Science Journal

 

 
World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online); Quarterly

Volume 5 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 16), June 25, 2013
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0502

 

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Contents:

No.

Title/Authors/Abstract

Full Text

No.

1

Empowerment of rural women in iran

 

Saber Geraeili and Mohaddaseh Nazarpoor

 

Abadeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadeh, Iran

E-mail: sabergeraeili@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rural women play a major role in the production of food all over the world, but rarely enjoy any extension of services. Wherever, rural women as producers of food productions and family supervisor, have little contact with extension services organizations, so their problems and needs would reflect at extensional information feedback, rarely. Therefore agricultural research institutions wouldn’t be able to create and develop technology, suitable for their needs. Global surveys show that about 5% of total extension resources, at all over the world dedicated to programs for female farmers, but women form 15% of extension personnel of world. Some extensional issues that traditionally belong to women, such as economy of family, are supported very little that receive just about 1% of total extension resources of agriculture.

[Saber Geraeili and Mohaddaseh Nazarpoor. Empowerment of rural women in iran. World Rural Observ 2013;5(2):1-6]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1

doi:10.7537/marswro050213.01

 

Keywords: empowerment, rural women

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2

Rainfall Pattern And Trend On Arable Crops Production In Oyo State, Nigeria (1990-2009)

 

Ganiyu, M.O.1, Akinniran, T.N.1, Adeyemo. S.A.2

 

1Department of Agricultural Economics, LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Oyo State

2Department of Agricultural Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture Igboora, Oyo State

muibatdeen@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: This paper examines the implication of rainfall pattern and trend on arable crops production for the periods of 1990 and 2009 in Oyo State, Nigeria. Secondary data was used for this study, the data on annual output of maize, yam, cassava and cowpea and also total annual rainfall for the periods under consideration were collected. These data were analyzed with graphs, analysis of variance, time trend and simple regression model. ANOVA result shows that there is no obvious nexus in the amount of annual rainfall within five years interval. The results also show that the annual output of maize varies significantly with the annual rainfall distribution and the output of yam between1992 and1996 followed the pattern of rainfall distribution but from 1997 to 2009, the outputs of yam did not follow the same trend with the rainfall distribution. Furthermore, there is no observed nexus between the cassava output and the annual rainfall distribution that is, rainfall variability has no effect on the cassava productivity. Finding also reveals that cowpea outputs and annual rainfall are initially commoved along the same trend but later the pattern is no longer moving towards the same direction. Time trend analysis showed that time as a variable factor has a positive relationship with the amount of rainfall and its coefficient of 0.013 indicates that a unit increase in time variable would lead to 1.3% increases in rainfall amount. The outputs of crop each and annual rainfall was regressed and show positive coefficients for the four crops, therefore, it implies that for each crop, 1% increase in annual rainfall would lead to 12.1%, 52.6%, 7.2% and 56.2% increase in seasonal output of maize, yam, cassava and cowpea respectively. Base on this finding, it is concluded that the low crop yield witnessed from the output of farms produce should not be attributed to rainfall variability alone other factors such as low soil fertility, untimely planting, improper selection of cropping system, diseases and pest infestation could also cause damage and low yield of crops on the farm.

Ganiyu, MO, Akinniran, TN, Adeyemo. S.A. Rainfall Pattern And Trend On Arable Crops Production In Oyo State, Nigeria (1990-2009). World Rural Observ 2013;5(2):7-11]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2

doi:10.7537/marswro050213.02

 

Key words: rainfall pattern, climatic variability, time trend and arable crops production

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3

Toxicity of Two Anticoagulant Rodenticides to Rodent Species under Laboratory Conditions

 

Abd El-Aleem S. S. Desoky1 and Saudi A.S Baghdadi2

 

1 Plant Protection Dept., Faculty of Agric., Sohag University

2Agric. Zoology and Nematology Dept., Faculty of Agric., Al-Azhar University.

abdelalem2011@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A laboratory evaluated of 2 anticoagulant rodenticides, Kelerat super (Brodifacoum 0.005%) and Caid (Chlorophacinone 0.005%) against three rodent species, Rattus rattus frugivorus, Rattus rattus alexandrinus and Nile grass rat, A. niloticus fed on poison bait for 3 days, 4 days and 5 days. Results indicated that Kelerat was the most effective ones followed by Caid. The dead period for Caid was longer than in the case of Kelerat. It was found that there was a significant difference in the animal consumption of the tested rodenticide baits for rodent species. Also, significant difference in rodenticides consumed by males and females.

