Science Journal

 

 
World Rural Observations
 

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), Quarterly

Volume 3 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 9), August, 2011
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0303
 
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The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from May 22, 2011. 
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No.

Title/Authors/Abstract

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1

Proximate Composition and Acceptability of Moin-Moin Made From Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) and Asparagus Bean Seed (Vigna Sesquipedalis)

 

Nwosu, J. N.

 

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 1526 Owerri

Ifytina19972003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Asparagus bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) locally known as “Akidi oji” in some Eastern States and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were used to prepare moin –moin. The Asparagus bean were used to substitute cowpea at 10 %, 20 % , 30 %, 40 %, 50 % , 60 % , 70% , 80 %, 90 % , and 100 % levels, and used for the production of moin-moin which were evaluated according to firmness, appearance, taste and over all acceptability. The moin-moin was produced by grinding the dehulled beans, adding spices and cooking in the moral way till it is done. The result of the sensory evaluation and proximate analyses carried out showed that up to 50% substitution of cowpea was acceptable by the panel with no significant changes in taste and over all acceptability compared to the standard (100% cowpea). From this result, it could be stated that usage of Asparagus bean up to 50% is acceptable for use in the substitution of cowpea in the production of moin–moin.

[Nwosu, J. N. Proximate Composition and Acceptability of Moin-Moin Made From Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) and Asparagus Bean Seed (Vigna Sesquipedalis). World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):1-5]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.01

 

Keywords: Moin-moin, dehullling, acceptability

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Social effects of rural women's financial self-reliance

 

Abbas Rezazadeh

 

Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

E-mail: abbasrezazadeh80@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The empowerment is equality that women for financial self-reliance and self-sufficiency can obtain by controlling their emotional decisions. The empowerment can be defined as an evolution and development of activity through private organizations that guides empowerment in the society toward economic improvement. Empowerment is a process through which people can do activities to conquest on development obstacles that enable them to assign their destiny. women form great part of total workforce that needed for agriculture part at universe, as one of the intangible factors at agriculture economy. So, statistics that was represented in relation to extent of women’s activity is very lower than real extent. Because in this statistics, mostly, seasonal jobs, part time job, no wage job and their housekeeping activities, aren’t considered. rural women, have different roles and duties such as husband, mother, crops producer , participate at ranching activities , planting ,maintaining, harvesting, processing, marketing and preparing food. Rural women maybe venturing to culture cash products, while cultivating subsistence products and if they have no farm land, they have to work for others instead receiving wage. We can consider such women as agriculture propagator, production expert and even in some case as policy maker. Other than activity at agriculture field, women’s participation at rural development is critical and is considered in order to supply adequate and needed food.

[Abbas Rezazadeh. Social effects of rural women's financial self-reliance. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):6-9]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.02

 

Keywords: financial self-reliance, rural women

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Barriers of rural women’s participation

 

Abbas Rezazadeh

 

Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

E-mail: abbasrezazadeh80@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Participation means women’s presence in all stages of development, including: needs evaluation, identification of problems, planning, management, implementation and evaluation. It’s not easy to get equal participation in a patriarchal society, such a matter requires participation of women and especially rural women in particular projects that they are somewhat beneficiary. In all communities, rural women are considered as an important factor in achieving rural development goals and in fact are half of the manpower needed for rural development. However, in the rural community of Iran, there are gaps between the ruling class (capital owners) and villagers, between literate and illiterate, and between men and women. Especially in villages women have fewer possibilities in terms of investment and less power and credit. Role of rural women, over of men, is more influenced with different economic, social, cultural and ecologic factors.

[Abbas Rezazadeh. Barriers of rural women’s participation. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):10-15]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.03

 

Keywords rural women, participation

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Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and agriculture development

 

Abbas Rezazadeh

 

Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

E-mail: abbasrezazadeh80@yahoo.com

 

Abstract In the rural context, development involves use of physical, financial and human resources for economic growth and social development of the rural economies . The term rural development also represents improvement in quality of life of rural people in villages. As per Chambers “ Rural Development is a strategy to enable a specific group of people, poor rural women and men, to gain for themselves and their children more of what they want and need.” Singh defines Rural Development as “A process leading to sustainable improvement in the quality of life of rural people, especially the poor”. The fact of the matter is that three quarters of the world’s poor, about 900 million people are in rural areas, and the Millennium poverty target set by Millenium Development Goals (MDG), cannot be met unless the world addresses rural poverty. “Sustainable Rural Development can make a powerful contribution to four critical goals of: Poverty Reduction, Wider shared growth, Household, national, and global food security and Sustainable natural resource management”. Hence worldwide there is a growing emphasis on development of rural economy of the countries. Any improvement, in the social or economic status of rural areas would not just directly benefit rural poor but would also bring down the migration-pressures on cities and contribute by positive ripple effect in global stride towards development.

