Science Journal

 

 
World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online); Quarterly

Volume 5 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 15), March 25, 2013
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0501

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Contents:

No.

Title/Authors/Abstract

Full Text

No.

1

Empowerment of rural women: recommendations for developing countries

 

Maryam Khodamoradi, Esmaeel Ghorbani, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Abbas Emami

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: However rural women play major role to produce food at all over the world, but rarely enjoy of extension services. Wherever, rural women as producers of food productions and family supervisor, have little contact with extension services organizations, so their problems and needs would reflect at extensional information feedback, rarely. Therefore agricultural research institutions wouldn’t be able to create and develop technology, suitable for their needs. Global surveys show that about 5% of total extension resources, at all over the world dedicated to programs for female farmers, but women form just 15% of extension personnel of world. Some extensional issues that traditionally belong to women, such as economy of family, are supported very little that receive just about 1% of total extension resources of agriculture.

[Maryam Khodamoradi, Esmaeel Ghorbani, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Abbas Emami. Empowerment of rural women: recommendations for developing countries. World Rural Observ 2013;5(1):1-5]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.01

 

Keywords: empowerment, rural women, developing countries

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2

An Evaluative Study Of Anganwadi Centers In Educational Zone Sopore District Baramullah-Kashmir

 

Aasia Maqbool

 

Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, J&K (India)

E-mail: shahrufeedah@gmail.com

 

Abstract : The present study was under taken to find out the number of angawadi centre, to study the enrollment on the basis of sex in the angawadi centers, to study the meals provided to the children in the angawadi centers- functioning in Educational Zone Sopore district Baramullah (Kashmir). The data for the present study has been collected with the help of information blank and on the basis of survey; the data was statistically analyzed on the basis of percentage. The study revealed that there are 210 angawadi centers on papers but functioning were only 208, there were 2373 boys and 2128 girls enrolled in these centers. Meals were provided to the children as per age from 6 months -1 year Dhaliya and biscuits, 2-3 years chana pulaw, matter pulaw and halwa, 3-6 years chana pulaw, matter pulaw, halwa and moong rice khicdhi.

[Aasia Maqbool. An Evaluative Study Of Anganwadi Centers In Educational Zone Sopore District Baramullah-Kashmir. World Rural Observ 2013;5(1):6-12]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.02

 

Key words: Aganwadi centers, enrollment, meals provided.

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Perception Of Anganwadi Workers And Parents In Educational Zone Sopore District Baramullah (Kashmir): A Case Study

 

Aasia Maqbool

 

Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, J&K (India)

E-mail: shahrufeedah@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was under taken to find the perception of anganwadi workers towards pre-schooling of children in age group of 3-6 years, and to study the perception of parents towards the effectiveness of anganwadi scheme. The data for the present study has been collected with the help of interview schedule and on the basis of survey; the data was statistically analyzed on the basis of percentage. The study revealed that 59.64% anganwadi workers were in favor that the attendance in anganwadi centers helps in the motivation of children for formal schooling and development, 33.57% anganwadi workers were uncertain about this and 6.78% were opposite to this view. The study further revealed that 38.88% parents were in favor of effectiveness of this scheme, while 25.55% parents were uncertain and 34.44% parents were opposite to this.

[Aasia Maqbool. Perception Of Anganwadi Workers And Parents In Educational Zone Sopore District Baramullah (Kashmir): A Case Study. World Rural Observ 2013;5(1):13-18]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.03

 

Key Words; Anganwadi center, Anganwadi workers, Parents.

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4

Self-Concept And Academic-Achievement Of Government And Private Higher Secondary Students –District Baramulla Kashmir

 

 M.Y. Ganai and Aasia Maqbool

 

Associate Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, J&K (India)

Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, J&K (India)

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was investigate the self concept and academic achievement of government and private higher secondary students of district Baramulla, Kashmir. It was found that Government and private higher secondary students differ significantly on self concept dimensions and Government and private higher secondary students differ significantly on academic achievement.

[M.Y. Ganai and Aasia Maqbool. Self-Concept And Academic-Achievement Of Government And Private Higher Secondary Students –District Baramulla Kashmir. World Rural Observ 2013;5(1):19-21]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.04

 

Key words: Government, Private, Students, Self concept of students, Academic Achievement.

