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World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), Quarterly

Volume 4 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 12), June 25, 2012
 
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0402

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Quality of Ground Water for Irrigation of Tehsil Kot Adu, District Muzaffar Garh Punjab, Pakistan

 

Muhammad Bilal Khan1, Muhammad Yamin Khan1, Muhammad Iqbal Khan2and Muhammad Tahir Akbar1

 

1 Soil and Water Testing Laboratory Muzaffar Garh, Punjab Pakistan

2 Agriculture Extension Department Kot Adu Punjab, Pakistan

 bilalkhan_arid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Among different factors poor quality of tube well water is the major contributing factor towards the low yield of crops in Pakistan, as it is not fit for irrigation in most of the areas. This study was carried out to provide guidelines to farmers and researchers for better crop production by adopting water management practices. During October, 2010 a total of 315 water samples were collected in collaboration with Agriculture Extension Department from tube wells in tehsil Kot Adu, analyzed and categorized according to the suitability criteria of water quality evaluation. Out of 315 water samples 96(30%) water samples were fit, 25(8%) were marginally fit and 194(62%) were found unfit for irrigation purposes. Out of 194 unfit water samples, 146 unfit water samples (75%) had electrical conductivity higher than permissible limit (i.e. >1250 ÁS cm-1), 23 samples (12%) were found with high SAR (i.e. >10 (m mol L-1)0.5), and 25 samples (13%) had high RSC (i.e. >2.5 me L-1). Further, the analytical data indicated that most of the unfit water samples 146(75%) are unfit due to higher EC followed by EC+RSC 25(13%) and EC+SAR 23(12%). Almost all the area has highly saline water, which is affecting yield of various crops & soil health. Provision of necessary technical assistance to farming communities should be available to guide them at what depth they should extract fresh water instead of saline water. In severally affected areas bio-saline agriculture should be promoted to mitigate ill-effects of salinity hazardous. Cropping pattern should be fairly modified to produce those crops in sensitive areas which are water and salinity resistant.

[M.B Khan, M.Y Khan, M.I Khan and M.T Akbar. Quality of Ground Water for Irrigation of Tehsil Kot Adu, District Muzaffar Garh Punjab, Pakistan. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):1-6].

ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print);ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.01

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A Study on Job Satisfaction among educational preceptors in Guilan Province,during2009-2010

 

Solmaz Avarideh 1, Reza Moeini 2

 

1 Member of Faculty , Payam-e-Nour University, Iran

avarideh_soolmaz@yahoo.com

2 Seyed Reza Moeini, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch

Rezamoini43@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Current study is intended to study job satisfaction rate among (educational) preceptors in Guilan Province, to examine the relevant factors and offering some solutions to promote the job satisfaction among them and decrease their dissatisfaction. With regard to the objectives and purpose of this study for developing a basis and a theoretical frame, documentation and library research as well as survey methods were used in a manner that from among (educational) preceptors 78 persons were selected by means of Cochran Formula and non-probable share method. After selection, the questionnaire of the survey was distributed among the respondents on a random basis. Major findings of the research indicates that there is a significant relationship between variables including job satisfaction , received salary and benefits, alienation from the job, distributive justice and educational environment. Educational preceptors were satisfied with their salaries and benefits however they were demanding for distributive justice, provision of the conditions for creativity and innovation in job and fulfilling their job expectations. Paying attention to the requests of the preceptors and improving physical condition of their job environment could be also effective factors in their job satisfaction.

[Solmaz Avarideh. A Study on Job Satisfaction among educational preceptors in Guilan Province, during 2009-2010. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):7-12]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.02

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Vocational Efficiency and Academic Achievement of Rural, Urban and Semi-urban Secondary School Students

 

Dr. Kounsar Jan

 

Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, India

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out to find out the vocational efficiency and academic achievement of rural, urban and semi-urban secondary school student. A sample of 720 student was drawn randomly from Govt. High and Higher Secondary Schools. The age of the subjects was 16-18 years. Data was collected with the help of DR. (Mrs) Manju Mehta vocational attitude maturity scale. Mean, S.D. and test of significance were calculated to find out the differences between the mean scores of rural, urban and semi-urban students on vocational efficiency. The results revealed that rural urban and semi-urban students have shown almost same attitude towards vocational efficiency.

