Science Journal

 

 
World Rural Observations

 

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), Quarterly

Volume 3 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 10), December 25, 2011
 
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0304
 

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Title/Authors/Abstract

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1

The Role Of Agricultural Extension In Climate Change Adaptation And

Mitigation In Agriculture

 

1Chikaire, J., 1Nnadi, F.N,  2Orusha,J.O,.2Nwoye, E.O., and 2Onogu B., Department of Agricultural Extension

 

School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri.

2Department of Agricultural Science, Alvan Ikoku  Federal College of Education Owerri

e-mail bankausta@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Global climate change poses great risks to poor people whose livelihoods depend directly on agriculture, forestry, and other natural resource uses. Waters sources will become more variable, droughts and floods will stress agriculture systems, some coastal food pro-reducing areas will be inundated by the seas and food production will fall in some places. Developing economics and the poorest of the poor likely will be hardest hit. Agriculture is, however, also part of the solution, offering promising opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gas emission through carbon sequestration, soil and land use management, and biomass production. A key element in supporting agriculture’s role is information. Mitigation efforts will require information, education and technology transfer. Agricultural extension and advisory services, both public and private, thus have a major role to play in providing farmers with information, technologies, and education on how to cope with climate change and ways to contribute to greenhouse gas mitigation. This support is especially important for resource-scare smallholders, who contribute little to climate change and yet will be among the most affected. This paper thus opined that support from extension for farmers in dealing with climate change should focus on two important areas-adaptation and mitigation. To achieve the above the paper the discusses three ways in which extension can help with adaptation and mitigation. The three ways include technology and management information; capacity building/development; and facilitating, brokering and implementing policies.

[Chikaire, J., Nnadi, F.N,  Orusha, J.O. Nwoye, E.O., and Onogu B., The Role Of Agricultural Extension In Climate Change Adaptation And Mitigation In Agriculture. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):1-8]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.01

 

Key words: Agriculture, climate change, extension, adaptation, mitigation,  green house gas

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Influences Gender on Adjustment among adolescents

 

Armin Mahmoudi

 

Assistant Professor, Department of Studies in Education, Yasouj branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran. Email: dehlidena@yahoo.com;  phone: 00989177430926

 

Abstract: In the present study an attempt is made to see whether male and female adolescents studying in standard 9 differ in their level adjustment.  A total of 100 adolescent students studying in Yasouj city were randomly selected.  They were administered Bell’s Adjustment Inventory (1968) (which measured adjustment of an individual in 4 areas-Home, health, social and emotional). Independent samples‘t’ test was applied to see the differences between male and female students. Further, Gender had no differential influence over adjustment scores in home, health, emotional, and social areas.

[Armin Mahmoudi. Influences Gender on Adjustment among adolescents. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):9-12]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.02

 

Key words: Adjustment, Self-Esteem, Adolescence, Gender

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Features and specifications of Adult learning

 

1 Mohammadreza Ghaffari, 2Khatereh siyar and 3 Abbas Emami

 

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: khaterehsiyar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In traditional programs that the principles of psychology and curriculum planning, less attention is the form of content presentation ie codification and providing books, original format and have the dominant form, while for adult content that could have valuable experience in addition to writing, other ways also be provided Affect the selection of pictures and images related to the concepts and content produced by including them. Learning activities such as activities outside the classroom, dialogue, role playing and ... Another type of content is presented. Duties are placed on the learner, a resource for developing knowledge, skills and insights he considered. Curriculum content only from the training provided to learners or not, but put together their learning through activities that can inform or does, skills and attitude to achieve. In this case, apart from learning that the assays taught learners directly to sustainable and effective learning occurs in his. Another way of providing content that is educational activities outside the learning environment possible for learning more and better enables adult learners. For example, hits, field trip experiences for learners or transfer is provided, develop knowledge, insight and skills they will.

