 NTFP species were awarded highest priority out of a total 123 NTFP’s as documented by this study named them priority species. Despite an enduring socio-cultural transformation of the local communities, they still possess sufficient knowledge of plants and their uses. It is observed that the proper management of the NTFPs could play a critical role in the improvement of people’s livelihood in a sustainable way.

[Nabin Raj Joshi, Laxman Singh Lodhiyal and Vishal Singh. Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP’s) in Low lands of Kanchanpur District of Nepal: Indigenous use and Conservation. World Rural Observations 2010;2(3): 6-22]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 2


Keywords: participatory, community, potential, livelihood, sustainable

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Effect of Adoption Pattern of Fertilizer Technology on Small Scale Farmer’s Productivity in Boluwaduro Local Government


OLAGUNJU, Funke Iyabo and SALIMONU, Kabir Kayode


Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Ladoke Akintoala University of Technology, P.M.B 4000 Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

Correspondence E-mail:


ABSTRACT: The use of appropriate land improvement / intensification technology seems to offer an opportunity to substantially increase farm production and income levels. Traditionally, Nigerian farmers have been using fertilizer primarily on commercial / export crops, but in recent years, an increasing quantity of fertilizers is being used on such food crops as rice, maize, wheat, yams and cassava. The study investigated the factors determining the adoption pattern of fertilizer technology on small scale farmer’s productivity in Boluwaduro Local Government Area. The specific objectives are to identify the socio economic characteristics of small scale farmers, to determine the factors affecting the intensity of use of fertilizer technology among the small scale farmers, to analyze and compare the gross margin of fertilizer users and non fertilizer users. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 65 respondents for fertilizer users and 55 respondents for non users from three (3) randomly selected towns and the needed data were collected with the means of structured questionnaire. The analytical techniques used were Descriptive, Gross margin and Tobit Regression Analysis. The results indicated that the average farm size of the respondents was about 2.4 hectares, with some having just about 0.47ha. The average capital and labour input per hectare were about N24, 242.25 and N32, 953.72 respectively. The result further indicated that the gross margin of fertilizer users is greater than that of non-fertilizer user and this implies that the use of fertilizer is profitable. Currently, the average amount of fertilizers applied by the farmers is less than the recommended dosage and that there is about 53% chances that an average small scale farmer would adopt the use of fertilizers. The expected level of adoption of fertilizers by those farmers on the limit E (Y) is 39.94, which implies that new adopters are expected to use about 40% of the recommended dosage of the appropriate fertilizer grade. Also, for farmers above the limit, the expected level of production E(Y*) of the recommended dosage of the appropriate fertilizer formulations is about 72%. A number of factors significantly influenced the fertilizer adoption decision of the farmers, namely, Distance (in km) of the farmers house from the fertilizer selling depot (p<0.05), Number of years of formal education of the farmer (p<0.05), fertilizer price /50kg bag (p<0.01), Number of contact with extension agents (p<0.01).

[OLAGUNJU, Funke Iyabo and SALIMONU, Kabir Kayode. Effect of Adoption Pattern of Fertilizer Technology on Small Scale Farmer’s Productivity in Boluwaduro Local Government. World Rural Observations 2010;2(3):23-33]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 3


Key words: Fertilizer, Technology, Tobit Regression, Productivity

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Proximate and Anatomical Weight Composition of Wild Brackish Tilapia guineensis and Tilapia melanotheron


Adejonwo O. A., Kolade O.Y., Ibrahim A. O., Oramadike C. E.

Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Victoria Island, Lagos.

Corresponding Author>

Abstract: The proximate and anatomical weight composition of fresh wild brackish Tilapia guineensis and Tilapia melanotheron were analysed. The proximate analysis result for T. guineensis were 18.65% protein, 0.55% lipid, 1.30 % ash and 79.50 % moisture while that of T. melanotheron showed that protein in the edible tissue of the fish was 18.74%; the lipid, ash and moisture contents was 0.70%, 1.06% and 79.50% respectively. The mean values of length for T. guineensis and T. melanotheron were 156.996.45 and 171.476.9 while the weight data were20.370.53 and 20.823.9 respectively. The data obtained for the anatomical weight composition of T. guineensis showed a percentage decrease in the order of fillet, head, frame, scale and gut 39.50 > 26.77 > 16.80 > 11.72 > 4.90 while T. melanotheron showed a percentage decrease in the order of fillet, head, frame, scale and gut 36.28 > 33.28 > 17.36 >5.31 > 4.11. The result obtained indicated that both Tilapia species are nutritionally high in protein with low-oil content while the anatomical weight composition indicated that T .guineensis had a higher recovery of edible portion than T. melanotheron.