[Kounsar Jan. Vocational Efficiency and Academic Achievement of Rural, Urban and Semi-urban Secondary School Students. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):13-18]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.03

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Effect of air pollutants on leaves of pigeon pea, a pulse crop of Fabaceae growing in the vicinity of a silicon industry

 

Dr. Meerabai G1., Venkata Ramana C2 and Rasheed M3.

 

1. Teaching Associate, Department of Botany, Rayalaseema University, Kurnool, 518002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2. Assistant professor, Dept.of Botany, S.B.S.Y.M. Degree College, Kurnool, 518002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

3. Jr.Lecturer, Dept.of Botany, K.V.R.Govt.Junior College (Urdu), Kurnool, 518002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

guddetimeerabai@gmail.com; Mobile: 9989325288

 

Abstract: In urban areas, the crops are undergoing to a serious environmental stress causing by the air pollutants. Leaf is an absorptive part for pollutants. The physical and anatomical characteristics of leaves such as leaf size, leaflet size, size of epidermal cells, number of trichomes, stomata number, size, density, frequency and index are directly influenced by the air pollutants since the stomata and surface contact are the gateways for entry of pollutants into the mesophyll cells. Thus, the study is aimed on leaf characters of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), a pulse yielding crop of Andhra Pradesh, India growing in the vicinity of a silicon industry and compared with the leaf characters of the species growing at a nearby village. The study revealed slight decrease in size of leaf and leaflet, trichomes frequency, size of the epidermal cells, height of the palisade parenchyma, diameter of the spongy parenchyma, size of stomata in upper epidermis, density of stomata in lower epidermis, stomata frequency in upper epidermis and stomatal index on both sides. But the modifications continued till the maturity of plant and have shown resistance to industrial pollutants.

[Meerabai G, Venkata Ramana C and Rasheed M. Effect of air pollutants on leaves of pigeon pea, a pulse crop of Fabaceae growing in the vicinity of a silicon industry. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):19-21]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.04

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Effect Of Rural Roads And Marketing Infrastructure On Income Of Farming Households In Osun State - Implications For Sustainable Development

 

*Olagunju, F.I, **Ayinde, O., **Adewumi, M.O. And **Adesiji, G.B.

 

*Department Of Agricultural Economics, Ladoke Akintola University Of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State

** Department Of Agricultural Economics And Farm Management, University Of Ilorin, Ilorin.

**Department Of Agricultural Extension And Rural Development, University Of Ilorin, Ilorin.

Correspondence E - Mail- olagfunk@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Technological development practices that enhance and support entrepreneurship are essential because they cultivate innovation which, in turn, creates new jobs, new wealth, a better quality of life and sustainable development. The downward trend in Osun rural smallholder farmer’s income highlights the need to examine the effect of road and market infrastructure on their income. Specifically, the study proceeded to identify the socio-economic characteristics of the rural farmers, identify other various rural services infrastructure available to the respondents, examine the effect of road condition and market infrastructure on the income made by farmers. A multistage random sampling was used to select 260 respondents from the study area. Questionnaire and interview schedule were used to collect data from the respondents. The analytical techniques used are descriptive statistics, regression analysis, ANOVA and T-test. The result revealed that a high percentage of the respondents are married (81.5%) and male (90.0%) respectively. 75.0% of the respondents are of the opinion that transportation cost affect income, 55.0% and 53.3% affirm that market infrastructures have effect on farmers’ produce and income respectively. It also showed that most essential infrastructures such as pipe borne water, electricity, bank, market stalls, are lacking in the study area. Those present are in fair condition and the annual income are being affected by distance from market, condition of road from the farm to the market, other occupation and availability of tarred road based on the findings from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). From the paired t-test, availability/non availability of tarred road, condition of road leading to the market, occupation and distance from the market significantly (at 1%) affect the annual income positively/negatively. The implication of this study is that policy should address farmers’ access to rural market services, which are sometimes in bundles, and the role of locating services in centers is pertinent as it stimulates agricultural and rural development.