[Mohammadreza Ghaffari, Khatereh siyar and Abbas Emami. Features and specifications of Adult learning. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):13-17]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.03

 

Keywords: Adult learning, Adult education

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Distance Education and e-learning in rural communication

 

1 Kobra Lashgari, 2 Mehdi Nazarpour and 3 Ahmad Shahidian

 

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance education places students and their instructors in separate locations using some form of technology to communicate and interact. The student may be located in the classroom, home, office or learning center. The instructor may be located in a media classroom, studio, office or home. The student may receive information via satellite, microwave, or fiber optic cable, television (broadcast, cable or Instructional Television Fixed Services (ITFS), video cassette or disk, telephone - audio conferencing bridge or direct phone line, audio cassette, printed materials - text, study guide, or handout, computer - modem or floppy disk, and compressed video. Recent rapid development of technology has resulted in systems that are powerful, flexible, and increasingly affordable. The base of available information technology resources is increasing with dramatic speed. Much has been learned about connecting various forms of technology into systems, so that the ability to link systems is growing. Most distance learning systems are hybrids, combining several technologies, such as satellite, ITFS, microwave, cable, fiber optic, and computer connections.

[Kobra Lashgari, Mehdi Nazarpour and Ahmad Shahidian. Distance Education and e-learning in rural communication. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):18-22]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.04

 

Keywords: Distance Education, E-learning

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Indigenous knowledge: an important phenomenon in rural

 

1 Khatereh siyar, 2 Ghasem Nikbakhsh and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

 

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: necessity of considering indigenous knowledge at developing extension programs is emanated from where that is considered as principal components and sustainable human development items is emanated from same sources. At sustainable human development, people are considered as “goal” of social and economic policies that their range of their selections would be extended in order to actively participate at decision making. Therefore, people’s participation is one of tools of sustainable agriculture development. But active rural people’s participation at extension programs as a form of sustainable would not be possible unless by believing role of rural people’s knowledge, vision and skills (Brouwer 1998). So, not only attendance of indigenous knowledge is necessary for applied researches but is important at compatibility researches and it enforced importance of attending to indigenous people and their knowledge. Therefore , applying affective strategy for transmitting technology has been among from affective fields at attending to indigenous people's knowledge and especially experts; because, development institutes realized positive their affects for doing this more than ever (Merrewij 1998) .

World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):23-27]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.05

 

Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, rural

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Implications of Distance Education

 

1 Ahmad Shahidian, 2 Mojtaba Sadighi and 3 Mehran Bozorgmanesh

 

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Challenges which faced the early users of distance education are still with us today. If distance education is to play a greater role in improving the quality of education, it will require expanded technology; more linkages between schools, higher education, and the private sector; and more teachers who use technology well. Teachers must be involved in planning the systems, trained to use the tools they provide, and given the flexibility to revise their teaching. Federal and state regulations will need revision to ensure a more flexible and effective use of technology. Connections have been established across geographic, instructional, and institutional boundaries which provide opportunities for collaboration and resource sharing among many groups In the pooling of students and teachers, distance learning reconfigures the classroom which no longer is bounded by the physical space of the school, district, state or nation.

[Ahmad Shahidian, Mojtaba Sadighi and Mehran Bozorgmanesh.Implications of Distance Education. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):28-32]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.06

 

Keywords: Distance Education, Developing Countries

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Important of adult learning principles for teachers

 

1 Mojtaba Sadighi, 2 Shohreh Goodarzi and 3 Mohammadreza Ghaffari

 

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: sharif11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: adult education in the local agricultural education program is an essential component of the "total" program. Offering adult education programs helps to keep farmers and agribusiness employees better informed of current trends and provides them with opportunities to learn new skills and improve existing ones. Teaching adults can be very challenging, but also very rewarding. Most teachers would agree that the benefits derived from a successful adult education program in agriculture far outweigh the costs. In addition to the direct benefits to adult participants, the teacher, the school, the community, and the secondary program also benefit from a quality adult education program in agriculture. Adults in agriculture use a number of sources to gain new information that can be used to help them solve problems. Persons employed in agriculture utilize newspapers, magazines, newsletters, radio, television, government publications, internet, and meetings to gather information which can be directly utilized in their business activities. In many communities, the agriculture teacher is the primary source of agricultural information.

World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):33-37]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.07

 

 Keywords: adult learning, teachers

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Analysis of Constraints to Smallholder Farmers’ Involvement in Rubber production in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria: Implications for Rural Policy Development

 

Balogun, F.E 1, Esekhade, T.U 1 and Omo-Ikeroda, E.E*

 

Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB 1049, Benin City, Nigeria.