[Abbas Rezazadeh. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and agriculture development. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):16-21]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.04

 

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), agriculture development, developing countries

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Technical Efficiency and Costs of Production among Small holder Rubber Farmers in Edo State, Nigeria

 

Dengle Yuniyus Giroh1 , Joyce Daudu Moses 2 and F.S. Yustus1

 

1. Research Out reach Department, Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B 1049, Benin City, Nigeria

2. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Adamawa State University P.M.B 25, Mubi, Nigeria.

girohdengle@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study investigated the cost of latex exploitation with a view to understanding the functional relationship between cost of production and technical efficiency of rubber farmers as well as some socio- economic variables. The study covered some selected local government areas of Edo State. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, budgetary technique, stochastic frontier production function and cost function analysis. The result of the gross margin analysis shows total revenue (TR) and gross margin (GM) ha-1 of $990.62(N148, 592.50) and $686.36 (N102, 953.58). The result of the stochastic frontier analysis also revealed that the variance of parameters (gamma and sigma squared) of the frontier production function were both significant at p<0.01. Wage has positive and significant effect on output at p<0.01. Farmers were efficient in the use of resources with greater reduction in cost which can be achieved through efficiency improvement. It is therefore recommended that improvements in the efficiency levels of farmers by training them at minimal cost to sustain rubber production.

[Dengle Yuniyus Giroh , Joyce Daudu Moses, F.S. Yustus. Technical Efficiency and Costs of Production among Small holder Rubber Farmers in Edo State, Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):22-27]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.05

 

Keywords: Technical efficiency, stochastic frontier, budgetary technique, latex production, Nigeria.

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Resource Productivity And Issues Of Sustainability Among Low External Input Technology Farmers In Imo State. Nigeria

 

Dr. S.O. Anyanwu

 

Department of Agricultural Economics, Rivers State University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

E-mail sixtusanyanwu@yahoo.com; Phone: +2348051240058

 

Abstract: The study examined resource productivity among smallholder farmers who practiced low external input technology (LEIT) and discussed issues of sustainability of this technology in Imo State. Cross sectional data generated from 80 smallholder farmers randomly selected from 2 out of the 3 agricultural zones in Imo State were used. Production function was used in analyzing the data. Results showed that an increase of farm size by one hectare would increase gross output of LEIT farmers by N97159.13. Also an increase of one man day of labour would increase the LEIT farmers’ gross income by N1876.14. Furthermore, one naira increase in capital input, planting materials and organic manure would increase the gross output of LEIT farmers by N23.54, N1.959, and N5.468 respectively. It is therefore recommended that in the face of escalating costs of fertilizer, organic manure could be used. Appropriate policies should be put in place by the government to encourage livestock rearing so as to effectively utilize their bye product-organic manure. Household refuse or bio-degradable from the cities could be channeled to farms to serve as organic manure.

[S.O. Anyanwu. Resource Productivity And Issues Of Sustainability Among Low External Input Technology Farmers In Imo State. Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):28-32]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.06

 

Key Words: Resource Productivity, Low External Input, Sustainability.

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Analysis of the Relevance of Baseline Survey in the Selection of Beneficiaries: The Case of Community and Social Development Agency Adamawa State, Nigeria

 

*Girei, A. A. and **D.Y. Giroh

 

*.Adamawa State Community and Social Development Agency, P.M.B 2110, Yola, Nigeria

** Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB 1049, Benin City, Nigeria

agirejo@yahoo.com, girohydengle@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A baseline survey was conducted in nine selected Local Government Areas of Adamawa State to ascertain the present state of socio-economic status of participating communities to ensure that at the end of the project, proper and acceptable impact assessment studies could be carried-out in the State. Data were collected from 900 respondents using random sampling technique and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results from survey revealed that majority of the respondents (71.11%) are in the prime of age of 20 to 49 years, 76.67% had one form of formal education or the other, farming provides primary and secondary occupation with 60.67 % and 39.33 % respectively. Income from secondary source was 55.78%. Also, 73. 89% of the respondents live in their own family houses, water supply source was mainly by well (63.89%), 69.33% of the respondents used pit toilets and waste disposal was by vacant plots. Recommendations for project intervention were made.

