Science Journal

 

 
World Rural Observations

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online)

Volume 3 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 8), May 25, 2011
 
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0302
 
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Title/Authors/Abstract

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1

Rural infrastructural development and profitability of farmers under Fadama II project in Oyo state, Nigeria

 

Authors: 1Adeoye A; S.A 1Yusuf ; O.L1Balogun and A. 2Carim-Sanni

 

Address: 1. Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

2. Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research Ibadan, Nigeria

Correspondence e-mail: blarrybunmi@yahoo.com

Telephone Number: +2348023841788

 

Abstract: The study examines rural infrastructural and profitability of farmers under National Fadama II Project in Oyo State Nigeria. Primary data was collected from two hundred and sixty-four farmers using multistage sampling technique. The analytical framework used for the study include: descriptive statistic, infrastructure index and gross margin. The result showed an average infrastructural index of 0.42. Forty-four villages were classified as infrastructural developed villages (IDV) while the remaining were infrastructural under-developed villages (IUV). It was observed that 59.1% of the villages in Fadama LGAs are infrastructural developed while 41.2% in non Fadama LGAs. The gross margin for IDV was N445, 968.30 while for IUV for under-developed in Fadama villages is N357, 805.00. Gross margin was higher for Fadama II farmers than non fadama II farmers in IDV. The study recommends the need for more private and public sectors attention to infrastructural facilities in rural areas in Nigeria, to enhance sustainable agricultural development and productivity.

[Adeoye A; S.A Yusuf; O.L Balogun and A. Carim-Sanni. Rural infrastructural development and profitability of farmers under Fadama II project in Oyo state, Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):1-10]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.01

 

Keywords: Rural infrastructure, Infrastructural index, Profitability, Gross margin and Multistage sampling

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Thyroid Function Profile in Geriatrics Living in a Semi-Urban Community in Nigeria.

 

1Idonije B.O., 2Okogun G.R.A., 3Iribhogbe O.I.

 

1Department of Chemical Pathology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and 3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma.

Correspondence to: Idonije B.O.

Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. Email:oignis@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to determine the thyroid function profile amongst apparently healthy geriatrics in a semi-urban community in Nigeria. In this study, blood samples were collected from 200 elderly persons (120 males and 80 females) and 260 young adults (11 males and 15 females) served as control. Serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were estimated using microwell ELISA technique. Result showed no significant difference in serum T3, T4 and TSH levels when compared with control (p>0.05). Mean serum T3, T4 and TSH levels in the geriatric population was (110.09; 8.273.31 and 0.750.70 respectively). There was however no statistically significant difference in thyroid function profile between male and female geriatric (p>0.05). Conclusively, apparently healthy geriatric population in the semi-urban community under survey have adequate iodine intake. Additionally gender difference has no significant influence on thyroid profile in geriatrics.

[Idonije B.O., Okogun G.R.A., Iribhogbe O.I. Thyroid Function Profile in Geriatrics Living in a Semi-Urban Community in Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):11-13]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.02

 

Key words: Geriatrics, Thyroid Function Test, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism

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Diversity And Seasonal Abundance Of Phytoplankton Of River Narmada Madhya Pradesh (India).

 

 

*Shailendra Sharma, **Karam Singh, **Ram Prajapati,***C.M.Solnki,*** Dhavni Sharma, ***Taniya Sengupta, *Tushar Gandhi, **Meenakshi Chouhan,*Amrita Vyas

 

*Department of Zoology, Shri Umiya Girls College, Mandleshwar -451221 (M.P.) INDIA.