[Olagunju, F.I, Ayinde, O, Adewumi, M.O And Adesiji, G.B. Effect Of Rural Roads And Marketing Infrastructure On Income Of Farming Households In Osun State - Implications For Sustainable Development. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):22-30]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.05

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Minerals Status of Growing Friesian Calves Fed Different Levels of Poultry Litter

 

H.M.A. Gaafar, A.M.A. El-Sharkawy, K.F.A. El-Riedy, M.E. El-Gendy and R.M. Abou-Aiana

 

Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

hamedgaafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Eighteen male Friesian calves six months of age and averaging 175 kg body weight were used to study the effect of feeding rations containing different levels of poultry litter and corn silage on mineral balance and concentration in hair, blood and seminal plasma and body tissues. The experiment period lasted 6 months and metabolism trial conducted at the fifth month of experiment. Calves were divided into three similar groups assigned randomly to fed on three experimental rations as follows (on DM basis): R1: 12.5% poultry litter + 12.5% ground corn grain + 75.0% corn silage. R2: 25.0% poultry litter + 25.0% ground corn grain + 50.0% corn silage. R3: 37.5% poultry litter + 37.5% ground corn grain + 25.0% corn silage. The results showed that the contents of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co) in poultry litter were higher compared with corn grain and corn silage. The contents of Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Co in the experimental rations increased with the increasing level of poultry litter and decreasing the level of corn silage. The intake, excretion in feces and urine, apparent absorption and retention of Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Co (g or mg/ day) increased significantly (P<0.05) with the increasing level of poultry litter and decreasing the level of corn silage. The concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Co in hair, blood and seminal plasma of Friesian calves increased significantly (P<0.05) with the increasing level of poultry litter and decreasing the level of corn silage in the rations. Also, the contents of Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Co in liver, kidneys, testis and muscle of Friesian calves increased significantly (P<0.05) with the increasing level of poultry litter and decreasing the level of corn silage in the rations.

[H.M.A. Gaafar, A.M.A. El-Sharkawy, K.F.A. El-Riedy, M.E. El-Gendy and R.M. Abou-Aiana. Minerals Status of Growing Friesian Calves Fed Different Levels of Poultry Litter. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):31-37]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.06

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Determinants of Child Mortality in Rural Nigeria

 

Abimbola O., Adepoju*, Akanni O.* and Falusi A.O.*

 

* Department of Agricultural Economics,University of Ibadan,Oyo State, Nigeria

adepoju.abimbola6@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study examined the determinants of child mortality in rural Nigeria employing the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data. Data were analyzed using Descriptive Statistics and the Logit regression model. The result of analysis showed that while the average age of the respondents at first birth is 19 years, more than half of them had no formal education and about three-fifths had less than 24 months birth interval. Secondary and higher education of mother, age of mother at first birth, place of delivery, type of birth, child ever breastfed, sex of child, were among the significant factors influencing child mortality in rural Nigeria. Hence, maternal education, access to adequate health care (especially for pregnant women and children under five years) and increased awareness of benefits of breastfeeding were identified as the key factors to reducing child mortality in rural Nigeria.

[Adepoju AO, Akanni O and Falusi AO. Determinants of Child Mortality in Rural Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):38-45]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.07

 

Keywords: determinants; child mortality; rural Nigeria; logit model.

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FARMERS’ PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

 

1Adesiji G.B, 1Matanmi B.M, 2Onikoyi M.P and 1Saka M.A

 

1Department of Agricultural Extension & Rural Development, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria, 2ARMTI, Ilorin, Nigeria