[Adejonwo O. A., Kolade O.Y., Ibrahim A. O., Oramadike C. E. Proximate and Anatomical Weight Composition of Wild Brackish Tilapia guineensis and Tilapia melanotheron. World Rural Observations 2010;2(3):34-37]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 4


 Keywords: Anatomical weight, Proximate composition, Tilapia guineensis and Tilapia melanotheron

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Water Quality Monitoring, A Must In Fisheries And Aquaculture Management

R.O.D. Shelle, A.O. Adeleye And I. A. Ladigbolu.

Department Of Physical/Chemical Oceanography, Nigerian Institute For Oceanography And Marine Research, Victorial Island, Lagos. P.M.B.12729, LAGOS.



ABSTRACT: Water Quality Monitoring is an essential tool in fisheries management. In order to keep the health of any aquaculture system at an optimal level, certain water quality parameters must be controlled. Some of these parameters that most directly affect the health of the system are pH, alkalinity, hardness, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nutrients. Temperature, Salinity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Turbidity, pH measurements and nutrient analysis were made at the Victoria Beach station and the NIOMR Jetty Station. At the Victoria Beach station, the water column was well oxygenated with recorded value ranging between 6.26 and 7.76 mg L-1 while at the NIOMR Jetty Station, the water column was similarly well oxygenated with recorded values ranging between 4.74 and 6.64 mg L-1.The surface water temperature ranged between 26.88 and 30.560C. PH Value ranged between 7.49 and 8.16, while the salinity for both stations ranged between 6.39% and 33.89%. The minimum (26.88OC) and maximum (30.98 OC) air temperatures were recorded of the year. The water column at both stations is well oxygenated. Even the lowest value of 4.74 mg L-1 obtained in May at the Jetty station is adequate for aquatic life.

[R. O. D. Shelle, A. O. Adeleye And I. A. Ladigbolu. Water Quality Monitoring, A Must In Fisheries And Aquaculture Management. World Rural Observations 2010;2(3):38-41]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 5



Keywords: Water column, Alkalinity, Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen, pH , Nutrients

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[World Rural Observations 2010;2(3):42-59]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 6

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Improving Effect of Dietary Oat Bran Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Induced By Hyperlipidemic Diet

 Ola S Mohameda, Mostafa M Saidb, Zeinab Y Alib*, Hanan A Atiaa and Heba S Mostafab

 a Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy (girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

b Department of Biochemistry, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Giza, Egypt.

*Corresponding author. Zeinab Yousef Ali (Ph D)

Biochemistry department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), 6-Abu Hazem Street, Pyramids Ave. P.O. Box 29, 35521 Giza, Egypt.


Tel: 002-02-35851278, 002-02-35850005; Mobile: 002-012-8079870; Fax: 002-02-35855582

Abstract: Many epidemiological studies support the involvement of oxidative stress in pathogenesis and progression of many diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Oats (Avena sativa, Linn.) are rich in antioxidants and have cholesterol-reducing effect. This study aimed to evaluate the total phenolic and antioxidant activity as well as the prophylactic and curative effects of oat bran (2.70 g. kg-1 b.w. day-1) on oxidative stress induced by hyperlipideamic diet comparing with simvastatin (3.6 g. kg-1 as reference agent. Rats fed on hyperlipidemic diet supplemented with cholesterol, cholic acid and thiouracil (CCT, 3:1:0.5) exhibited significant elevation in hepatic antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST) activities and lipid peroxide (MDA), and a significant depletion in reduced glutathione (GSH) content. Oat bran was able to maintain or ameliorate these changes to nearly normal levels and reveals its prophylactic and curative effects on oxidative stress associated with hyperlipidemia. Oat bran has nearly similar potent antioxidant effect as simvastatin. These beneficial effects could be attributed to the antioxidant activities of bioactive ingredients in oat bran. In conclusion, oat bran supplementation exhibited a powerful antioxidant potential and, thus, reduce incidence and prevent atherosclerosis through a reduction in oxidative stress induced by hyperlipidemia in rats.

[Ola S Mohamed, Mostafa M Said, Zeinab Y Ali, Hanan A Atia and Heba S Mostafa. Improving Effect of Dietary Oat Bran Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Induced By Hyperlipidemic Diet. World Rural Observations 2010;2(3):60-69]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 7


 Key Words: Avena sativa; oat bran; total phenolics; antioxidant activity; hyperlipidemia; atherosclerosis; oxidative stress; hepatic antioxidant.