Email: shailendra.b.sharma@gmail.com

**Department of Zoology, Holkar Science College, Indore-452003 (M.P.) INDIA.

***Department of Botany, P.M.B.Gujarati Science College, Indore

 

Abstract: Phytoplankton which are predominantly atrophic and primary producers of organic matter in aquatic habitat, float in water and moved passively by wind or water current. They stand at the base line of many food webs in aquatic environments and are in turn dependent on the activities of other microbial organisms, which convert organic material into inorganic nutrients required by plants. Phytoplankton of the Narmada River consisted mainly of green algae (Chlorophyceae) Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) and the blue green algae (Myxophyceae). Chlorophyceae consisted of 23 genera some of the Zygnema, Eudorina Species. Chlosterium Species. Spirogyra, Pediastrum simplex, Pediastrum duplex and Chlorella were more dominant forms. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) was represented by 7 genera where as Myxophyceae by 10 genera respectively. In Narmada river the temporal succession of phytoplankton groups is noticed as Chlorophyceae > Cyanophyceae > Bacillariphycease .The species composition, distribution, abundance of phytoplankton population are governed by various physico-chemical factors of the water body. The population of Plankton fluctuates in different seasons and months.

[Shailendra Sharma, Karam Singh, Ram Prajapati, C.M.Solnki, Dhavni Sharma, Taniya Sengupta, Tushar Gandhi, Meenakshi Chouhan, Amrita Vyas. Diversity and Seasonal Abundance of Phytoplankton of River Narmada Madhya Pradesh (India). World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):14-28]. ISSN:1944-6543 (print); 1944-6551 (online). 3

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.03

 

Keywords: Diversity; Seasonal Abundance; Phytoplankton; Narmada Madhya Pradesh

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Exploratory Survey Of Geochemical Aspects Of Underground Water In Ehime Mbano Area Se Nigeria

 

Onunkwo A, A1 And Uzoije A.P.2

 

Department Of Geology1,Department Of Environmental Engineering2

Federal University Of Technology, Owerri.

 

Abstract: The exploratory survey of geochemical aspects of underground water resource in Ehime Mbano area of Imo State South-eastern Nigeria has been carried out. Since the creation of Ehime Mbano Local government area in 2001, there is the need for sub surface water quality assessment since the surface water has been polluted due to population explosion. The study was carried out by acquiring geologic and topographic maps of the area for easy identification of sample population areas, and to identify geological boundaries. Spring outcrops, landuse elements, especially waste dump sites and agricultural projects were visited and examined. A total of 6 water samples, 2 from springs and 4 from boreholes were collected randomly and analyzed. Analysis was carried out using atomic absorption spectroscopy for major cations. Heavy metal analysis was undertaken using spectrophotometer, potassium was determined using flame photometer method, concentration of total iron (Fe2+) was determined calorimetrically using spekker absorption meter, while total dissolved solids (TDS) was determined using glass fiber filter. Turbimetric method was used to assess turbidity. Physical parameters like ph and dissolved oxygen were measured insitu in the field with appropriate standard meters. The result of geochemical survey shows that the water has high turbidity, high iron, slightly acidic, soft , portable and suitable for domestic, industrial and irrigation purposes. Above all the water has no bacteria presence, no heavy metals also no laxative effect. The average pollution index of 2.50 indicates a slight pollution though Ezeoke Nsu area (NE) is highly polluted. Remediation to the problems of slight water pollution is proposed.

[Onunkwo A, A1 And Uzoije A.P. Exploratory Survey Of Geochemical Aspects Of Underground Water In Ehime Mbano Area Se Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):29-37]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.04

 

Key Words: Exploratory Survey, ground water, quality, population, contamination, Subsurface

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The role of rural women Employment on other empowerment

 

1 Ghasem Nikbakhsh, , 2 Abbas Emami and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Today, the participation rate of women is much lower than men in the world and this factor related to cultural, political, economic and social variables that these factors can be the main barriers to employment of women. Women in the labor market in terms of occupation, employment promotion and income from work are faced with different circumstances, but in recent years women's participation rates have increased.