E-mail: drgbolaadesiji@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper highlights some indigenous mitigation and adaptation strategies that have been practiced by farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Random sampling technique was used to select 176 respondents from 8 villages under the four agricultural zone of the Kwara State Agricultural Development Programme. Data were collected through scheduled interviews and results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-Square. Findings showed that majority (70.45%) of the respondents was male, 71.59% were married, the mean age of the farmers was 46years, and 87.5% were educated while 72.15% of them had not less than 14 years of farming experience. The study revealed that majority source their information through family/friends, while 93.18% were of the opinion that the environment and the climate in particular are changing due to diverse human activities. It was also found that majority (82.95%) of the respondents indicated that climate change has led to various forms of crop infestations thereby reducing the quality and quantity of crops produced and increased cost of food crops as opined by 77.84% of respondents. In adapting to climate change, findings showed that majority (72.16%) of the respondents cultivates different/varieties of crops. The result further revealed that there is significant relationship between the personal characteristics of the farmers and their level of awareness (X2cal 440.599 > the X2Tab 41.34), climatic change has significant effect on arable crop production in the study area ( X2cal 182.362 > X2Tab 67.50) and there is significant relationship between the farmers perception and coping mechanism used during climate change ( X2cal 212.597 > X2Tab (14.07). Government and development agencies concerned with the issue of climate change should sensitize farmers on the reality of climate change, their impacts, its consequences on food crop production and modern adaptation measures.

[Adesiji G.B, Matanmi B.M, Onikoyi M.P and Saka M.A. FARMERS’ PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):46-54]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.08

 

Keywords: Farmers, weather, climate, climate change and perception

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Evalution of AquaCrop model application in irrigation management of Cotton

 

Moloud Heidariniya 1, Abd Ali Naseri 2, Saeed Boroumandnasab3, Borhan Sohrabi Moshkabadi4, Ali Heidar Nasrolahi5

 

1 M.Sc (Irrigation and Drainage Engineering)

2 Department of Irrigation & Drainage, Water Sciences Engineering Facualty, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Department of Irrigation & Drainage, Water Sciences Engineering Facualty, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

4 Professor, Department of Irrigation & Drainage, Agriculture and Natural Resources Facualty, Gorgan University, Gorgan, Iran

5 Ph.D Student, Department of Irrigation & Drainage, Water Sciences Engineering Facualty, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

h_moloud@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agriculture is the most important factor of the world economy. So, water is the most necessary production factor. The maximum problem of Cotton agriculture is irrigation management in humid areas. If irrigation is applied earlier or with more than amount is needed, yield decrease is very much, especially in humid areas. In this project, The performance of AquaCrop model was tested for Cotton to decrease costly and long time field experiments. So, statistical indicators RMSE, AAD and R2 were calculated to evaluate model accuracy and deficit irrigation scenarios were assessed. The value of R2 is 0.7381 and 0.7638 for 2004 and 2005 respectively. Possible reasons for the discrepancies beween the simulated and measured results include simplifications in the model, inaccuracies in measurements and different varieties.Also, results show that stress increases yield before flowering.

[Nnadi FN, Nnadi C. Evalution of AquaCrop model application in irrigation management of Cotton. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):55-59]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.09

 

Key words: AquaCrop model, Cotton, statistical indicator

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Utilization of Potential of Melon Shells for Pyrolysis as Biomass Fuels

 

Oladeji, J.T.

 

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

jtoladeji@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In Nigeria, a lot of agricultural residues abound and these residues contain appreciable amount of biomass energy. In this work, investigations were carried out on properties of medium-grade fuels produced from melon shell. 1.0 kg sample of melon shell was fed into the retort, which was placed in the brick furnace and connected through a flange coupling to the condensate receiver. The condensate receiver was placed in an ice bath to enable quick condensation of the condensable product of the pyrolysis. The condensate receiver was connected to the gas chamber through the rubber hose that was made airtight by the use of jubilee clips. The gas collection chamber is made up of an outlet for the gas collection. About 1.5 kg pieces of firewood were packed closely around the retort and small quantity of kerosene was sprinkled on the fire wood to initiate ignition. The fire produced was used to generate the heat needed for the pyrolytic conversion of melon shell into biomass fuels. The firing lasted for about 30 minutes and the gas commenced to evolve. The valve was turned on and the incoming gas moved directly into the gas chamber where scrubbing took place. The experiment was terminated when production of the gas ended. Both the char in the retort and the condensate (tar oil/pyroligneous acid) in the condensate receiver were collected and weighed after the whole pyrolysis process had already cooled off. The pyrolytic conversion of melon shell yielded 36.56 % char, 34.44 % mixture of tar oil/ pyroligneous acid and 29.00 % pyrogas. Further chemical analysis revealed that the constituents of pyrogas were made up of 77.73 % carbon and 22.27 % hydrogen. Finally, the paper concluded that the quantity and products of pyrolysis depend on the type of the biomass feedstock used, its quality and operating conditions.