[Abd El-Aleem S. S. Desoky and Saudi A.S Baghdadi. Toxicity of Two Anticoagulant Rodenticides to Rodent Species under Laboratory Conditions. World Rural Observ 2013;5(2):12-14]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3

doi:10.7537/marswro050213.03

 

Keywords: Brodifacoum, Chlorophacinone, Rattus r.frugivorus, Rattus r.alexandrinus, A. niloticus

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4

Effects of Super absorbent polymer on tomato’s yield under water stress conditions and its role in the maintenance and release of nitrate

 

Zohre Shahrokhian1, FarhadMirzaei2, AzadHeidari3

 

1. Master of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Irrigation & Reclamation Engineering Department, University of Tehran, Iran. Email: zshahrokhian@alumni.ut.ac.ir

2. Assistant Professor at University of Tehran, Irrigation & Reclamation Engineering Department, University of Tehran, Iran. Email: fmirzaei@ut.ac.ir

3. Master of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Irrigation & Reclamation Engineering Department, University of Tehran, Iran. Email: Azad.Heidari1988@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid region and therefore water is the first and foremost limiting factor in agricultural productions. Scattered rainfall pattern and limited water resources have led to hardiness in plant establishments. Proper managements and applying advanced techniques to conserve soil moisture storage are two of the most effective measures to ensure a better use of these limited water resources. One way to use scattered precipitations and other water resources for storage and conserving water is to apply additives to soil such as super absorbent polymer. To do so a, completely randomized block design experiment was conducted. Main plot wasthree levels of irrigation (50, 75 and 100 percent of water demand) and three levels of A-200 super absorbent polymer, 12.5 and 25 gram per plant (or 0.45 and 0.9 ton per Hectare respectively) was applied as the subplot. The goal was to observe and study the effects of treatments on Tomato’s yield under field conditions in city of Karaj. The results showed that among all of the treatments, application of 25 grams of super absorbent had the most effects on the Tomato’s yield under all of the irrigation conditions. The highest yield obtained was from the treatment of 0.45 super absorbent per hectare and full irrigation with a yield increase of 56 percent in comparison with the treatment of same amount of irrigation with no super absorbent. The treatment of 0.9 ton per hectare Hydrogel and full irrigation had a yield improvement of 20 percent compared to thecontroltreatment.Also the presence of the super absorbent in the root zone in 0.9 and 0.45 ton per hectare treatments led to 31and 20 percent decrease in nitrate’s deep percolation respectively. Thisenhances fertilizer use efficiency and reduces the environmental problems caused by nitrate transport to ground waters.

[ZohreShahrokhian, FarhadMirzaei, AzadHeidari. Effects of Super absorbent polymer on tomato’s yield under water stress conditions and its role in the maintenance and release of nitrate. World Rural Observ 2013;5(2):15-19]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4

doi:10.7537/marswro050213.04

 

Key word: Super absorbent, irrigation, Tomato, Yield

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5

Cypermethrin Adsorption unto Sodium Chloride-Activated Cacao Theobroma(Cocoa) Pod Using Digital GC

 

M. Turoti* and E. Bello

 

Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

*muyiwaturoti@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Varying particle sizes of 125, 250, 500 and 1000m obtained from raw cocoa pods were separately first carbonized at 5000C and then activated with varying concentrations of NaCl at 7000C. The physico-chemical parameters including moisture content, bulk density, ash content, pH, dry matter and carbon yield of each activated carbon product were determined. The elemental compositions of both carbonized and activated carbon were also determined. The adsorption studies of these carbons onto cypermethrin, at an average concentration that is commonly employed for spraying the cocoa fruits by some selected farmers, were carried out using the digital gas-chromatographic techniques. The results showed that among the different carbon matrices 125m particle size activated with 5M NaCl having 6.50% moisture content, bulk density of 0.33gcm-3, 3.10% ash content and pH of 10.40 was most effective at 94.34% removal of the pesticide. It was found that the equilibrium data fitted into the isothermal models of Langmuir at q0 of 22.73mg/g and the Freundlich constants at n = 5.102 and KF = 25.41.
[
M. Turoti, E. Bello. Cypermethrin Adsorption unto Sodium Chloride-Activated Cacao Theobroma(Cocoa) Pod Using Digital GC. World Rural Observ 2013;5(2):20-29]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5

doi:10.7537/marswro050213.05

 