*e-mail: eomoikerodah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study analyzed the constraints and motivation to smallholder farmers’ involvement in rubber production in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. A multistage process involving simple random sampling technique was used to select 216 farmers. A structured questionnaire, administered through interview schedule was used to obtain the data. Relative importance of each of these factors was analyzed with percentage counts and regression at 0.05 level of significance (t-test). Findings revealed that respondents generally participated moderately in rubber production with 15.3%, 74.0%, and 11.1% in high, moderate and low groups respectively. The respondents considered constraints to involvement in rubber production as high labour cost, shortage of labour, lack of credit, inadequate land, lack of improved planting materials at  94.9%, 94.9%, 86.6%, 72.7% and 71.8% respectively. Farmers’ level of involvement was determined by income from rubber (β=0.229), labour cost (β=0.217), market availability (β=0.184), extension contact ((β=0.162) and education (β=0.134). It was recommended that maximum involvement of smallholder farmers in rubber production should be encouraged by addressing the low impact factors and then strengthening the high impact factors. This will facilitate the the contribution of rubber production to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria.

[Balogun, F.E 1, Esekhade, T.U 1 and Omo-Ikeroda, E.E. Analysis of Constraints to Smallholder Farmers’ Involvement in Rubber production in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria: Implications for Rural Policy Development. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):38-43]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.08

 

Key words: Smallholder, Rubber, Involvement, Constraints

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AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF LIQUID FLOW FROM ORRIFICES AND SHORT TUBES

 

1ADEWOLE O.O,  2OYINKANLA L.O.A.

 

1DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN, NIGERIA.

2DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS & ELECTRONICS ,THE POLYTECHNIC, IBADAN.

1Correspondence viz : koredeadewole@yahoo.com.

 

ABSTRACT: The current study involved investigation of liquid flow from orifices and short tubes. Certain fundamental physical laws govern the flow of liquids through various channel or medium, among which are the Poiseuille theorem, Bernoulli theorem, Darcy law, etc. An elaborate consideration of liquid flow from orifices and short tubes with a simple experimental investigation has been outlined with results of findings here. The findings are quite interesting and the flow observed under  relevant governing  physical laws. The horizontal ranges have been obtained and found to increase initially and subsequently decrease with decreasing depth. It is pertinent to state that the horizontal velocities of water as it comes out from different holes and the different ranges can be respectively calculated.

[ADEWOLE O.O, OYINKANLA L.O.A. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF LIQUID FLOW FROM ORRIFICES AND SHORT TUBES. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):44-47]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.09

 

KEY WORDS: Liquid flow, orifices, short tubes, Poisuelle theorem.

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Role of ICT to understand the E-Governance  in  rural areas in Uttarakhand

 

Mini Agarwal and Rajeev Kumar

 

Assistant Professor in Computer Science Department, College of Engineering

Teerthanker Mahaveer University

Moradabad (U.P.).

E-Mail: miniagarwal21@gmail.com, rajeev2009mca@gmail.com

Abstract: In this paper we have used ICT (information and communication technology) for providing the information of e-governance in the rural areas because the meaning of the ICT is providing the new technologies to the people through the communication media.ICT is very cost effective it provides the information in a very cheap cost .  ICT is helping the peoples in understanding, learning and using the new technologies .In this paper we want to discuss how rural areas people teach, learn and understand the e-governance services and facilities. Because if the villagers understand that how used the  internet and e-governance services that provided by the government for helping the citizens then every illiterate people easily used the e-governance services and also directly connected to the government without interception of other private organizations. So ICT  is helping the rural areas people of  Uttarakhand  for learning the new technologies for using the facilities of e-governance like e-billing, e-reservation, e-banking, e-fertilization and e-medical etc because it is necessary for development and growth of rural areas in Uttarakhand.

[Mini Agarwal and Rajeev Kumar ‘Role of ICT to understand the E-Governance in rural areas in Uttarakhand.. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):48-50]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.10

 

Keywords: Technology, illiterate, development and growth, facilities etc.