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5

Yield performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries.) quelet, cultivated on different agro-forest wastes in Nigeria

 

Jonathan SG1, Nwokolo VM1, Ekpo EN2

 

Mycology & Biotechnology unit, 1Department of Botany & Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria. 2Pathology Unit, Department of Forest Conservation & Protection. Forest Research Institute, Ibadan. Nigeria

gbolagadejonathan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Yield performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries.) quelet, were monitored on four agro-industrial wastes (coir fibre, oil palm waste, sawdust of Gmelina arborea and rice straw). The most abundant mineral element in P. pulmonarius was K (30.20mg/100g).This was obtained on rice straw at 10% concentration; while the least mineral element was Cu (0.006mg/100g). The highest values of Ca and Mg obtained were 3.90 and 2.67mg/100g respectively on sawdust and palm wastes. The values of Fe obtained, varies from 0.007 to 0.12mg/g at 10% and 40% of coir fibre. Manganese has values varying from 0.03mg/g for P. pulmonarius at 0% and 0.09mg/g at 40% RBL rice straw. Highest mean stipe length (6.680.49) was found in P. pulmonarius produced from rice straw while the least mean stipe length (4.082.16) was found on oil palm waste. The highest pileus diameter (7.08cm) was found on rice straw while the mean height obtained from the four substrates, were relatively close with values varying between 6.0 and 9.3cm. Rice straw produced the highest yield with total mean weight of 93.333.The implications of these observations are discussed.

[Jonathan SG, Nwokolo VM, Ekpo EN. Yield performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries.) quelet, cultivated on different agro-forest wastes in Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2013;5(1):22-30]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.05

 

Keywords: P.pulmonarius, fruitbodies, substrates, biological efficiency, food values.

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6

An Approach To The Erlang Loss System

 

Navneet Rohela1, Sachin Kr. Agrawal2, Mayank Pawar3

 

1,2Deptt. of Mathematics, Moradabad Institute of Technology, Moradabad, U.P., India

3Teerthankar Mahaveer University, Moradabad, U.P., India

navneetrohelambd@gmail.com, sachin269mit@gmail.com, anumayak@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A stochastic model is said to be insensitive if its stationary distribution depends on one or more of its constituent lifetime distributions only through the mean. In this paper we shall discuss insensitivity by presenting a detailed analysis of the canonical insensitive queueing model, by the Erlang loss system.

[Navneet Rohela, Sachin Kr. Agrawal, Mayank Pawar. An Approach To The Erlang Loss System. World Rural Observ 2013;5(1):31-33]. ISSN: 1944-6543. http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.06

 

Keywords: Markovian model, M/M/C/C Erlang Loss, Semi-Markov Process.

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7

Percived Effectiveness of Media Utilization Among Fadama Farmers in Osun State, Nigeria

 

Ayandiji, A. and Vera-Cruz, O.

 

Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Bowen University,Iwo

Osun State. Nigeria.

 banji22aug@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nigeria agriculture is faced with various problems which do not allow for rapid development. There exist lack of effective interaction between the researchers and the extension agents in the process of disseminating new findings in agriculture. Fadama farmers in Osun State were the target of this study. 10 Fadama User Association were randomly selected using a simple random sampling technique. Nine farmers from each group were selected. The result shows that there is a relationship between farmer’s sources of media utilization and their socio-economic characteristics. Also, sex, marital status, and land ownership arrangement were significant at (P-value = 0.05). The result also observed that low educational experience is witnessed in the study area. Sizable numbers of respondents’ utilised in varying degree the followings as means of communication: personal letter, demonstration methods, agricultural workshop, radio and television. It is recommended that more proper extension education and orientation aimed at addressing the use of these devices among the farmers to foster easy adoption and transfer of relevant information to them. Also, its usage and applicability for field practices should be taught during programmes.

[Ayandiji, A. and Vera-Cruz, O. Percived Effectiveness of Media Utilization Among Fadama Farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2013;5(1):34-41]. ISSN: 1944-6543. http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.07

 

Key words: Effectiveness; Media Utilization; Fadama Farmers

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8

Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Assessment of Waste Water from Selected Food Industries in Port Harcourt and Snail Shell Treatment Potentials

 

Stanley H.O, N.N. Odu and Ekoh P.E.

 

University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Tel: +2348035431710, E-mail: okehstanley@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Composite wastewater from 3 food industries (Pabod Breweries, Courdeau Catering Industry and Coca-cola bottling Company) were characterized microbiologically and physico-chemically before and after treatment using snail shell. The aim was to determine the microbial load and physico-chemical parameters of wastewater and also the effectiveness of snail shell in the treatment of the samples obtained. The samples were cultured on nutrient. Macconkey and Sabourad dextrose agar before and after treatment. Snail shells were collected from Choba market, Port Harcourt and washed properly. They were dried and grind to fine powder. Aseptic procedures were duly followed. For treatment, 5g, 15g, and 25g of ground snail shell were added to different test-tubes of wastewater samples of the same volume (20mls). The results of the parameters studied before and after treatment show a change in colour from cloudy to a colourless liquid. There was a reduction in the turbidity values which ranged from 423NTU to 158NTU, there was a reduction in the total solid and total suspended solid values from 16000mg/ml and 0.91mg/ml to 1320mg/ml and 0.61mg/ml respectively. There was an insignificant reduction in the total heterotrophic bacteria and fungi count from 13.7 x108cfu/ml to 7.7x108cfu/ml, 7.9x108cfu/ml and 7.1x108cfu/ml in response to the different masses of snail shell added. Some of the microorganisms identified includes, Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas species, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Yeast. The research shows that snail shell can be used to rid wastewaters of solids but cannot be used alone in the removal of microorganisms since some microorganisms also use it as source of nutrient.