Key words: Carbonized, activated carbon, cypermethrin, cocoa pod husks, GC

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6

Developing a decision support model for choosing appropriate irrigation Systems

 

Alireza Masoudi1, Azad Heidari2, AbdolMajid Liaghat3

 

1. PhD Student of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.

2. Master of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Irrigation & Reclamation Engineering Department, University of Tehran, Iran. Azad.Heidari1988@gmail.com

3. Professor, Irrigation & Reclamation Engineering Department, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

 

Abstract: Limited water resources and a growing population which brings the need for producing more food have motivated the countries around the world to use water and soil resources cautiously with the goal of increasing their productivities. A good attempt to increase productivity is a well chosen irrigation system which has a high performance with respect to its local conditions. Otherwise it may cause a waste of time and expense at both design and implication phases, especially in cases of pressurized irrigation systems. Expert choice systems which use a data bank to help decision making, are useful tools that can help users to easily solve complicated problems that need a lot of experience and high levels of knowledge to be solved. In this study a model was developed with help of a programming language. The model simplifies the process of choosing an irrigation system. By presenting acceptable results in some sample problems, model’s performance was evaluated to be good.

[Alireza Masoudi, Azad Heidari, AbdolMajid Liaghat. Developing a decision support model for choosing appropriate irrigation Systems. World Rural Observ 2013;5(2):30-35]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6

doi:10.7537/marswro050213.06

 

Key words: Decision support systems, Irrigation system choosing, Pressurized irrigation, Water resources

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6

7

Using silicon for increasing the tolerance mango cv. Ewaise transplants to drought

 

Ahmed M. K. Abdel Aal* and Mona M. M. Oraby**

 

* Hort. Dept., Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

** Botanical Garden, Aswan City, Aswan, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Mango cv. Ewaise transplants were exposed to four water deficits namely 25, 50, 75 and 100 of field capacity with or without silicon at 150 mg/ kg-1 soil as an attempts for alleviating the adverse effects of drought on growth and nutritional status of young mango trees. A great decline was observed on all growth characters, leaf water content %, plant pigments, total carbohydrates % as well as concentrations and uptake of N, P, K, Mg and Si of mango grown under drough conditions (25 and 50 % field capacity). Soil addition of silicon at 150 mg/ kg-1 soil was favourable in counteracting these inferior effects. H2O2 content was greatly enhanced with water deficit treatment and the vice versa was obtained with using silicon. The effect either increase or decrease was associated with reducing field capacity from 100 to 25 %. It is preferable for soil addition of silicon at 150 g/ kg-1 soil in young mango cv. Ewaise orchards grown under arid conditions.

[Ahmed M. K. Abdel Aal and Mona M. M. Oraby. Using silicon for increasing the tolerance mango cv. Ewaise transplants to drough. World Rural Observ 2013;5(2):36-40]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7

doi:10.7537/marswro050213.07

 

Keywords: silicon; tolerance; Ewaise; transplant; drought.

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8

Using Salicylic Acid for Alleviating the Adverse Effects of Water Salinity on Growth and Nutritional Status of Mango Cv. Alphonse Seedlings

 

Ahmed M. K. Abdel Aal1 and Mona M. M. Oraby2

 

1 Hort. Dept., Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

2 Botanical Garden, Aswan City, Aswan, Egypt.

 

Abstract: This study was performed during 2011 and 2012 seasons to test the effect of spraying salicylic acid (SA) at 0.55 ml (1.0 g I-1 w) to mango cv. Alphonse seedlings irrigated with water containing NaCl at 10, 20 or 40 mM (i.e. 0.36, 0.72 and 1.44 g NaCl I-1 w, respectively). Salinized irrigation water at 10 to 40 mM NaCl caused an inhibition on all growth characters, leaf water content %, plant pigments, total carbohydrates % as well as concentrations and uptake of N, P, K and Mg. However, H2O2 content, K+/ Na+ as well as concentrations and uptake of Na and Cl tended to promote with salinization conditions. Using SA obviously counteracted the previous adverse effects of saline water on growth and nutritional status of the transplants. It is suggested that the promotive effect of SA on producing vigour transplants of mango cv. Alphonse irrigated with saline water may result in improving salt stress tolerance.