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Achieving The Universal Basic Education Objectives In Nigeria: The Role Of Women

 

B C Ijioma *, Angella Izuagba **

 

Provost, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri

 Dept. of Curriculum, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education

 

Abstract: This paper sets out to examine the roles of women in the achievement of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) objectives. Their roles as mothers and teachers in the educational development of the child are examined. As mothers they are the first teachers the child has and as professional teachers they are the initiators of the learning process, the facilitators of knowledge, the coordinators of the sequence of learning and the assessors of learning effectiveness. They are seen as the latent force in national development and at the lower and middle basic education; they are the hub around which the teaching and learning process revolves given their numerical strength.  Considering the fact that the lower and middle basic education levels form the foundation on which the other levels of the education structure rest, it thus implies that female teachers do not only facilitate the achievement of the UBE objectives but determine the standard of secondary and tertiary  education through the different roles they play. To this end recommendations such as enforcing gender equality in the society through the domestication of some of the international conventions on the rights and protection of women should be speedily implemented among others. This will enable women function optimally for the realization of the UBE objectives.

[B C Ijioma, Angella Izuagba. Achieving The Universal Basic Education Objectives In Nigeria: The Role Of Women. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):51-58]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.11

 

Keywords: universal basic education, teacher, mother ,achievement, literacy

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Agricultural Trade Balance And Food Self-Sufficiency: Implications For Sustainable Development In Nigeria

 

Olayide, O.E.,1,2 A.E. Ikpi1, V.O. Okoruwa1 and V.O. Akinyosoye1

 

1Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2Centre for Sustainable Development, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

E-mail: waleolayide@yahoo.com or oe.olayide@ui.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Nigeria used to boost of high surplus in agricultural trade and food self-sufficiency, especially in the 1960s. Today, Nigeria has lost the leading position it once occupied as it is now a major importer of food and agricultural commodities. Nigeria now spends billions of naira on importation of food and agricultural products. This situation is paradoxical as Nigeria is well-endowed with the requisite natural and human resources needed to be food self-sufficient. Besides, most governments are adjudged as successful or failure on the basis of meeting the basic needs of their citizens in terms of food. This study analyzed agricultural trade and food self-sufficiency in the context of policy development scenarios including, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and democratic governance paradigms. Data used for the analyses spanned from 1970 to 2007. Descriptive and trends analyses were employed to analyze agricultural trade variables. Statistical inferences were drawn from the comparative analysis of the policy development scenarios.    Agricultural imports for the study period witnessed increasing trend. There was agricultural trade imbalance as Nigeria remained a net importing nation. In all development policy scenarios, there were significant (p<0.01) increases in total imports, total exports and net imports, including democratic regime. Overall, national food self-insufficiency averaged 29.35 ( 4.08) percent. Therefore, with 71 percent level of food self-sufficiency and high levels of food and agricultural commodities importation, Nigeria needs effective food and agricultural policy in form of import-substitution and building on comparative and competitive advantages to redirect and reverse the negative agricultural trade balance to favour improved domestic food production, agricultural industrialization and value addition with a view to ensuring sustainable agricultural and economic development in Nigeria.

[Olayide, O.E., A.E. Ikpi, V.O. Okoruwa and V.O. Akinyosoye. Agricultural Trade Balance And Food Self-Sufficiency: Implications For Sustainable Development In Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):59-64]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.12

 

Keywords: Agricultural trade, self-sufficiency, Nigeria.

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Effect of shallow saline-groundwater depth in evaporation rate

 

Saeed Jalili1, Saeed Boroomand Nasab2 *, Hadi Moazed2, Abd Ali Naseri2

 

1.  Department of water, Ramin University of Agriculture and  Natural Resources,  Mollasani, Ahvaz, Iran

2.  Water Sciences Engineering Faculty. Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.

 boroomandsaeed@yahoo.com,

 

Abstract: Shallow watertable conditions may be found quite extensively in arid and semi-arid environments. When the evaporative demand is greater than the ability of the soil to conduct water in the liquid phase, the soil profile above a watertable exhibits a liquid-vapour discontinuity, known as the evaporation front, that affects the  rate of evaporation. This is influenced by climate, soil type, crop, irrigation water quality and management practice and depth to water table. The objective of this study was to assessment  of the magnitude, extent of evaporation due to capillary upward flow in bare soil with shallow water table depths by saline groundwater. In this study we were controlled  and observed profiles of soil water over periods of experiment. This experiment conducted on summer of 2010. The experiments shown that rates of evaporation  in the end of period were 3.17, 1.42, and 0.2 mm/day for watertable depths of 300, 500, and 800 mm, respectively.