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Indexing soil P to recommend for durum wheat in East Shewa, Oromiya Region

Mesfin Kebede, and Tekalign Tadesse

Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR)

Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 32, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, and


Abstract: On farm soil test based phosphorous determination research experiment was carried out in three locations of East Showa from 2003-05 cropping seasons. Six levels of P were applied as a treatment (Triple Super Phosphate) and recommended level of nitrogen from urea was applied uniformly to all plots. Application of 15.1 kg P per ha in Ude and 25.1 kg P in Akaki provided the maximum mean grain yields of 3.75 and 1.79 t ha-1, respectively for year (2003). In the 2004 cropping seasons, however, the absence of any application of external P gave the highest (3.38 t ha-1) in Chefe Donsa and the least mean grain yield (1.74 t ha-1) was recorded in Ude by 15.1 kg P. In the year 2005 result revealed that the two treatments from Chefe Donsa and Akaki gave the maximum comparable mean grain yields (4.89 and 4.49 t ha-1) but and the least yield was obtained through the application of soil P only (1.88t) in Ude. For these cropping seasons, a total of twenty seven regression equations were developed and eighteen were selected in order to map the soil P (ppm) versus treatments. Accordingly, an average of 97.0, 96.5 and 96.5 (2003), 86.0, 93.0, and 89.5 (2004) and 92.0, 91.5, and 92.5% (2005) remained in the soil for every application of external P in Akaki, Chefe Donsa and Ude, respectively. In most of the years, on average of over 85% of the applied P remained in the soil. In some locations, non-significant differences were due to this. It seems that our soils are saturated by the application of P years around and becoming the least limiting plant nutrient. Therefore, any phosphorus recommendation for optimum durum wheat production should be on the basis of its soil test P value. This experiment also proved that even if the soil P increases through the application of external P from 6.5ppm onwards, it didn’t reflect in the increment rather the decline of mean grain yield. But further research work has to be conducted to determine the limiting plant nutrient, its index in different soil types, environment and in its interaction.

[Mesfin Kebede, and Tekalign Tadesse. Indexing soil P to recommend for durum wheat in East Shewa, Oromiya Region. World Rural Observations 2010;2(3):70-77]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 8


Key Words: Equation, On farm, Soil Test, TSP, Soil Types, Regression

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Wild and Exotic Gymnosperms of Uttarakhand, Central Himalaya, India


Lalit M. Tewari*, Jeewan Singh Jalal, Sanjay Kumar, Y.P.S. Pangtey and Rupesh Kumar

 Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital-263002 Uttarakhand, India

*Corresponding author:


Abstract: The paper deals with the diversity of gymnosperms in Uttarakhand; both wild and exotic species. A total 63 species belonging to 10 families were reported, of these 47 species are exotic to the state. Origin-wise status of both exotic and wild gymnosperms demonstrated that 26.98% species are of American origin followed by the Indian Subcontinent (19.04%), China (11.11%), Japan (9.52%), Asia-temperate and Europe (7.93%), Africa (6.34%), Australia (4.76%), Indo-China and the Mediterranean region (3.17%). The genera and species are alphabetically arranged and taxonomically updated. Other information such as vernacular name, english name, habit, origin, altitudinal region and district wise distribution are also given.

[Lalit M. Tewari, Jeewan Singh Jalal, Sanjay Kumar, Y.P.S. Pangtey and Rupesh Kumar. Wild and Exotic Gymnosperms of Uttarakhand, Central Himalaya, India. World Rural Observations 2010;2(3):78-83]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 9


 Keywords: Diversity, distribution, gymnosperms, Uttarakhand

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 Diversity of Potential lichens on Banj oak twigs in Banlekh forest of district Champawat, Kumaun Himalaya


Balwant Kumar, *Lalit M. Tewari and Hemlata Kholia

 Department of Botany, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital 263001

* corresponding author email:


Abstract: The Parmelioid lichens on Banlekh forest of Champawat (Uttarakhand) comprises 45-60%, Usnioid (Usneaceae 17-30% and Ramalinaceae 15-30%) found on different diameter class fallen twigs of Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus (Banj oak). The study observed the twig diameter class 0-1 cm and 1.1-2 cm is excellent for the large thallus of the members of family Ramalinaceae. The villagers of the Banlekh area are not using these 15 potential lichens due to lack of information and knowledge.

[Balwant Kumar, Lalit M. Tewari and Hemlata Kholia. Diversity of Potential lichens on Banj oak twigs in Banlekh forest of district Champawat, Kumaun Himalaya. World Rural Observations 2010;2(3):84-87]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 10


 Key words: Lichen, oak twigs, livelihood, Champawat (Kumaun)

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