[Ghasem Nikbakhsh, , Abbas Emami and Mehdi Nazarpour. The role of rural women Employment on other empowerment. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):38-43]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.05

 

Keywords: Employment, rural women, empowerment

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Ergonomic Evaluation of an African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth) Seed Slicer

 

Aremu, A.K.1 and Iroakazi, G.U.2

 

1. Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

Corresponding author’s e-mail: ademolaomooroye@gmail.com, Phone number: +234 8023843272

 

Abstract: An ergonomic evaluation of an African oil bean seed slicer was carried out. Ten married women aged between 42 and 57 years with over 10 years experience in the business of “ugba’ processing were used as subjects for the study. The heart rate index was used in quantifying energy requirements for operating the slicer. Results obtained showed that using the slicer resulted in a greater slicing output (1.32kg/hr), a higher slicing efficiency (83.5%) and an average energy expenditure per unit product of 0.67J/min (82.5% reduction in energy expended) compared to an expenditure rate of 3.83J/min with the conventional hand slicing method. The use of the slicer also resulted in reduced fatigue, reduced discomfort and body pains and led to an overall user satisfaction.

[Aremu, A.K. and Iroakazi, G.U. Ergonomic Evaluation of an African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth) Seed Slicer. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):44-48]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.06

 

Key words: Ergonomic, African oil bean seed, Slicer, Heart rate index, Energy expenditure

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Costs And Returns Analysis Of Gum Arabic And Some Selected Tree Crops Production In Adamawa And Yobe States, Nigeria: An Implication For Poverty Alleviation.

 

Umar H.Y, Abolagba E.O, Giroh DY and Lalabe B.C.

 

Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB 1049, Benin City, Nigeria.

E – Mail: uhaliru yahoo.com

 

ABSTACT: The study compared the economic benefits derived from gum arabic production and some selected tree crops in Adamawa and Yobe States, Nigeria in order to assess their impact of poverty alleviation on the respondents. Primary data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered on 150 farmers, out of which 104 were retrieved and used for the study. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result indicated that majority of the respondents (48.08%) were between the ages of 41 – 50 years and all the respondents had one form of education or the order with majority (44.23%) obtained either HND or Degree. Most of them (42.3%) and (38.46%) operated on small scale (1- 5 ha) for gum arabic and the other tree crops respectively. Only 3.85% and 1.92% of the respondents operated on large scale (26 ha and above) for gum arabic and other tree crops respectively. Also, 63.46% of respondents practiced intercropping gum arabic with some other crops. The profitability analyses show that ₦ 2, 725,000.00 and ₦ 2, 263,700.00 were realised as total revenue from gum arabic and the other tree crops respectively. This gave gross margins/kg of ₦ 27.65 and N 18. 87 respectively for gum arabic and the other tree crops. Their marketing efficiencies (ME) calculated were 57.87% and 48.80% respectively for gum arabic and the other tree crops. This implies that gum arabic was more profitable than the other tree crops, hence promoting gum arabic production will aids in poverty alleviation in the study area.

[Umar H.Y, Abolagba E.O, Giroh DY and Lalabe B.C. Costs And Returns Analysis Of Gum Arabic And Some Selected Tree Crops Production In Adamawa And Yobe States, Nigeria: An Implication For Poverty Alleviation. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):49-54]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.07

 

Key words: Economic returns, gum arabic, poverty alleviation

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Attention to Indigenous Knowledge toward agricultural development

 

1 Ghasem Nikbakhsh, , 2 Abbas Emami and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

Abstract: Imbalance population growth, non-sustainable efficiency of natural sources and unequal distribution of resources, goods and services made involved societies in confusing issues and impasses. In these countries , inappropriate sampling of abroad countries and inordinate imports (e.g. heterogeneous and non-indigenous technology ) devastated independent collection of micro local systems , and instead has established heterogeneous and dependent system to global economy system , that obviously couldn’t supply people’s needs. Since , this development process is formed without considering social , cultural and environmental consequents so isn’t continuing and human have to find strategies which can make development sustainable and humane Indigenous knowledge owners of world in current age (which known as information age) have valuable experiences from industry age and from inappropriate exploitation of their natural sources. These countries have learned that exporting produced goods is better than selling petroleum.