[Saeed Jalili, Saeed Boroomand Nasab, Hadi Moazed, Abd Ali Naseri. Effect of shallow saline-groundwater depth in evaporation rate. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):65-70]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.13

 

Keyword: Evaporation, Water Table, Shallow Ground Water

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EFFECT OF LIVESTOCK, HUMAN HOST AND AQUATIC HABITAT DISTRIBUTION ON THE ABUNDANCE OF ANOPHELES GAMBIAE COMPLEX IN BORNO STATE ARID ZONE OF NIGERIA

 

GADZAMA U. N., TOYOSI R. T., MADAKAN S. P. and ALI F. A.

 

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State of Nigeria.

ugadzama@yahoo.com

 

Abstract. A study was conducted in Maiduguri, the capital city of Borno state of Nigeria to investigate the influence of livestock, human hosts and larval habitat distribution on the abundance of Anopheles gambiae complex in a home. Both larvae and adult of anopheles species were collected in the beginning and late rainy season 2008 and dry season 2009 using standard methods. The results showed that Anopheles gambiae s.s was the predominant species in both larvae and adult samples in all the sample periods. Statistical analysis detected significant difference between larvae and adults specimens collected (c2 = 23.53, df =1, P<0.05). Similar result was obtained between sample periods and between species population (P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the ratio of distance to a house from a larval habitat to a distance to a livestock shed from larval habitat significantly and negatively correlated with the distribution and relative abundance of Anopheles gambiae larvae in all the sample periods ( r = - 0.52, P < 0.05; r = 0.61, P < 0.05; and r = 0.84, P < 0.05 for beginning of rainy season, late rainy season and dry season respectively) but positively correlated to the ratio of  human density to livestock density in a homestead. Distance from a house to the nearest larval habitat significantly and negatively correlated to Anopheles gambiae complex adults density in a house (r = - 0.46, P < 0.05). The result therefore showed that livestock and human host availability affect the distribution and relative abundance of anopheles larvae in aquatic habitat, but the distribution of anopheles adults in a house is determined by distance from a house to larval habitat.

[GADZAMA U. N., TOYOSI R. T., MADAKAN S. P. and ALI F. A. EFFECT OF LIVESTOCK, HUMAN HOST AND AQUATIC HABITAT DISTRIBUTION ON THE ABUNDANCE OF ANOPHELES GAMBIAE COMPLEX IN BORNO STATE ARID ZONE OF NIGERIA. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):71-77]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.14

 

Key words:  Hosts influence, habitat distribution, Anopheles gambiae   complex, species composition,

                      Anopheles adult abundance, home, arid zone.

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Rice Supply Response in Nigeria; whither changing Policies and Climate

 

A.O.S. Ayanwale, V.O Akinyosoye, S.A. Yusuf, A.O. Oni

 

Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

sayanwale@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Rice is a leading staple crop in Nigeria cultivated and consumed in all parts of the country. Its domestic supply therefore has a great implication for food security and self-sufficiency in the country. Against this background, this study examines the supply response of rice to price and non-price factors inclusive of policy and climate variables. The study was conducted on Nigerian national level data mined from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) rice statistics (1960-2008). The data was supplemented with rainfall data from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. An Error Correction Model in a cointegration framework was employed to test the responsiveness of supply to the factors considered. The study revealed that Rice supply in Nigeria is non-responsive to price, climate, importation and trade regulation policy. However area cultivated and fertilizer consumption significantly influences rice supply in Nigeria. To this end it was recommended that a reform of the land tenure system that increases rice farmers’ holdings as well as availability, affordability and adoption of improved input, such as fertilizer will go a long way in boosting rice supply in Nigeria.

[A.O.S. Ayanwale, V.O. Akinyosoye, S.A. Yusuf, A.O. Oni. Rice Supply Response in Nigeria; whither changing Policies and Climate. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):78-84]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). 15

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.15

 

Key Words: Rice, Supply Response, Policies, Climate

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A Study on Socio-Economic Conditions of a Schedule Caste Village in Lakhimpur District, Assam, India

 

Golok Chandra Dutta

 

Department of Education, North Lakhimpur College, North Lakhimpur, Assam, 787 031, India dutta.goloknlp@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This work has been carried out to study the socio-economic activities of the SC population of Bachagaon village of Lakhimpur district, Assam. This study will attempt to explore the unexplored uniqueness of the SC society through extensive surveys as no such studies on kaivarta people is available in Assam so far. During our survey, a multidisciplinary approach by adopting Rapid Appraisal Technique was uses in collecting information. The researcher feels that in order to improve the life style of this community and eradicating poverty and unemployment from their area, it is now very much essential that the government departments, NGO s, local populace be involved in rural development work and suitable technology for development of rural area infrastructure be made.  The key recommendations of this study are to take a more strategic approach to the socio-economic issues in the study area at project, regional and national levels.

