Science Journal

 

 
World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online)

Volume 4 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 12), September 25, 2012
 
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0403

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Efficiency Differential of Government and Non Government Assisted Rice Farms: A Case Study of Kwara State, Nigeria.

 

 Ayinde, O.E., Akanbi, O. E. and Omotesho, O.A.

Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, University of Ilorin, P.M.B.1515, Ilorin, Nigeria.

opeayinde@yahoo.com ; opeayinde@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study analysis the technical efficiency differential of government and non government assisted rice farms in the Duku River Basin of Patigi Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. It also identified the socio-econmic factors, which affect the efficiency. The Net Farm Income per hectare of land cultivated was calculated as profitable for the two farm sites. The project site, with gross margin of N9, 376.35 is more profitable when compared to the non-project site with a gross margin of N29, 515.35. The rate of returns to rice production at the project and non-project sites was estimated at 93.3% respectively, which indicated that for every N1 invested in each of the sites N0.93k and N0.31 was expected as profit respectively. These technical efficiencies were estimated using the Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Frontier Production Function. The result indicates that technical inefficiency is present and is a mean function of farming specific variables. The mean Technical efficiency of the projects sites (Rice Farm) is estimated as 0.98 while that of non-project site is 0.80. There was a significant difference between the mean T.E. for the two farms. The higher efficiency estimate obtained for the rice farms at the project site can be attributed to the government assistance to the farmers in the form of input/output linkages. It is therefore justifies institutional support and that all kinds of institutional support should be encourage if rice production are to be improved in the study areas.

[Ayinde OE, Akanbi OE, Omotesho OA. Efficiency Differential of Government and Non Government Assisted Rice Farms: A Case Study of Kwara State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2012;4(3):1-13]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1

doi:10.7537/marswro040312.01

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Assessment of the Performance of Condensation Irrigation System: First Results

 

Bagher Yousefi 1, Saeed Boroomandnasab 1, M. Thameur Chaibi 2

 

1 Irrigation and drainage Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Rural Engineering, Pan African University, Tunis, Tunisia

bagher.yousefi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Condensation Irrigation (CI) is a combination of desalination and irrigation and/ or drinking water production, simultaneously. With the evaporation of saline water in solar still and transferring of humidified air into the system of underground pipe, fresh water will condense on the inner the pipe surface as the air is cooled by the ground. By using drainage pipes in the ground for transportation of humidified air due to existence of perforations in the pipe, it enables the condensation water to percolate into the soil. In this study of CI, the goal was to obtain drinking water which was produced by using buried common pipes. Condensed water was collected at the end of the pipe and used for drinking. Observations and calculations result in a mean water production capacity of 4 liters for 8 hours over a 25m long pipe in a diurnally system.

[Yousefi B, Boroomandnasab S, Chaibi MT. Assessment of the Performance of Condensation Irrigation System: First Results. World Rural Observ 2012;4(3):14-17]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2

doi:10.7537/marswro040312.02

 

Key words: desalination; condensation Irrigation; drinking water; humid air

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Causal Analysis of Environmental Behavior of Egyptian Farmers

 

Mokhtar Abd-Ella *, Rateb Souma** and Mohammed Ebad-Allah*

 

(*) Rural Sociology Department, Faculty of Agriculture-Tanta University, Tanta, 31527, Egypt.

(**) Rural Sociology Department, Faculty of Agriculture- Kafr El-Sheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh, 33516, Egypt

Mokhtar.abdella@agr.tanta.edu.eg rateb.sawmaa@agr.kfs.edu.eg Mohammed.ebadallah@agr.tanta.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Human environmental behavior is a result of human-environment interaction. This interaction faces a wide variety of environmental problems. Solving these problems require understanding the environmental behavior. Our study aimed to develop and test a causal model of environmental behavior of Egyptian farmers. Data were collected from a cluster sample of 310 male land holders in Kafr El-Shiekh Governorate through personal interviews. Results showed that the three variables of level of living, mass media exposure, and environmental attitude had significant direct causal effects on environmental behavior. The suggested model may provide usefulness in explaining the environmental behavior of Egyptian farmers in Kafr EL-Shiekh Governorate.

[Mokhtar Abd-Ella, Rateb Souma and Mohammed Ebad-Allah. Causal Analysis of Environmental Behavior of Egyptian Farmers. World Rural Observ 2012;4(3):18-26]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3

doi:10.7537/marswro040312.03

 

Key Words: Human Environmental Behavior, Causal Model, Egyptian Farmers, Egypt.