[Girei, A.A, Giroh, D.Y. Analysis of the Relevance of Baseline Survey in the Selection of Beneficiaries: The Case of Community and Social Development Agency Adamawa State, Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):33-39]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.07

 

Keywords: Survey, baseline, rural communities, Adamawa, descriptive statistics

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Screening, Identification, Phylogenetic Characterization and Optimization of Antimicrobial Agents Biosynthesis Produced By Streptomyces rimosus

 

*Houssam M. Atta1; El-Sayed, A. S. 2; El-Desoukey, M. A. 2; Mona Hassan, M. 3 and Manal El-Gazar, M. 4

 

1- Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. The present address: Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science and Education, Al-Khurmah, Taif University; KSA

2- Department of biochemistry, Faculty of science, Cairo University, Egypt

3- Department of clinical phathology , Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

4- Holding company for biological products and vaccines, Egypt

Corresponding author: *houssamatta@yahoo.com, houssamatta@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This work was carried out in the course of a screening program for specifying the bioactive substances that demonstrated inhibitory affects against microbial pathogenic from actinomycetes strains. Eighty eight actinomycete strains were isolated from twelve soil samples collected from different localities in Egypt. Only one actinomycete culture AZ-146 from eight cultures was found exhibited to produce wide spectrum antimicrobial activities. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogenic viz: Staph. aureus, NCTC 7447; Micrococcus lutea, ATCC 9341; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 10400; Bacillus pumilus, NCTC; Klebsiella pneumonia, NCIMB 9111; Escherichia coli, NCTC 10416; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ATCC 10145; S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763; Candida albicans, IMRU 3669; Aspergillus niger IMI 31276; Fusarium oxysporum;. The nucleotide sequence of the 16s RNA gene (1.5 Kb) of the most potent strain evidenced an 99% similarity with Streptomyces rimosus. From the taxonomic features, the actinomycetes isolate AZ-146 matches with Streptomyces rimosus in the morphological, physiological and biochemical characters. Thus, it was given the suggested name Streptomyces rimosus, AZ-146. The parameters controlling the biosynthetic process of antimicrobial agent formation including: different inoculum size, pH values, temperatures, incubation period and different carbon and nitrogen sources were fully investigates.

[Houssam M. Atta; El-Sayed, A. S.; El-Desoukey, M. A.; Mona Hassan, M. and Manal El-Gazar, M. Screening, Identification, Phylogenetic Characterization and Optimization of Antimicrobial Agents Biosynthesis Produced By Streptomyces rimosus. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):40-52]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.08

 

Key words: Streptomyces rimosus, Phylogenetic Characterization, Optimization of antimicrobial activity.

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Biocontrol of Fusarium Moulds and Fumonisin B1 Production

 

Mohamed A. Fareid

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

mohamedfareid73@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate maize seeds infected by Fusarium moulds and fumonisin B1 production. In order to suppress the growth of fungal infection, and/or fumonisin B1 production in maize seeds; applicability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a biocontrol agent as well as detoxification of fumonisin B1 was investigated. Out of 100 samples of maize investigated 65 (65%) were fungal infection. Of them 38 (58.46%) were Fusarium moniliforme others were F. graminearum 19 (29.23%) and F. oxysporum 8 (12.31%). Growth of Fusarium moniliforme and fumonisin B1 detoxification were negatively correlated with different doses of S. cerevisiae while detoxification was positively correlated with the doses. At dose 1, 3, 5 and 7 g of S. cerevisiae, Fusarium dry weight and detoxification percent of fumonisin B1 were 5.8, 40.56, 4.3, 77.63, 2.8, 89.52, 0.9 and 100, respectively. The effect of water content as well as different temperatures on fumonisin B1 productions was investigated. At water content of 50 %, a higher level of fumonisin (16.3 g/g) was detected in ground maize while in Corn flour and intact grain level of fumonisin was 0.50 and 8.66 g/g, respectively. At temperature 21oC level of FB1 was 19.3 g/g after incubation period for 4 weeks while at temperature 28oC was 9.7 g/g after the same incubation period and on the same substrate. For growth r = - 0.993, p = 0.001; for detoxification r = 0.927, p = 0.024.

[Mohamed A. Fareid. Biocontrol of Fusarium Moulds and Fumonisin B1 Production. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):53-61]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.09

 

Key words Fumonisins (B1); Fusarium moniliforme; Mycotoxins; Biocontrol

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Income Polarization and Bipolarization across Rural Households’ Socio-economic Features in Nigeria

 

Oluwole. I. Ogunyemi1, Omobowale. A. Oni2, Timothy T. Awoyemi3, Sulaiman A. Yusuf4

 

1 Agricultural Economics Department, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

2 - 4 Agricultural Economics Department, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

