Science Journal

 

 World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online); Quarterly

Volume 5 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 17), September 25, 2013
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0503

 

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Contents:

No.

Title/Authors/Abstract

Full Text

No.

1

Relationship Between Participation And Empowerment In Women Self Help Groups In Nigeria – A General Analysis.

 

Muhammad Ndas Ndaeji And Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah

 

Department Of Social And Development Sciences, Faculty Of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia

1. asnarul@putra.upm.edu.my (Corresponding Author)

2. ndasmn@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In recent year, women’s empowerment through participation is said to be at the center stage in global development. The paper seeks to examine the relationship between participation in Self Help Group’s (SHG) activities and women empowerment in Nigeria. The participation of women in (SHGs) made a significant impact in social, economical and psychological aspects. Women empowerment through participation in SHG which is the focus of this paper is a process in which women are able to organize themselves to increase self-reliance and to assert their independent right to make choices in order to effectively promote their well being. The processes through which women achieve empowerment through participating in SHG is the essence of this article.

[Muhammad Ndas Ndaeji And Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah. Relationship Between Participation And Empowerment In Women Self Help Groups In Nigeria – A General Analysis. World Rural Observ 2013;5(3):1-5]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1

doi:10.7537/marswro050313.01

 

Key words: Women Empowerment, participation, Self Help Groups.

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2

Antibacterial effect of Moringa oleifera on Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Wound infections in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

 

1, 2Akingbade OA, 3Akinjinmi AA, 4Ezechukwu US, 5Okerentugba PO, 6Nwanze JC, 6Onoh CC, 5Okonko IO

 

1Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

E-mail: olusola.akingbade@yahoo.co.uk 08063529234

2Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

3Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

4Department of Haematology and Blood Serology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

5Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

6Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891

 

Abstract: Medicinal plants have been found useful in the cure of a number of diseases including bacterial diseases. In this study, fresh leaves of Moringa oleifera was collected from Siun, Abeokuta, Ogun State and identified at the Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Phytochemical analysis was carried out on the dry leaves using aqueous, methanol and ethanol solvent. The leaves were tested against five Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains using disc diffusion method. The phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of the M. oleifera revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins compounds while methanol extract showed the presence of flavonoids and saponins. In aqueous extract, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids and saponins compounds were detected. The extract showed different zone of inhibitions to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in the different solvents used. The result from this present study showed that left extract of M. oleifera had broadest spectrum of activity on the tested bacteria.

[Akingbade OA, Akinjinmi AA, Ezechukwu US, Okerentugba PO, Nwanze JC, Onoh CC, Okonko IO. Antibacterial effect of Moringa oleifera on Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Wound infections in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2013;5(3):6-10]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2

doi:10.7537/marswro050313.02

 

Keywords: Antibacterial effect, Moringa oleifera, Multidrug Resistant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Wound infections, Phytochemicals

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3

Bacterial spectrum and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in children with otitis media in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

 

1&2Akingbade OA, 3&4Awoderu OB, 5Okerentugba PO, 6Nwanze JC, 6Onoh CC, 5Okonko IO

 

1Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

E-mail: a.olusola@yahoo.co.uk, olusola.akingbade@yahoo.com; Tel: +2348063529234

3Immunology unit, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba Lagos

4School of Medial Laboratory Science, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria

E-mail: bamiyin@yahoo.com

5Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

6Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891

 