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Utilization of Satellite Imagery for Drought Monitoring in Egypt

 

Abdrabbo M. A.; A.A. Farag; M. Abul-Soud; Manal M.H. Gad El-Mola; Fatma S. Moursy; I. I. Sadek; F. A. Hashem; M. O. Taqi; W.M.S. El-Desoky and H.H. Shawki

 

Central laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agricultural Research Centre, Giza- Egypt

Fadl_hashem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Terrestrial water storage (TWS) consists of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, and wet biomass. Drought may be defined as a period of abnormally dry weather long enough to cause significant deficits in one or more of the TWS components. Thus, along with observations of the agricultural socioeconomic impacts, measurements of TWS and its components enable quantification of drought severity. Current remote sensing instruments are able to detect variations in one or more Terrestrial water storage (TWS) variables, including the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) on NASA's Aqua satellite and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra and Aqua. Their dynamic character challenges our ability in planning, monitoring, and providing relief to the affected areas. Meanwhile, the spatial and temporal variability and multiple impacts of droughts, the tools and data available for mapping and monitoring this phenomenon on all scales should be improved. The collected images on a scale of 1:1000000 were collected twice monthly (every 15 days) during the winter cultivation season in Egypt from November to April for all over the Egyptian governorates within the time series from 2001 to 2010. These types of satellite images (Modies) are using to determine the Vegetation Health Index (VHI) that have been utilized in calculation the drought rates. The aims of this study were detecting of drought-related vegetation stress and estimation of drought parameters, from 2001 to 2010, all over Egyptian governorates, during the winter season. Detecting of drought-related vegetation stress was done from 2001/2002 to 2009/2010 seasons respectively all over Egyptian territory during the winter season. Coastal areas mainly depend on winter annual rainfall. The results of the monitoring drought during 9 winter seasons showed that, Northern Coastal zone was the highest affected area by drought in Egypt, and supplementary irrigation needed for improve the drought status, during winter season especially in the months December, January and February to improve the winter crops productivity and enhance the food security. Furthermore, In 2009/2010 season had the longest drought period; while 2006/2007 season considered the lowest drought status season.

[Abdrabbo M. A.; A.A. Farag; M. Abul-Soud; Manal M.H. Gad El-Mola; Fatma S. Moursy; I. I. Sadek; F. A. Hashem; M. O. Taqi; W.M.S. El-Desoky and H.H. Shawki. Utilization of Satellite Imagery for Drought Monitoring in Egypt. World Rural Observ 2012;4(3):27-37]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4

doi:10.7537/marswro040312.04

 

Keywords: remote sensing- satellite images- drought- Vegetation Health Index (VHI).

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[World Rural Observ 2012;4(3):38-45]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5

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Weighting of infiltration parameters in the furrow irrigation

 

Haghnazari, F.1, Boroomand-Nasab, S.1, Naseri, A.1, sheinidashtegol, A.2

 

1Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran

2Employee of the Irrigation and Drainage Sugarcane Research And Training Development and By-Products Khuzestan, Iran.

Farzad.nazari.85@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The most important physical characteristic of the agricultural soil is infiltration. Infiltration depth in each functional area of wetted perimeter, the final infiltration rate and permeability properties of the soil is an opportunity time to influence and change each of these parameters will influence variations. In this study for survey effects of wetted perimeter, the final infiltration rate and the opportunity time to influence the amount of infiltration in a furrow irrigation during the crop season and infiltration tests for sugarcane crop during the growing season for four irrigated farm inflow to the outflow method ARC-2 agro units located in 50 km south of Ahwaz Amirkabir done. To evaluate the effect on these parameters infiltration the amount of branching equation Kostiakov - Lewis was used. The spatial and seasonal variations wetted perimeter, the final infiltration rate, cumulative infiltration and infiltration coefficient b in the equation was calculated to determine variations in the furrows. The results indicated is spatial and seasonal final infiltration rate variation in during the furrow is Aligns the cumulative infiltration of spatial and temporal variations are significant at 5% significance level. The spatial and seasonal variations wetted perimeter with spatial and seasonal variations the amount cumulative infiltration that not aligns Being a non-aligns of the impact of two wetted perimeter reduces the amount of cumulative infiltration. Also spatial and seasonal coefficient b variations a have decrease been a in the 5% significance level means is significant. Reduce of this coefficient of the amount wetted perimeter that impact on the cumulative amount reduces. Also The three parameters to determine the effect of wetted perimeter, opportunity time and final infiltration rate of the cumulative infiltration of the Levine test is used, this test was significant at the 5% significance level and its impact factors for the parameters in wetted perimeter, final infiltration rate and opportunity time the respectively 0.17 and 0.72 and 0.474 is a parameter that indicates that have the greatest impact on the amount cumulative infiltration is final infiltration rate.

[Haghnazari, F., Boroomand-Nasab, S., Naseri, A., sheinidashtegol, A. Weighting of infiltration parameters in the furrow irrigation World Rural Observ 2012;4(3):46-56]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6

doi:10.7537/marswro040312.06

 

Keywords: Furrow Irrigation, Infiltration rate, Infiltration Variation, Cumulative Infiltration.