woleoguns@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Income polarization which is the disappearance of the middle class is of two variants, increasing spread called increased polarization and clustering of individuals at polar ends, increasing bipolarization; and it has the consequence of breeding tension and conflict if not checked. In spite of being an important feature of income distribution there is dearth of literature on it especially with African data with many studies focusing on inequality. This paper analysed the two variants of income polarization using Duclos Esteban and Ray polarization index, Foster Wolfson bipolarization index and Tsui and Wang bipolarization index along socio-economic dimensions with real per capita household expenditure for the years 1980, 1985, 1992, 1996 and 2004 setting 1980 as base year for the rural household in Nigeria. The rural sector was chosen as majority of Nigeria’s population resides in the rural area and agriculture is rural based having the highest contribution to the country’s Gross Domestic Product. Polarization and bipolarization indices followed similar pattern for all between and within socio-economic dimensions. They decreased from 1980 to 1985, then increased to 1992 and reduced through 1996 to 2004. Between the socio-economic dimensional groupings, polarization and bipolarization were high for age difference, education, occupation, wage - no wage and marital status with the highest estimate of 0.1935 for age difference. The least polarization and bipolarization estimates of 0.1772 and 0.3270 were from north-south dimension. Within dimensions however, bipolarization of 0.3245 was higher in the south than in the north with 0.3240 whereas polarization was lower in the south, 0.1759, than in the north, 0.1787 in 2004. Non-wage, single marital status, male and no education dimensions has higher within polarization and bipolarization than their opposite categories. Income redistribution policy should be focused more on education, marital status and age dimensions to prevent possible social tension and conflict that could result from polarized income distributions along these socio economic dimensions.

[Oluwole. I. Ogunyemi, Omobowale. A. Oni, Timothy T. Awoyemi, Sulaiman A. Yusuf. Income Polarization and Bipolarization across Rural Households’ Socio-economic Features in Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):62-72]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.10

 

Key words: Income distribution, polarization, rural households’ characteristics, conflict

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Dimensions of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) diffusion in rural

 

1Mojtaba Sadighi and 2Mehran Bozorgmanesh

 

1, 2Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: sharif11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Information communication technologies as itself do not change the social structure; the force for change is provided by the use of ICT in all spheres of everyday life activities. Information and knowledge we get by means of the Internet empower individuals to participate successfully in nowadays society’s life. Thus unequal opportunities to use the Internet and other ICT are tightly related to an issue of social exclusion. In rural Internet and other information communication technologies (ICT) are mainly used by young, educated, well paid and urban consumers. Elderly, low-educated, low-paid and rural residents are among those who use the Internet the least. This great group consistent with men have had active role at areas of social-economic activities and always have had major part on economic production of society. ICT is now recognized as a technological tool which can serve as a catalytic intervention in respect of transforming the lives and livelihoods of rural families.The economic and income divides between urban and rural areas can be overcome only by the technological upgradation of rural professions. In our post-modern network society they are at the risk of social exclusion. This paper is aimed at the analysis of ICT diffusion in rural communities of Lithuania, exploring the main social patterns of diffusion and characteristics of rural Internet users. The study is based on focus group discussions and questionnaire-based survey of Lithuanian rural residents. The paper discusses types of change agents involved in the processes of ICT diffusion in rural communities and the main motives for using the Internet.

[Mojtaba Sadighi and 2Mehran Bozorgmanesh. Dimensions of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) diffusion in rural. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):73-76]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.11

 

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), rural communities, developing countries

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Online Classes: Advantages and Disadvantages

 

Mohammadreza Ghaffari

 

1, 2Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: leila11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance learning is expanding and examples of it are increasing dramatically. Fewer than 10 states were using distance learning in 1987; today, virtually all states have an interest or effort in distance education. Distance learning systems connect the teacher with the students when physical face-to-face interaction is not possible. Telecommunications systems carry instruction, moving information instead of people. The technology at distant locations are important and affect how interaction takes place, what information resources are used, and how effective the system is likely to be. Technology transports information, not people. Distances between teachers and students are bridged with an array of familiar technology as well as new information age equipment. What sets today's distance education efforts apart from previous efforts is the possibility of an interactive capacity that provides learner and teacher with needed feedback, including the opportunity to dialogue, clarify, or assess. Advances in digital compression technology may greatly expand the number of channels that can be sent over any transmission medium, doubling or even tripling channel capacity. Technologies for learning at a distance are also enlarging our definition of how students learn, where they learn, and who teaches them. No one technology is best for all situations and applications. Different technologies have different capabilities and limitations, and effective implementation will depend on matching technological capabilities to education needs.

[Mohammadreza Ghaffari. Online Classes: Advantages and Disadvantages. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):77-81]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.12

 

Keywords: Online Classes, distance education

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Influence of Rubber effluent on some soil chemical properties and early growth of rubber seedling

 

Waizah Yakub1, Giroh, Yuniyus Dengle, Fred Ojiekpon, Haliru Umar and Edosuyi Austin Oghide.

 

Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B 1049, Benin City, Nigeria.