[Ahmed M. K. Abdel Aal and Mona M. M. Oraby. Using Salicylic Acid for Alleviating The Adverse Effects of Water Salinity on Growth and Nutritional Status of Mango Cv. Alphonse Seedlings. World Rural Observ 2013;5(2):41-46]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8

doi:10.7537/marswro050213.08

 

Keywords: Salicylic Acid; Alleviate; Adverse Effect; Water Salinity; Growth; Nutrition; Seedling.

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9

Growth and bulbing of garlic as influenced by low temperature and storage period treatments

 

N. S. Youssef

 

Vegetable Res. Dept. Hort. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center (ARC) Giza, Egypt

N-Youssef-elsh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effects of pre-planting low temperature storage and period length of seed cloves on bulbing process of two garlic Allium sativum L genotypes were studied during two successive experiments (2009/2010 and 2010/2011). The whole bulb of garlic genotypes (‘Egaseed 1 and Clone17) were stored at 10C, 15C (cold-treatments) or at room temperature (27C) for 15, 21 and 30 days before planting. After storage, the effects of temperature and storage time on the sprouting of garlic cloves and internal sprout growth rate % under lab experiments were studied. Also, the subsequent effects of pre-plant storage treatments on germination %, growth behavior, cloving and yield were investigated at the Experimental Farm of Mallawy Agric. Res. Station, Horticulture Research. Inst., Giza, Egypt. The data revealed that, pre-plant low temperature treatments of bulbs significantly affected the behavior of "Egaseed1"(red bulb color) and "Clone17". (white bulb color) under laboratory conditions. Previously storage temperature (10C) and period (30 days) treatment for the tested garlic, cv. "Egaseed1" and "Clone17" resulted in a significant increase in the internal sprout length (cm) and internal sprout growth rate %. For field studies, garlic "clone17" at 15˚C for 30 days gave the best significantly results for increasing the germination %. Significant differences between cultivars for its response to storage temperature and storage period treatments were found. The highest increase in fresh yield, cured yield, average bulb weight, bulb diameter (cm) and number of cloves/bulb were obtained with garlic, cv. "Egaseed1" at 15˚C for 15 days and at 10˚C for 21 days of garlic "Clone17". Whereas, the heaviest clove weight (g) were obtained when garlic bulbs of the two tested genotypes were stored at 10˚C for 30 days before planting. Results show that the important of cold pre-treatment (low temperature treatments (10-150C) and length of storage period for improving germination %, enhancing garlic yield, bulb weight, bulb diameter and clove weight. These results were dependent upon the cultivar behavior.

[N. S. Youssef. Growth and bulbing of garlic as influenced by low temperature and storage period treatments. World Rural Observ 2013;5(2):47-57]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9

doi:10.7537/marswro050213.09

 

Key words: garlic, storage temperature, storage period, germination%, bulb diameter, cured yield.

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10

A survey and identification of situation of forming factors of Organizational climate (case study: Damghan agricultural bank)

 

Golnar Shojaei (PH.D.)1, sakineh kheibariyan (MA)2

 

1. Department Of Management, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, Iran

2. Department Of Management, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, 3671698945, Iran

golnar.shojaei@gmail.com, shukufekh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Organizational climate refer to personal and interpersonal relations at an organization qualitatively. Condition and quality originates from collective perception and attitudes. In this paper, we try to survey Organizational climate forming factors at agricultural bank branches (Damghan) from personal view point. Organizational climate factors include organizational goals, role clarity, Organizational remuneration, Organizational processes and communication. Our methodology is descriptive and applied. Statistical societies of this study include all of staff agricultural bank branches (Damghan). Statistical sample equals 47 men and women. We use a standard question air (liansas men and Sam deep) to collection of information. Its validity proves by master of university. To analyze of research assumptions, we use from descriptive indexes e.g. krooskal Wallis test, kalmographsmearnov test, binominal test 9one and two aspects). Finally, we conclude that according to staff opinions, all of the Organizational climate factors (except to organizational goal) is at positive conditions. There isn’t any difference between men and women about Organizational climate factors (role clarity- remuneration-processes – communication) play a vital role in the favorite and positive climate.