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EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF EMBELICA OFFICINALIS ON MUSHROOM NUTRACEUTICALS

 

Poonam Dehariya and Deepak Vyas

 

Lab of Microbial Technology and Plant Pathology, Department of Botany, Dr HS Gour University, Sagar (MP)

poonam.dehariya@yahoo.com; dvyas64@yahoo.co.in

 

ABSTRACT: In present scenario malnutrition is a biggest problem of India.Increasing population and non judicial uses of natural resources have geat concern. Present study deals with the production of nutraceuticals from mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer) grown on different substrates and enhancement in these nutraceuticals by supplementation of Embelica officinalis. Results reveals that among all the used substrates viz. soybean straw, wheat straw, paddy straw, sunflower stalks, sugarcane bagasses and maize stalks, soybean straw was proved best in terms of nutraceuticals and there was increase in nutritive as well as mineral contents after supplementation. Thus Embelical officinalis should preferred for the supplementation of Pleurotus sajor-caju.

[Poonam Dehariya and Deepak Vyas. EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF EMBELICA OFFICINALIS ON MUSHROOM NUTRACEUTICALS. World Rural Observ 2012;4(3):66-70]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8

doi:10.7537/marswro040312.08

 

Key words: Nutraceutical, Mushroom, Substrates, Supplementation, nutrition.

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Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) for mapping agricultural land use in Muyongwe sector, Gakenke district, Northern province, Rwanda

 

Alphonse Nahayo 1, Gaetan Niyirora 1

1 Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (ISAE)

 Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, P.O. Box 210 Musanze, Rwanda

 Nahayalfa@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to apply Geographic Information System (GIS) to map agricultural land use. The study was conducted in Muyongwe Sector of Gakenke district in Rwanda from October to November 2011 where agricultural land use management practices are not well applied. This has the negative impact on farmer’s income and the environment. The study provides information on how land should be adequately used for agriculture in order to increase farmer’s income. Global Positioning System (GPS) and Slope triangle were used to collect data and Arc map GIS 9.2 software was used for data analysis. Results showed that agriculture land use types in Muyongwe sector are cropland and forestland. The cropland occupies 83.83% of sector’s area and forestland occupies 16.17%. The monoculture in cropland was mainly observed in valleys with a range of 16.09% of the sector area. The mixed-farming system was frequently observed in the areas not considered as valleys where there is no technical assistance to farmers. The agroforestry trees are not abundant except the presence of Grevillea robusta trees in few places. A small part of forests (43.92%) is located on the land suitable to crops. Concerning the agricultural land suitability, Muyongwe sector has a big area suitable to crops (68.99%) and another suitable to forests (31.01%). Farmers are advised to expand their activities in the valleys where larger free space not occupied by houses is available and the removal of forests from the suitable agricultural land to hilly environment. [Nahayo A, Niyirora G. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) for mapping agricultural land use in Muyongwe sector, Gakenke district, Northern Province, Rwanda. World Rural Observ 2012;4(3):71-75]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9

doi:10.7537/marswro040312.09

 

Key words: Geographic Information System (GIS), Agricultural land use, Gakenke district, Rwanda

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Prevalence of ochratoxin in small and large scale produced roomy cheese in Sharkia Governorate

 

Awad, E.I. 1Abdelfattah M. E. 2, Abdelkaliek, A.A.2 and El-diasty, E.M. 3

 

1Food control department, Faculty of Vet .Med. Zagazig University, Egypt

2 Food Hygiene Unit and 3Mycology Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki – Giza –Egypt

Emanhoda2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A total of 40 random samples of roomy cheese (20 each of small and large scale production) were collected from different supermarkets in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. The samples were subjected to quantitative detection of Ochratoxin A by immunoaffinity column method after extraction of ochratoxin A and reading by VICAM fluorometer. Out of examined 20 small scale manufactured roomy cheese samples, 12 (60%) were contaminated by ochratoxin A, the minimum detected level was 2.0 ppb, the maximum was 7.0 ppb and the mean value was 3.67 0.22 ppb while only 6 (30%) out of examined large scale manufactured roomy cheese samples were contaminated by ochratoxin A. The level of contamination detected ranged from 2.0 ppb to 5.0 ppb with a mean value of 3.92 0.30 ppb. All positive samples are more than the permissible limits, according to United States standard, European commission limits and Egyptian limits (Permissible Limit Nil).While according to limit established by JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) all positive samples (18) below the permissible limit (10ng/g). The results indicated that large scale produced roomy cheese had low incidence of ochratoxin A. This may be due to vacuum packaging, products are kept at refrigeration temperature, and good hygiene practice during ripening process.

[Awad, E.I. Abdelfattah M. E. , Abdelkaliek, A.A. and El-diasty, E.M. Prevalence of ochratoxin in small and large scale produced roomy cheese in Sharkia Governorate. World Rural Observ 2012;4(3):76-80]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10

doi:10.7537/marswro040312.10

 

Key words: roomy cheese, ochratoxin A,VICAM fluorometer.

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The above manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from 5/10/2012. 

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