1=corresponding author: waizahyakub@yahoo.com and waizahyakub@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to examine the effect of rubber effluent on the growth of rubber seedlings and soil chemical properties in an Ultisol. A randomized complete block design was adopted with two treatment replicated five times. T1 received no soil amendment and served as the control, T2 received 5, 3330 L /ha of rubber factory effluent. Results of the effluent analysis revealed that it is rich in some plant nutrients and the effluent also had effect on some soil chemical properties as well as the growth of rubber seedlings. Pre-cropping soil analysis showed that the area was loamy sand characterised by low pH, low ECEC and low water holding capacity. There were no significant differences in the height, leaf area, leaf number and girth of the seedlings among the treatments at early growth stage, at a later stage of growth, seedlings treated with rubber effluent performed better than the control. The use rubber effluent should be encouraged, since the general performance of the seedlings treated with rubber effluent is superior to the control.

[Waizah Yakub, Giroh, Yuniyus Dengle, Fred Ojiekpon, Haliru Umar and Edosuyi Austin Oghide. Influence of Rubber effluent on some soil chemical properties and early growth of rubber seedling. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):82-87]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.13

 

Key words: Rubber effluent; seedling growth; soil properties; fertilizer

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Physio-Chemical analysis of ground water of selected areas of Mysore City, Karnataka, India

 

B.Nirmala1, N.J.Ranjitha2

 

1. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Chemistry, University College of Science, Tumkur-572 103,Karnataka State, India.

2. Lecturer, Dept. of Chemistry, JSS College for Women (Autonomous), Mysore-570 008,Karnataka state, India.

nirmala2528@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A laboratory study was conducted to monitor the ground water quality of selected sites of Mysore city by examining the various physico-chemical parameters like pH, TDS, DO, total hardness, COD, etc. Ground water samples were collected from various locations in study area during monsoon and post monsoon season. The results are analyzed comparatively and conclusions regarding the suitability of the use of such waters are made.

[Dr. B. Nirmala, N.J.Ranjitha, Physico-Chemical analysis of ground water of selected areas of Mysore City, Karnataka, India. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):88-91]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.14

 

Key words: Ground water, water quality, physico-chemical parameters, COD, DO, TDS.

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Economic effects of rural women's participation in rural activities

 

Mehdi Nazarpour

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the development countries, rural societies which are poverty for geographic reasons such as being far from urban societies or because of mountainous of zone and also as the roads are impassable and some other reason, they became deprived of many human development programs. Unfortunately these societies are suffering of mortality because of poverty but what is clear here is that we can't attribute such privation to geography and nature of the zone. Every country is tying to solve such critical conditions by applying depoverty policies. Poverty spreading in village is a global issue. According to the Fao finding about % 75 of world’s poor people that are more than 1 milliard people are living in rural zone and more than % 70 of this poverty people are women. As the most of the people who are poor are living in village and are women is the reason for insufficiency of rural development programs. One of the other basic barriers in development of rural women is their independent inaccessibility to get credits for investment in their job. Although their illiteracy is the big barrier to use of bank credits, but this view that women are dependent people that their husband should decide about their financial decisions is the other reason that rural women couldn't access to official credits. Maybe these barriers are the reason why rural women are happy about applying micro-credit thought in village.

[Mehdi Nazarpour. Economic effects of rural women's participation in rural activities. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):92-95]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.15

 

Keywords: rural women, participation

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Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in developing countries

 

Hamidreza Hossein

 

Department of Communication, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: hossein11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the rural context, development involves use of physical, financial and human resources for economic growth and social development of the rural economies . The term rural development also represents improvement in quality of life of rural people in villages. As per Chambers (1983) “Rural Development is a strategy to enable a specific group of people, poor rural women and men, to gain for themselves and their children more of what they want and need.” Singh (1999) defines Rural Development as “A process leading to sustainable improvement in the quality of life of rural people, especially the poor”. The fact of the matter is that three quarters of the world’s poor, about 900 million people are in rural areas, and the Millennium poverty target set by Millenium Development Goals (MDG), cannot be met unless the world addresses rural poverty. “Sustainable Rural Development can make a powerful contribution to four critical goals of: Poverty Reduction, Wider shared growth, Household, national, and global food security and Sustainable natural resource management”. Hence worldwide there is a growing emphasis on development of rural economy of the countries. Any improvement, in the social or economic status of rural areas would not just directly benefit rural poor but would also bring down the migration-pressures on cities and contribute by positive ripple effect in global stride towards development.

[Hamidreza Hossein. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in developing countries. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):96-100]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.16

 

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), developing countries

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Integrating indigenous knowledge and modern knowledge for effective communication

 

Abbas Emami

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Most important mission of IT is distributing knowledge and information and from this viewpoint and according to direct relation of using knowledge and producing science at on society and its progress , it is possible to understand more about real position of IT in relation to multi-dimensional development. IT in removing barriers of access to new knowledge is among economic opportunities and social cooperative that was emphasized by extension system and plays important role. Considering that indigenous knowledge , is same issue that people living with , and base on that they should follow norm and abnormalities of their thought philosophy framework at the their different life fields. Exchange, interaction and constant refinement is considered as obvious features of indigenous knowledge. This knowledge that is based on change, revolution and changes, caused that be dynamic in contrast to its appearance. So, aforementioned knowledge has kept its structure at past and also would keep it at future but its content would be changed. Experience shows that indigenous knowledge not only has no contradiction with formal knowledge but different indigenous knowledge features, put it as well complementary for formal knowledge. Indigenous knowledge is accessible, useful and cheap. Its perspective is holistic and its transmission is verbal. Knowledge is dynamic and time-tested, and while it has grown within local natural and social environment, so it is very sustainable with indigenous condition. Indigenous knowledge refers to both component and whole part of culture of each nation and this component and whole integration is so that stop to change traditional society of life without indigenous knowledge out of its cultural origin and therefore would lose it concept and effectiveness.