[Oladeji, J.T. Utilization of Potential of Melon Shells for Pyrolysis as Biomass Fuels. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):60-64]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.10

 

Key-words: Agro-residues, melon shell, pyrogas, pyroligneous acid, pyrolysis, tar oil

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Proximate Composition and Consumer Acceptability of Three Underutilised Fish Species and Tuna Frames

 

1Glover-Amengor M*., 1Ottah Atikpo, M.A., 1Abbey, L.D., 1Hagan L., 2Ayin J. and 3Toppe J.

 

1CSIR-Food Research Institute, P. O. Box M20, Accra, Ghana.

2Pioneer Food Cannery Ltd., Tema, Ghana.

3UN-Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome.

mayamen11@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Tuna frames obtained as factory remnants as well as three underutilized fish species, Flying Gurnard (Dactylopterus volitans), Woevi, or one-man-thousand, (Sierathrissa leonensis), and Anchovies (Anchoa guineensis); were mechanically dried, and milled. Proximate values of the fish samples were determined. The fish powders were then used to prepare four local dishes which were given to school children to test their acceptability. Proximate values showed the protein content of all fish species to be high. The results showed the potential of these underutilized fish species for food supplementation in children. In the acceptability tests, the pupils rated the foods high on the Hedonic scale. All the foods were accepted by the children, in particular banku with Anchovies and okro stew, rice with Tuna Frames stew and rice with Flying Gurnard stew.

[Glover-Amengor M., Ottah Atikpo, M.A., Abbey, L.D., Hagan L., Ayin J. and Toppe J. Proximate Composition and Consumer Acceptability of Three Underutilised Fish Species and Tuna Frames. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):65-70]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.11

 

Keywords: proximate composition; underutilized fish species; tuna frames; consumer acceptability

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Detection of Transboundary Animal Diseases using Participatory Disease Surveillance in Plateau State, Nigeria.

 

Mwapu Dika Ndahi1, Ayi Vandi Kwaghe1, Joy Gararawa Usman2, Samuel Anzaku 1, Alim Bulus3, Jude Angbashim4

 

1. Livestock Department and Pest Control Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Area 11, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.

2. National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau state, Nigeria.

3. No 5, Miango Road, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria.

4. Hugiaino Veterinary Centre, Dadin Kowa, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria.

hyelni_vandi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Participatory Disease surveillance (PDS) has been used to produce more efficient and useful data in the prevention, treatment of diseases and improvement of veterinary services in the rural areas. PDS closes the gap between the veterinary public health disease investigators and the diverse livestock keepers. This study was conducted in 35 villages out of 6 local government areas of Plateau state in order to detect the Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs) that are present in the state. Various methods that were used in data collection were semi-structured interview with key informants, simple ranking, proportional pilling, pairwise ranking, matrix scoring, seasonal calendar, mapping and transect walk. In poultry, Newcastle Disease (ND) proved to be the most important disease of poultry found in the study area and is also a transboundary animal disease. The transboundary animal disease of sheep and goats in this area is Peste de Petit Ruminant (PPR) which happens to be the most important disease of sheep and goats in Plateau state. The TADs of cattle in this area include Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Lumpy Skin Disease. The most important disease of cattle in this area is FMD. In pigs and dogs, the most important diseases which are also TADs in this study area are African Swine Fever (ASF) and Rabies respectively. Challenges faced by the farmers in these villages include; diseases, difficulty in getting access to veterinary services, drought during dry season, and predation of chicks by hawks. This study has indicated the presence of numerous transboundary animal diseases in Plateau state and hence the need to address the issue in order to control the entry and spread of the disease in the area.