[Ghasem Nikbakhsh, , Abbas Emami and Mehdi Nazarpour. Attention to Indigenous Knowledge toward agricultural development. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):55-59]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.08

 

Keywords: indigenous knowledge

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Improving financial situation of rural women through micro-credit in developing countries

 

1 Khatereh siyar, 2 Ghasem Nikbakhsh and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: women played critical and important role at agriculture and now at most countries, they form major workforce of this part. In spite of importance of women workforce at different systems of agriculture, they have fewer access to development resources, compare to men. although during past two decades , various programs has been performed to enable women at agriculture , but due to different problems , gained success was very fewer than required extent . agricultural research institutions wouldn’t be able to create and develop technology, suitable for their needs. Global surveys show that about 5% of total extension resources, at all over the world dedicated to programs for female farmers, but women form just 15% of extension personnel of world. Some extensional issues that traditionally belong to women, such as economy of family, are supported very little that receive just about 1% of total extension resources of agriculture. One of major problem in this filed is inadequate and inappropriate access to extensional services. Low efficiency of agriculture extension systems to provide services for rural women doesn't just refer to structure and function of these organizations and systems, but refer to other issues including research and cultural barriers in this field.

[Khatereh siyar, Ghasem Nikbakhsh and Mehdi Nazarpour. Improving financial situation of rural women through micro-credit in developing countries. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):60-64]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.09

 

Keywords: empowerment, rural women, financial support

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The importance of indigenous knowledge as complement of modern knowledge

 

1 Khatereh siyar, 2 Ghasem Nikbakhsh and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Experience shows that indigenous knowledge not only has no contradiction with formal knowledge but different indigenous knowledge features, put it as well complementary for formal knowledge. Indigenous knowledge is accessible, useful and cheap. These countries have learned that exporting produced goods is better than selling petroleum. enforcing indigenous productive system at villages and also encouraging youths and teens to learn indigenous knowledge at on hand , and preparing suitable research condition for applied-sciences scholars in order to identify better and increasing applied aptitude of indigenous knowledge at the other hand , is equal to protection and sustainable use of natural resources.

[Khatereh siyar, Ghasem Nikbakhsh and Mehdi Nazarpour. The importance of indigenous knowledge as complement of modern knowledge. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):65-69]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.10

 

Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, rural women

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Indigenous Knowledge on Land Evaluation and Soil Fertility Management among Rubber Farmers in Southern Nigeria

 

Julius R. Orimoloye1*, Gabriel E. Akinbola2 and Mohammed Abubakar1

 

1Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 1049, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

2Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author, e-mail: orimoloyej@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Understanding farmers' indigenous knowledge on land evaluation and soil fertility management practices means understanding local realities that are crucial for sustainable agricultural productivity. This study was conducted in three rubber growing communities in southern Nigeria to evaluate the perception of rubber farmers on traditional land evaluation and soil fertility management practices through direct and indirect interviews. The major local methods of evaluation adopted by majority of the farmers include the vigour of native vegetation, presence of certain indicator plants and visual appraisal. Fertility ranking of the farmers correlated with values of Organic carbon (r = 603* p < 0.05) and Available P. (r = 647* p < 0.05) obtained from laboratory analysis. Though a large proportion (72 %) have applied chemical fertilizers (mainly to arable crops) at one time or the other, cultural methods such as multiple cropping (intercropping) and cover cropping are employed to manage soil fertility in the rubber plantations. Rubber farmers demonstrated significant knowledge of their soils and the environment acquired by experiences that have been tested by many years of living close to the farmland. In view of the importance in applying a holistic approach to study land evaluation, local soil knowledge provides key linkages between ancient and modern soil management.