[Golok Chandra Dutta. A Study on Socio-Economic Conditions of a Schedule Caste Village in Lakhimpur District, Assam, India. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):85-89]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.16

 

Key words: schedule caste; survey, income, household

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Determinants Of  Urban Charcoal Demand In Ogbomoso Metropolis

 

AJAO, A.O

 

Agricultural Economics Department, Ladoke Akintola Univeristy Of Technology, Ogbomoso

oaajao57@lautech.edu.ng

 

Abstract: The study analyzes urban households demand for charcoal within the context of overall household cooking fuel consumption, with specific objectives of estimating the respective proportion of expenditure of the main cooking fuel types in total fuel expenditure and describing the household and fuel characteristics which determine demand for charcoal in urban areas.  The study employed the use of cross-sectional data from urban households survey conducted on a sample of two hundred households from ten communities in the area. The data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics and Almost Ideal Demand System Model estimated by Ordinary Least Square Regression.  It was observed that educational level, household size, electrification status and assets significantly determined the charcoal demand in the study area.

[AJAO, A.O. Determinants Of  Urban Charcoal Demand In Ogbomoso Metropolis.World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):90-97]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.17

 

Kew word: charcoal, almost ideal demand system; fuel

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AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION AND POVERTY IN OYO STATE

 

Yusuf Sulaiman. A; Odutuyo  Omobolaji E. and Ashagidigbi Waheed .M

 

1,2,3 Department of Agricultural Economics University of Ibadan, Nigeria

ashagidigbi2000@yahoo.co.uk.  +2348062328579.

 

ABSTRACT: The study examined the linkage between agricultural intensification and poverty in Ido local government of Oyo state. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 100 respondents on socio-economic characteristics, land use intensity and expenditure pattern of rural farming households. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Probit and Tobit regression models. Most of the farmers cultivate less than 2 hectares and 86.1percent has intensity index of 0.71-1.0. Mean intensity index of 0.83 shows that continuous cropping with little fallow period is prevalent in the study area. Farm experience, marital status, farm size, household size and gender are factors influencing land use intensity. On the other hand, farm size, farm experience and household size are determinants of poverty status of farmers in the study area. However, land use intensity was found to be positively related to probability of farmers being poor.

[Yusuf Sulaiman.A; Odutuyo Omobolaji E. and Ashagidigbi Waheed. M. Agricultural Intensification and Poverty in Oyo State. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):98-106]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.18

 

Key words: Agricultural Intensification, Land use intensity, poverty, tobit regression

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Agricultural and Forestry Wastes and Opportunities for their use as an Energy Source in Nigeria- An Overview

 

John Taiwo Oladeji

 

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

jtoladeji@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The importance of agricultural residues for biomass energy generation cannot be overemphasized. This is because they are readily available and offer much potential for renewable energy sources in form of biomass. Furthermore, the energy generated through them is friendly to both human and ecology. Therefore, this paper examined uses of agricultural residues, their conversion routes and utilization systems. Various agricultural and forestry biomass convertible to energy products were identified. The paper highlighted the benefits to be derived from the use of agricultural and forestry residues as energy source in Nigeria. The paper suggested that all the techniques of conversion discussed could form an agricultural complex utilizing briquettes as a renewable energy source; using anaerobic digestion (biogas) to produce energy and fertilizer; composting for soil conditioner; pyrolysis to produce medium grade fuels and chemical preservatives and production of animal fodder through the process of pelletizing. The paper concluded that, finding practical and economic uses for the agricultural and forestry residues will create an opportunity to build a bioeconomy which will deliver sustainable economic growth with job creation and social cohesion as key outcomes.

[John Taiwo Oladeji. Agricultural and Forestry Wastes and Opportunities for their use as an Energy Source in Nigeria- An Overview. World Rural Observations 2011;3(4):107-112]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online). 19

doi:10.7537/marswro030411.19

 

Key-words:  Agricultural residues, biomass, energy, forestry wastes, conversion routes

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