World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):101-104]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.17

 

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, modern knowledge, communication

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Adapting the Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture to Socio-Economic Challenges of Climate Change in Nigeria: The Needs for Enhanced Extension Capabilities

 

1Chikaire, J., 1Nnadi F.N., and 2Anyanwu ,C.N.,

 

1Department of Agricultural Extension Technology,

2Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri.

e-mail bankausta@yahoo.com 08065928862

 

Abstract: The threats of climate change to human society and natural ecosystems have been elevated to a top priority since the release of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007. Climate change is projected to impact broadly across ecosystems, societies and economics, increasing pressure on all livelihoods and food supplies, including those in the fisheries and aquaculture sector. Some of the most important inland fisheries in the world are found in semi-arid regions. Production systems and livelihood in arid and semi-arid areas are at risk from future climate variability and change; their fisheries are no exception. This paper using available literature from web reviews the importance of fisheries to livelihoods and poverty reduction, and the threats posed by climate change to fisheries and aquaculture. In order to maintain the important nutritional, economic, cultural and social benefits of fisheries, in the face of climate change, planned adaptation at scales from local to national level is required. Key strategies include facilitating peoples geographical and occupational mobility, improving inter-sectoral water and land-use planning, and promoting resilient aquaculture systems that cope with seasonal and episodic water deficits.

[Chikaire, J., Nnadi, F.N,and Anyanwu, C.N., Adapting the Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture to Socio-Economic Challenges of Climate Change in Nigeria: The Needs for Enhanced Extension Capabilities. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):105-113]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.18

 

Key words: Adaptation, climate change, aquaculture, inland fisheries

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Land Reform For Sustainable Development And Poverty Reduction In Nigeria

 

1Chikaire, J., 2Orusha, J.O, 2Nwoye, E.O., and 2Onogu B.

 

1Department of Agricultural Extension, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology,

Federal University of Technology Owerri.

2Department of Agricultural Science, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education Owerri

Email: bankausta@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Land is an asset of enormous importance for billions of rural dweller in the developing world. The nature of property rights and their degree of security vary greatly, depending on competition for land, the degree of market penetration and the broader institutional and political context. Access to it and the ability to exchange it with others and use it effectively are of great importance for poverty reduction, economic growth, and private sector investment as well as for empowering the poor and ensuring good governance. This is where redistributive land reform programmes come in which aim to change the distribution of land within the society, reducing land concentration and promoting more equitable access to and efficient use of land. This paper surveys land reform strategies and the benefits that follows it. Land reform can reduce rural poverty not only by channeling a larger slice of the agricultural income pie to low-income households, but also by increasing the size of the pie by raising land productivity. The Land Use Act of 1978 has created two major classes of individuals- powerful landowners who hold large tracks of land acquired using state apparatus and the near landless who are the real farmers. The Land Use Act has widened the gap between the rich and poor when it comes to access to productive resources –land more especially. It is a threat to poverty reduction as it is now and needs a reform, to reflect the wishes and aspirations of Nigerians. With a supportive policy environment, land reform also can foster a transition to sustainable agriculture, due to the environmental comparative advantages of small farms who adopt better land management practices to keep the land fertile all the time.

[Chikaire, J., Orusha, J.O, Nwoye, E.O., and Onogu B. Land Reform For Sustainable Development And Poverty Reduction In Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):114-121]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.19

 

Keywords: Land Reform, poverty, sustainability, environment, Agriculture

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Mathematics Performance and Academic Hardiness, Mathematics Anxiety in Adolescence

 

Armin Mahmoudi

 

Assistant Professor, Department of Studies in Education, Yasouj branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran. dehlidena@yahoo.com; Phone: 00989177430926

 

Abstract: This paper examined the relationship between Mathematics performance and Academic Hardiness, Mathematics anxiety in Adolescence. The sample contained of 284 (144males and 140 females) 10 grade of Adolescence from Karnataka state. Pearson correlation analysis and two independent samples T test were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that Mathematics anxiety significantly has negative correlation with Mathematics performance but it was not significantly correlate with Academic Hardiness. It was also found that there are significant gender differences in Mathematics anxiety, whereas there are no significant differences between boys and girls in Mathematics performance and Academic Hardiness. The implications for practice and research are discussed.