[Julius R. Orimoloye, Gabriel E. Akinbola, Mohammed Abubakar. Indigenous Knowledge on Land Evaluation and Soil Fertility Management among Rubber Farmers in Southern Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):70-75]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.11

 

Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, land evaluation, rubber, soil fertility

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Role of nitric acid or H2O2 in antioxidant defense system of Pisum sativum L. under drought stress

 

1Helal Ragab Moussa and 2Mohamed Abd El-Fattah Hassan Mohamed

 

1Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Malaeb El-Gamaa St., P.O. 12311, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Corresponding author: E-mail: helal_moussa@hotmail.com

2Agriculture Research Center, Soils, Water & Environment Research Institute, Giza

 

SUMMARY. Water shortage is likely to be one of the major global environmental stresses of the 21st century. Drought is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed pretreatment by hydrogen peroxide at 70 mM or sodium nitroprusside (SNP; nitric oxide donor) at 10 ÁM on drought tolerance in pea seedlings. Osmotic stress was provoked by addition polyethylene glycol to the nutrient solution at the flowering stage. H2O2 or SNP are active molecules involved in mediation of various biotic and abiotic stress induced physiological responses in plants. H2O2 or SNP pretreatment alleviate oxidative damage, accelerate proline accumulation and enhance total chlorophyll, carotenoid, photosynthetic activity (14CO2-assimilation), and total yield/plant in leaves of pea seedlings subjected to osmotic stress. The results showed that osmotic stress induced decrease in the enzyme activities of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and overproduction of O2˙ˉ in pea leaves, which in turn caused exacerbation of lipid peroxidation and depression of photosynthesis. Application of H2O2 or SNP significantly increased the enzyme activities and decrease O2˙ˉ production and hence inhibited lipid peroxidation. Level of H2O2, proline and Evan blue uptake in seedlings pretreated with H2O2 or SNP were markedly lower than under drought stress, indicating the operation of antioxidant system in them. Moreover, seedlings arising from H2O2 or SNP pretreatment enhanced the membrane stability, as revealed from greatly reduced malondialdehyde content. The present data suggest that seed pretreatment in pea with H2O2 or SNP, a stress signal, could trigger the activation of antioxidants in seeds, which persists in the seedlings to alleviate the oxidative damage, leading to improvements in physiological attributes for the seedling growth under drought.

[Helal Ragab Moussa and Mohamed Abd El-Fattah Hassan Mohamed. Role of nitric acid or H2O2 in antioxidant defense system of Pisum sativum L. under drought stress. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):76-81]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.12

 

Key words: antioxidative enzymes, drought stress, photosynthesis, proline, pea

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An Overview of Rattan Distribution in Four States in South-South Part of Nigerian

(Akwa-Ibom, Balyesa, cross-Rivers and River States)

 

Adewole A Nureni*, Onilude A. Musliu

 

 Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Technology,

 University of Ibadan. Oyo State, Nigeria

*E-mail: dabukyo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rattan, a non-timber resource in Nigeria’s South-South forests remains largely unexplored. To create schedule for unlocking its potentials, this study investigates its availability, distribution and current utilization pattern in Akwa-Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross-rivers and Rivers States in Nigeria. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and on-the-spot-assessment while data was analyzed using simple statistical tools. The four states has rattan in abundance but unevenly distributed. Ten rattan species belonging to Lascopermas, Eremosphata and Calamus genera was identified in the study areas. Apart from Bayelsa State, its commercialization has begun insignificantly and without standard grading rule. The available products made from it are household items (70%) and furniture (30%). The estimates of unexploited rattan in Bayelsa and other three states are about 95% and 80% respectively. The traditional harvesting technique still subsists while users rarely treated harvested rattan. About 3.7m length of rattan costs about N30 as at December 2009. The study establishes that rattan resource is in abundant, unevenly distributed and yet to be appropriately commercialized in all the four states.