[Golnar Shojaei, sakineh kheibariyan. A survey and identification of situation of forming factors of Organizational climate (case study: Damghan agricultural bank). World Rural Observ 2013;5(2):58-63]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10

doi:10.7537/marswro050213.10

 

Key words: Organizational climate-effectiveness- role clarity- organizational goals

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11

Cypermethrin Adsorption unto Sodium Chloride-Activated Cacao Theobroma (Cocoa) Pod Using Digital GC

 

M. Turoti* and E. Bello

 

Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria *muyiwaturoti@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Varying particle sizes of 125, 250, 500 and 1000m obtained from raw cocoa pods were separately first carbonized at 5000C and then activated with varying concentrations of NaCl at 7000C. The physico-chemical parameters including moisture content, bulk density, ash content, pH, dry matter and carbon yield of each activated carbon product were determined. The elemental compositions of both carbonized and activated carbon were also determined. The adsorption studies of these carbons onto cypermethrin, at an average concentration that is commonly employed for spraying the cocoa fruits by some selected farmers, were carried out using the digital gas-chromatographic techniques. The results showed that among the different carbon matrices 125m particle size activated with 5M NaCl having 6.50% moisture content, bulk density of 0.33gcm-3, 3.10% ash content and pH of 10.40 was most effective at 94.34% removal of the pesticide. It was found that the equilibrium data fitted into the isothermal models of Langmuir at q0 of 22.73mg/g and the Freundlich constants at n = 5.102 and KF = 25.41.

[M. Turoti and E. Bello. Cypermethrin Adsorption unto Sodium Chloride-Activated Cacao Theobroma (Cocoa) Pod Using Digital GC. World Rural Observ 2013;5(2):64-73]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11

doi:10.7537/marswro050213.11

 

Key words: Carbonized, activated carbon, cypermethrin, cocoa pod husks, GC

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12

Quality Assesment Of Clupeids Along The Coastal Fisheries Value Chain Of Ogun Waterside Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria

 

Odebiyi O.C1, George F.O.A.1, Odulate D.O1, Akinyemi A.A.1, Arowosegbe A.2, Oke A.O.3

 

1 Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

2 Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

3Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management, College of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, P.M.B 7267, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria

funksod4real@yahoo.com, odebiyioc@funaab.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Quality assessment of three clupeids (Ethmalosa fimbriata, Ilisha africana and Sardinella marderensis) fish species was carried out using colonial, morphological and biochemical microbial analyses. Samples of fish were collected from the fishermen, fish processors and fish-marketers along the coastal fisheries value chain (CFVC) from which micro-organisms were identified, characterized and number of colony forming units (CFU) were estimated from the skin, gills and intestines of these fish species. The total bacteria counts ranged from 0.3 X 106CFU/g to 4.7 X 106CFU/g across the entire nodes of the CFVC. According to International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Food (ICMSF, 1986), the maximum recommended bacteria count for good quality fish product was 5.0 x105 (5.7Log cfu/g) and the maximum for marginally acceptable quality fish product was 1.0X107 (7 log cfu/g). Thus, the bacteria load obtained from the fresh landed fish by the fisherman and preserved fish by the fish-marketers across the CFVC was higher than the marginally acceptable level; but closer to the maximum recommended value which makes the fish samples not to be in their best condition for human consumption. A total of eight bacteria and five fungi species of food importance were isolated along the chain; the Bacteria isolated includes Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epididemis, Pseudomonas sp, Micrococci spp and Pseudomonas fluorescens while fungi isolated were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor spp, Penicillium notatum and Fusarium spp. Staphylococcus aureus dominated the value chain with a percentage occurrence of (20.0%, 30.0% and 36.67%) while Aspergillus niger occurred most (26.67%, 31.67 and 33.3%) in fish samples from the fishermen, fish processors and fish-marketers respectively. In conclusion, the quality assessment carried out revealed that fish samples at all the chain nodes harboured microorganisms which are either of pathogenic, food poisoning, food spoilage or of epidemiological importance, hence; this study provides the knowledge on the microorganisms associated with each stages of the chain. Thus, consumers who consume these fish without further cooking, washing or heating are at a risk of contracting food borne infections as a result of poor hygiene and poor post harvest handling on the part of the sellers.

[Odebiyi Oluwaseun C., George F.O.A., Odulate D.O., Akinyemi A.A., Arowosegbe A., Oke A.O. Quality Assesment of Clupeids Along the Coastal Fisheries Value Chain of Ogun Waterside Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria, World Rural Observ 2013;5(2):74-80]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12

doi:10.7537/marswro050213.12

 

Keywords: Microbial, Assessment, Quality, Ethmalosa, Sardinella, Clupeids

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