[Armin Mahmoudi. Mathematics Performance and Academic Hardiness, Mathematics Anxiety in Adolescence. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):122-125]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.20

 

Key words: Anxiety of Mathematics. Learning of Mathematics. Psychological Factors. Educational Situations

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Assessing Principles of Adult Learning

 

Yasin Sadighi

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

E-mail: allahyari121@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Good assessment is a collaborative process involving the assessor, learners and others, where appropriate. Your assessment process should be transparent and allow for ongoing feedback from and to the learners. Remember these adult learners want to improve their skills in managing money and are not necessarily interested in formal recognition or being ranked against their peers in the group. Where possible, presenters should emphasize from the start that no-one is going to ‘fail’ the program. Even where students are seeking formal certification of their achievement, presenters can advise that there is no competition between the learners in the group or between an individual and the topic material – it’s all achievable and everyone can make it work for them. Your program should employ methodologies so that your trainers establish a friendly, open atmosphere that shows the participants they will help them learn rather than present as ‘experts’ imparting knowledge. No-one engages well with a trainer/teacher who is just ‘showing off’ what they know. Financial services have a plethora of jargon and complicated ideas that can put many lay people off. Exposing this sort of terminology and explaining it in simple terms – or deciding whether some of it needs exposure at all – is paramount to keeping your learner’s trust and interest.

[Yasin Sadighi. Assessing Principles of Adult Learning. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):126-129]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.21

 

Keywords: adult learning, education

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The role of Information and communication technologies (ICT) in education

 

Abbas Nikbakhsh

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

E-mail: leila11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The global economy requires the kind of necessity and purpose of educational institutions. Since the current trend towards reducing incomplete information and access to accurate information is growing, other schools can not control time to transfer a set of prescribed information from teacher to student during a fixed time point are, but schools must to promote Culture of "Teaching for Learning For example, acquisition of knowledge and continuous learning skills which make possible during the individual's life. According to Alvin Toffler, illiterate in 21st century, who was not read and write but those who do not know which fail to learn or remember are illiterate. In the rural context, development involves use of physical, financial and human resources for economic growth and social development of the rural economies. The term rural development also represents improvement in quality of life of rural people in villages.

[Abbas Nikbakhsh. The role of Information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):130-134]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.22

 

Keywords: information and communication technologies (ICT), agricultural extension

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Micro-credit and its effect on agricultural development

 

Khatereh Siyar

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

E-mail: khaterehsiyar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The major beneficiaries of micro-credit programs are rural women and low-income groups who use the micro-credits to improve their social and economic status. For the past two decades, micro-credit has been one of the solutions considered in order to expedite investment process and strengthen the financial bases in rural and deprived areas. Empowerment and poverty eradication in deprived communities through improving productivity are all results of micro-credit. Micro-credit has proven its value in development as an effective tool in struggling poverty and hunger. It has the ability to change and improve people’s lives, especially people in need. In micro-credit programs there are some other parts like small saving accounts and deposits; that’s why they are presented as a credit-saving program. The two terms in “micro-credit” refer to tow fundamental concepts that it is dealing with. The first term “micro” refers to inefficiency of classical economists’ development methods. Focus on the term “micro” implies revising the market’s economical recommendation in rural development. Small and micro-scale activities are the ones done within the local markets with goal of providing livelihood for households and with least link to the national and international economy. The second term “credit” refers to rural circumstances and lack of official sources which is a critical problem for them. By designing a micro-credit plan, the system is trying to provide credit sources for poor families and increase efficiency of rural market. In micro-credit system, production is mostly local and industrial, therefore economic surplus in these programs is relatively law.

[Khatereh Siyar. Micro-credit and its effect on agricultural development. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):135-138]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.23

 

Keywords: micro-credit, in improving agricultural development

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Rural women Employment in third world

 

1 Mohammadreza Ghaffari, 2Khatereh siyar and 3 Abbas Emami

 

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: khaterehsiyar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Women are considered as labor in the family, for example, every woman in the animal economy, can bleed a few sheep and goats and this implied that the number of women in families is high. By considering that in developing countries, the economic power is in men hands, men for supply their required labor, married again and in some cases, women go to woo for their husbands second marriage, because it reduces their exploitation. young families with many children in villages often are an obstacle for agricultural and non-farm employment of women and diminish their working time, but with the growth of children their free times increase to acquire more working on the farm. Being Households head is being one of the important factors determining the participation rate of women. For example, in Colombia when a woman is household's head, her entering to market, increases to 47 percent, but for women who are not heads of households, entering the job market is only 21 percent. So the family status is one of the factors affecting rural women's work and leads their participation or non participation.