[Stanley H.O, N.N. Odu and Ekoh P.E. Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Assessment of Waste Water from Selected Food Industries in Port Harcourt and Snail Shell Treatment Potentials. World Rural Observations, 2013; 5(1):42-46] (ISSN: 1553-9865) http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.08

 

Keywords: Wastewater, Food Industries, Culture Media, Treatment, Snail Shell.

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9

Bacterial Isolates from Calves Slaughtered at Abattoir Suffering from Respiratory Problems in Sharkia Governorate

 

Abd-El-Kaliek, A.A.1; Mokhtar, A. Selim1 and Medhat, K. Rizk1, 2

 

1Animal Health Research Institute Zagazig Provincial Laboratory*

2Animal Health Research Institute Mansoura Provincial Laboratory**.

ahmedabdelkaleik@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out on 300 samples from slaughtered calves (150 heart blood and 150 pieces pneumonic lungs), at different ages and different breed at Sharkia Governorate and subjected to bacteriological examination. Results showed that, 53.3% of blood samples were positive for bacterial examination as 81.2%, 18.8% harbour single and mixed isolates respectively, meanwhile 86.7% of lung samples were positive for bacterial isolation of which 78.5% single isolate and 21.5% mixed isolates. The total number of isolates were 210, of which 90 Pasteurella multocida type A (35 heart blood and 40 pneumonic lung and 15 mixed infection), 41 (5 heart blood and 22 lung tissue and 14 mixed infection), 79 Mannhaemia haemolytica type A species (25 heart blood, 40 lung and 14 mixed infection). Sensitivity test was carried out using different types of antibiotic most isolated bacteria were highly sensitive to Enerofloxacin, Tetracycillin and florofinicol. The total bacterial count of 10% of samples had count ranging from 10 – 108; while the most samples showed count 108-1011.

[Abd-El-Kaliek, A.A.; Mokhtar, A. Selim and Medhat, K. Rizk. Bacterial Isolates from Calves Slaughtered at Abattoir Suffering from Respiratory Problems in Sharkia Governorate. World Rural Observ 2013;5(1):47-51]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.09

 

Keyword: Bacterial Isolates, Calves, Abattoir, Respiratory Problems, Mannhaemia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida

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10

Prevalence of Intestinal Helminthes Infection among Primary School Children in Urban and Semi-Urban Areas in Rivers State, Nigeria

 

Odu NN1, Elechi VI2 and Okonko IO1

 

1. Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2. Microbiology Technology Unit, School of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; mac2finney@yahoo.com, Tel:+2348035380891

 

ABSTRACT: The prevalence and intensities of intestinal helminthes among school children were determined in urban and semi-urban communities in Rivers state, Nigeria. Stool samples were collected from 300 hundred consented children attending University Demonstration Nursery & Primary School (UDNPS), Choba and Community Primary School (CPS), Rumuolumeni. The stool samples were analyzed for helminthes eggs and larvae using standard methods. Other information was collected using a Performa specifically designed for this study. Results showed that Ascaris lumbricoides 27(57.4%) was the most predominant, followed by Trichuris trichuria [12(25.5%)] and hookworm [8(17.0%)] was the least prevalent. Location-specific prevalence showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in the acquisition of helminthes. Children from the semi-urban area (21.8%) had higher prevalence than their counterparts in the urban area (10.1%). Children who had stream (24.5%) and well (19.4%) as their sources of water had higher prevalence than their counterparts with bore-hole water (11.9%). Children who had pit (26.7%) as their type of toilet had higher prevalence than their counterparts with water closet (12.9%). Children whose parents were traders (20.9%) and farmers (18.0%) had a higher prevalence than their counterparts whose parents were civil servants (10.7%). However, ages and sexes of subjects showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the acquisition of helminthes in this study. This study has shown that intestinal helminthes are still highly prevalent among school-aged children in Nigeria. This information however will be very useful in the control strategy. Based on the result obtained, we would like to recommend routine examination of stool of all school children. However, further studies are therefore advocated.