[Adewole A Nureni, Onilude A. Musliu. Distribution of Rattan in Four States of South-South Part of Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):82-87]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.13

 

Key words: Rattan, Availability, Distribution, Commercialization, Utilization, South-South Nigeria

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Characteristics Different of adults and children and its role on other education

 

Mohammad Abedi

 

Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

Abstract: adult education in the local agricultural education program is an essential component of the "total" program. Offering adult education programs helps to keep farmers and agribusiness employees better informed of current trends and provides them with opportunities to learn new skills and improve existing ones. Teaching adults can be very challenging, but also very rewarding. Most teachers would agree that the benefits derived from a successful adult education program in agriculture far outweigh the costs. In addition to the direct benefits to adult participants, the teacher, the school, the community, and the secondary program also benefit from a quality adult education program in agriculture. Adults in agriculture use a number of sources to gain new information that can be used to help them solve problems. Persons employed in agriculture utilize newspapers, magazines, newsletters, radio, television, government publications, internet, and meetings to gather information which can be directly utilized in their business activities. In many communities, the agriculture teacher is the primary source of agricultural information.

 [Mohammad Abedi. Characteristics Different of adults and children and its role on other education. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):88-92]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 14

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.14

 

Keywords: adult education, learning

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The difference between Andragogy and Pedagogy

 

Mohammad Abedi

 

Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

Abstract: Teaching adults can be very challenging, but also very rewarding. Most teachers would agree that the benefits derived from a successful adult education program in agriculture far outweigh the costs. In addition to the direct benefits to adult participants, the teacher, the school, the community, and the secondary program also benefit from a quality adult education program in agriculture. Adults in agriculture use a number of sources to gain new information that can be used to help them solve problems. Persons employed in agriculture utilize newspapers, magazines, newsletters, radio, television, government publications, internet, and meetings to gather information which can be directly utilized in their business activities. In many communities, the agriculture teacher is the primary source of agricultural information.

[Mohammad Abedi. The difference between Andragogy and Pedagogy. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):93-97]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 15

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.15

Keywords: Andragogy , Pedagogy, adult education

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Increase the efficiency of adult education through distance learning tools

 

Mohammad Abedi

 

Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

Abstract: While there is still prejudice surrounding some distance learning, it is increasingly being accepted as an alternative to traditional classroom learning. Courses can be offered via the Internet, where students are able to interact with instructors and other students without physically being in the same room. Getting a college education can be difficult for people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Frequent trips to the restroom, exhaustion, doctor visits, and medication side effects are all barriers to the traditional college experience. What if you could get the degree without ever setting foot on a campus? You can do just that through distance or virtual learning. Distance learning has been around for a long time (we've all seen the commercials on TV).

[Mohammad Abedi. Increase the efficiency of adult education through distance learning tools. World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):98-102]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 16

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.16

 

Keywords: adult education, distance learning

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Impact of ICT in Growth and Development of rural system in Uttarakhand

 

Rajeev Kumar1, Dr. M.K. Sharma2 , Mini agarwal1 and Sandeep Kumar3

 

1Assistant Professor in Computer Science Department, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University Moradabad (U.P.).

2Associate Professor & Head MCA Program, Department of Computer Science, Amrapali Institute -Haldwani (Uttarakhand)

3Information Technology Department PCTI Peetampura. E-Mail: rajeev2009mca@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper I have used Information & Communication Technology for rural areas development and growth. It is the technology that is exchange the information, data is fast and easier way. Due to this technology the nations we provide every information easier one side to another side. Without information there can be no growth and no development in rural area. ICT provide the up to date information like agriculture news, health news & education news. And in this ICT helpful for treatment and up to date news for seeds for farmers and e learning technology for poor students. And in rural areas information helpful for developing information is penetrating into rural India because without its presence there, we cannot think about development of the entire country. For making uttarakhand rural area a developed country we will have to propagate information technology. It would be easier to achieve the goal in near future. ICT helpful in every field like transfer the money, research issues and every field. Rural area is main part of India.

[Rajeev Kumar, Dr. M.K.Sharma, Mini Agarwal and Sandeep Kumar. ‘Impact of ICT in Growth and Development of rural system in Uttarakhand’ World Rural Observations 2011;3(2):103-106]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 17

doi:10.7537/marswro030211.17 

 

Keywords: ICT system, Rural growth and development, rural networks, e- villages.

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