[Ndahi MD, Kwaghe AV, Usman JG, Anzaku S , Bulus A, Angbashim J. Detection of Transboundary Animal Diseases using Participatory Disease Surveillance in Plateau State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):71-77]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.12

 

Key Words: Transboundary Animal Diseases, Participatory Disease Surveillance, simple ranking, proportional pilling, matrix scoring, pairwise ranking, seasonal calendar, transect walk and mapping.

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Consumer acceptability of wheat/cassava composite bread.

 

Komlaga G. A, Glover-Amengor, M, Dziedzoave, N.T., Hagan, L.L.

 

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Food Research Institute, P. O. Box M20, Accra, Ghana

gkomlaga@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Bread is traditionally made from common wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour dough that is cultured with yeast, allowed to rise, and finally baked in an oven, but in some cuisines breads are steamed and fried. The possibility of using flours derived from roots and other food resources for producing bread has not been extensively explored, although there are a number of root crops that are of economic importance all the world over from which flours are made for various uses. Producing composite bread from flours from such root crops such as cassava will boost its uptake since the consumption of bread is rising in Ghana and other sub-Saharan African countries where large volumes of cassava are cultivated. In this study, composite bread was prepared with High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) and wheat flour in the ratio of 1:4 (20% HQCF) and served with either tea, cocoa drink, koko (local porridge) or Tom Brown (brown porridge) to 1,497 senior high school students from 8 senior high schools in the Volta and Greater Accra regions of Ghana to test their acceptability. The results showed that the students rated the bread high on the nine point Hedonic scale, particularly those in single sex schools. The bread was generally accepted by the students and the students were ready to take the composite bread as part of their breakfast menu. The result is good for the cassava industry in Ghana since stakeholders of the industry in Ghana and the nation on the whole has a lot to gain if the composite bread is consumed by Ghanaians.

[Komlaga G. A, Glover-Amengor, M, Dziedzoave, N.T., Hagan, L.L. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):78-81]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.13

 

Key words: Composite Bread, High Quality Cassava flour, Consumer acceptability, Wheat flour.

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Comparison of infiltration parameters obtained from revised and original USDA-NRCS method with the field measurements

 

Mostafa Ghahremannejad1, Saeed Boroomandnasab1, Abd Ali Naseri1, Ali Sheini Dashtegol2

 

1Department of Irrigation & Drainage, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

2Sugarcane Research and Training Development, Khuzestan, Iran

m.gahraman@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Infiltration is perhaps the most crucial process affecting surface irrigation uniformity and efficiency as it is the mechanism that transfers and distributes water from the surface to the soil profile. It is essential to gage or predict the rate of infiltration in order to estimate the amount of water entering the soil and its distribution. In the absence of localized field data the USDA–NRCS intake families have often provided sufficient information for preliminary design, evaluation, or management of surface irrigation systems. Revised USDA-NRCS method used to adapting the parameters to new hydraulic conditions. This paper will evaluate Revised and original USDA-NRCS methods in Amirkabir sugar cane furrow irrigation systems. For this purpose the cumulative 6 hours infiltration (Z) estimated with two methods of original USDA-NRCS and revised USDA- NRCS, then compared with field measurement of Z. For evaluation of the results, four statistical indicators: average prediction error of model (Er), distribution into 45░ line (λ), regression coefficient (R2) and average absolute error of model (Ea) were used. According to the results, revised USDA- NRCS method with average values of λ, R2, Er and Ea respectively 1.45, %80, %45 and %45, overestimated the value of Z. but when for revised USDA-NRCS method used the border irrigation equations, this method with average values of λ, R2, Er and Ea respectively 0.95, %84, %5 and %5.4 has the best predict of Z.

[Ghahremannejad M, Boroomandnasab S, Naseri AA. Sheini Dashdegol A. Comparison of infiltration parameters obtained from revised and original USDA-NRCS method with the field measurements. World Rural Observ 2012;4(2):82-89]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 14

doi:10.7537/marswro040212.14

 

Key words: Infiltration parameters, Revised USDA-NRCS method, Original USDA- NRCS method, field measurement

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The above manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from April 29, 2012. 
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