[Odu NN, Elechi VI and Okonko IO. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminthes Infection among Primary School Children in Urban and Semi-Urban Areas in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2013;5(1):52-61]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.10

 

Keywords: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuria, Hookworm, Helminthes, Prevalence.

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11

Programs for empowering rural women in Iran

 

Saber Geraeili and Mohaddaseh Nazarpoor

 

Abadeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadeh, Iran

E-mail: sabergeraeili@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In micro-credits programs other than offering and distributing micro loans, there are also small savings and deposits so that they are designed as form of saving-credit programs. The existing term in phrase “micro-credits” points to two basic concepts that is due to dominant perspective on this approach. First term (i.e. credits) points to rural areas and lack of access for many villagers to formal resources that are one of their major problems. And at system of micro-credits, are tried to decrease poor families' access barriers to credit sources and also to increase effectiveness of these markets. Second term (i.e. micro) emphasize on deficiency of development, according to classic economist’s method. Emphasizing on concept of “micro” means revising recommendations of market economy at rural society's development.

[Saber Geraeili and Mohaddaseh Nazarpoor. Programs for empowering rural women in Iran. World Rural Observ 2013;5(1):62-66]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.11

 

Keywords: Empowerment, Rural Women, IRAN

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12

Improving financial situation of rural women through micro-credit in developing countries

 

Amirhossein Pirmoradi

 

Former Graduate Student (M. S), science and research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: amirhosseinpirmoradi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: women played critical and important role at agriculture and now at most countries, they form major workforce of this part. In spite of importance of women workforce at different systems of agriculture, they have fewer access to development resources, compare to men. although during past two decades, various programs has been performed to enable women at agriculture, but due to different problems, gained success was very fewer than required extent. agricultural research institutions wouldn’t be able to create and develop technology, suitable for their needs. Global surveys show that about 5% of total extension resources, at all over the world dedicated to programs for female farmers, but women form just 15% of extension personnel of world. Some extensional issues that traditionally belong to women, such as economy of family, are supported very little that receive just about 1% of total extension resources of agriculture. One of major problem in this filed is inadequate and inappropriate access to extensional services. Low efficiency of agriculture extension systems to provide services for rural women doesn't just refer to structure and function of these organizations and systems, but refer to other issues including research and cultural barriers in this field.

[Amirhossein Pirmoradi. Improving financial situation of rural women through micro-credit in developing countries. World Rural Observ 2013;5(1):67-71]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.12

 

Keywords: empowerment, rural women, financial support

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13

Attention to Indigenous Knowledge in rural

 

Mostafa Emami and Moslem Vezarati

 

Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

E-mail: moslemvezarati@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Imbalance population growth, non-sustainable efficiency of natural sources and unequal distribution of resources, goods and services made involved societies in confusing issues and impasses. In these countries, inappropriate sampling of abroad countries and inordinate imports (e.g. heterogeneous and non-indigenous technology ) devastated independent collection of micro local systems, and instead has established heterogeneous and dependent system to global economy system, that obviously couldn’t supply people’s needs. Since, this development process is formed without considering social, cultural and environmental consequents so isn’t continuing and human have to find strategies which can make development sustainable and humane Indigenous knowledge owners of world in current age (which known as information age) have valuable experiences from industry age and from inappropriate exploitation of their natural sources. These countries have learned that exporting produced goods is better than selling petroleum.

[Mostafa Emami and Moslem Vezarati. Attention to Indigenous Knowledge in rural. World Rural Observ 2013;5(1):72-75]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.13

 

Keywords: indigenous knowledge

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14

Participatory rural appraisal (PRA): New method for Rural Research

 

Moslem Vezarati and Mostafa Emami

 

Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

E-mail: moslemvezarati@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Promising potentials include farmers’ own farming systems research, alternatives to questionnaire surveys, monitoring, evaluation and lateral spread by local people, empowerment of the poorer and weaker, and policy review. Changes in personal behavior and attitudes, and in organizational cultures, are implied. PRA parallels and resonates with paradigm shifts in the social and natural sciences, business management, and development thinking, supporting decentralization, local diversity, and personal responsibility.Much of the spread of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) as an emerging family of approaches and methods has been lateral, South-South, through experiential learning and changes in behavior, with different local applications. Rapid spread has made quality assurance a concern, with dangers from “instant fashion”, rushing, formalism and ruts. Promising potentials include farmers’ own farming systems research, alternatives to questionnaire surveys, monitoring, evaluation and lateral spread by local people, empowerment of the poorer and weaker, and policy review.

[Moslem Vezarati and Mostafa Emami. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA): New method for Rural Research. World Rural Observ 2013;5(1):76-81]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 14

doi:10.7537/marswro050113.14

 

Keywords: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

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