[Mohammadreza Ghaffari, Khatereh siyar and Abbas Emami. Rural women Employment in third world. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):139-143]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.24

 

Keywords: Employment, rural women

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Socio-Economic Consequences of Malaria in Pregnant Women in Imo State, Nigeria

 

1Ohalete, C.N; 2Dozie, I. N. S; 1Nwachukwu, M. I and 1Obiukwu, C.E

 

1 Department of Microbiology/Industrial Microbiology, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

2 Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

chinyereohalete@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Human infection with malaria parasites (Plasmoodium species) and its socioeconomic consequences were investigated in parts of Imo State Nigeria between August 2007 and September 2008 using standard parasitological and socioeconomic methods. Blood samples were collected by vein puncture from 2,871 consenting pregnant women registered for ante natal care at Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu and Okigwe General Hospital Okigwe as well as Imo State University Teaching Hospital Community Health Outreach Centre, Ogbaku, Mbaitoli L. G. A. The samples were analysed parasitologically for detection of malaria parasite using three different methods namely Quantitative Buffy Coat (GBC) technique, Slide smear technique and Plasmodium falciparium antigen. Similarly, questionnaires were administered to the same patients to elicit vital information on socio-economic consequences of malaria. The results showed that out of 2,871 persons examined, 2,323 (80.9%), 2,301 (80.1%) and 1,801 (62.7%) had malaria parasite determined by the QBC stained smear and Plasmodium falciparium antiques techniques respectively. The overall mean prevalence was 74.6%. The mean infection according to zones showed that Owerri had the highest prevalence (83.9%), while Orlu has the least (66.9%). Similarly, the mean infection prevalence according to trimesters was highest in women in the second trimester (81.0%), and lowest in women in the third trimester (69.5%). The age related mean infection showed highest prevalence in women in the 18-25 years and above brackets (82.9%) and lowest prevalence in those 41 years and above (64.8%). The occupational mean prevalence was slightly higher in artisans (79.0%) and civil servants (76.2%) than the other groups. Pregnant women with a combination of headache / fever had the highest mean score (94.7%) in symptom related prevalence while those that presented with general weakness (37.1%) had the lowest score. The intensity of plasmodiasis showed that 12.2% of pregnant women had heavy parasitaemia as against 28.5% and 39.4% of woman that had moderate and low parasitaemia respectively. Some complications due to plasmodiasis in pregnant women reported include miscarriage 12.2%, low birth weight 7.0% and pre term delivery 5.7%. The total loss due to malaria in pregnancy within a six month period was estimated at 5.8 million naira. The study has confirmed that the burden of malaria in pregnant women in Imo State Nigeria is high. There is need therefore to introduce appropriate intervention strategies against malaria and its vectors in order to improve the health of pregnant women and other inhabitants of the study area.

[Ohalete, C.N; Dozie, I. N. S; Nwachukwu, M. I and Obiukwu, C.E. Socio-Economic Consequences of Malaria in Pregnant Women in Imo State, Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):144-149]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.25

 

Key words: Socio-Economic, Consequences, Malaria, Pregnant Women, Imo State, Nigeria.

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SOCIAL CAPITAL AND RURAL FARMING HOUSEHOLDS’ WELFARE IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA

 

1*Adepoju, A. A, 2Oni, O. A, 2Omonona, B. T, and 2Oyekale, A. S

 

Department of Agricultural Economics

1Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, ogbomoso and 2University of Ibadan, Ibadan

*Email- busola_adepoju@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of social capital on household welfare in southwest, Nigeria. The data for the study were collected fro m 300 households in six local government areas (LGAs) using probability proportionate to size of the residence in the LGAs. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, social capital indices and regression technique. Sixty-eight percent of the first tercile are within the age range of 40-59 years, the respondents with above 18 years of education have the least value (about 1 and 5%) among the first and second tercile welfare category. The factors influencing benefit received from social groups include education (P < 0.1) and negatively related to benefit received from social interaction, farming status (P< 0.05) and positively related to the benefit derived in order of category. Executive membership and labour contribution in a social group are positively and significant (P< 0.1). Decision making index is also positively related to social capital benefit and statistically significant (P<0.01). Age, age squared, sex, education, marital status, household size and farming status make significant contribution to percentage changes in household welfare. Social capital was confirmed to be truly exogenous to household’s welfare with no reverse causality. The study concluded that social capital positively affected household welfare; it was therefore recommended that government should create an enabling environment for the emergence of local organizations in terms of their registration and the constitution governing formation of such.

[Adepoju, A. A, Oni, O. A, Omonona, B. T, and Oyekale, A. S. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND RURAL FARMING HOUSEHOLDS’ WELFARE IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA. World Rural Observations 2011;3(3):150-161]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030311.26

 

Key words: Social Capital. Farming Household, Endogeneity, Social benefit, Nigeria

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