ABSTRACT: Otitis media is a common infection of middle ear resulting from bacterial infection. Samples were collected from different children with otitis media at two different hospitals in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, over a five months period (January 2013 to May, 2013). During this study period, 100 children with atticoantral type otitis media consisting of 42 females and 58 males with an age range of <2-14 years were assessed. Patients with persistent otorrhea for more than 3 months with atticoantral type of chronic otitis media were also selected. The exudates were collected under sterile conditions and inoculated onto culture media; bacterial growth and antibiotic sensitivity pattern were studied. Out of the 100 samples, 48(48.0%) were positive for bacterial cultures. Peak prevalence of 50.0% occurred among the 0-2 years age group. Five species of bacteria were isolated from the middle ear aspirate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most predominant isolate constituting about 35.4% (17 discharging ears) of the total isolates followed by Staphylococcus aureus (29.2% of isolates), Proteus species (14.6% of isolates), Escherichia coli (10.4% of isolates) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.4% of isolates). Gram positive bacteria accounted 64.6% of total isolates and gram negative bacteria constituted 35.4% isolates. Generally, high resistance rates were recorded against many of the antibiotics tested. Pseudomonas isolates showed susceptibility to ceftazidime (75.0%) and a high sensitivity (79.2% of isolates) to gentamycin and 62.5% isolates were sensitive to ofloxacin. Gentamycin (83.3%), ceftazidime (81.2%) and ciprofloxacin (79.2%) were the most effective antibiotic to S. aureus isolates. About 87.5% of Proteus species isolated from inoculates showed sensitivity to ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin. It also showed 83.0% sensitivity to gentamycin and 66.7% to ofloxacin and cefuroxime. The most effective antibiotics to E. coli were gentamycin and ceftazidime 44(91.7%). It also showed that 91.7% Klebsiella pnuemoniae were susceptible to ceftazidime, 87.5% were sensitive to gentamycin, streptomycin and ceftriaxone, and 81.3% were sensitive to ofloxacin. In conclusion, the findings of this study may contribute to an effective medical management of otitis media, since the most common organisms in this clinical set up being P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and Proteus species which showed a percentage susceptibility of 62.5% to 91.7% to most of the antibiotic commonly used in Abeokuta, Nigeria. It was observed that gentamycin and ceftazidime antibiotics had good sensitivity pattern across all the tested bacterial isolates obtained from ear infections of children in Ogun State, Nigeria. Continuous and periodic evaluation of bacterial spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity of otitis media is necessary to decrease the potential risks of complications by early institution of appropriate systemic and topical antibiotic alongside mastoid exploration.

[Akingbade OA, Awoderu OB, Okerentugba PO, Nwanze JC, Onoh CC, Okonko IO. Bacterial spectrum and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in children with otitis media in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2013;5(3):11-17]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3

doi:10.7537/marswro050313.03

 

Key words: Otitis media, bacterial spectrum, sensitivity, resistance pattern

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4

Wealth ranking, Capital Assets profiling and livelihoods diversification in two Artisanal inland water Fishing Communities

 

1S. I. Ovie and 2Tafida, A. A.

 

1National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research, PMB 6006 New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, PMB 2076 Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

tafjam2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:The study was conducted at Wawu on the eastern shore of Lake Kainji and Dumba on the western shore of Lake Chad. The study assesses capital assets available in the communities and ranked wealth and poverty statuses as well as livelihood portfolios of the communities’ members. The results revealed that distribution of capital assets was not even among community members and between the two communities and to a large extent, determines their wealth status and engagement in livelihoods portfolios. Overall, the people are found to engage in multiple livelihood activities such as farming, herding and trading as a strategy to improve their socio-economic well-being following the prevailing poverty situation in the areas.

[S. I. Ovie and Tafida, A. A. Wealth ranking, Capital Assets profiling and livelihoods diversification in two Artisanal inland water Fishing Communities. World Rural Observ 2013;5(3):18-22]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4

doi:10.7537/marswro050313.04

 

Key words: Wealth; Capital assets; Livelihood; Poverty; fishing communities.

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5

Technical evaluation of sprinkler irrigation systems in khorramabad, Iran

 

Saeed. Boroomand Nassab1, Zeinab. Mikhak Beiranvand1, Abas. Maleki2, Zahra. Izad panah1

 

1 Department of water Science Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, iran

2 Department of Irrigation. lorestan University, khorramabad, Iran

boroomand@scu.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Water use efficiency in agriculture is low in most countries. Every project must Be Examined After designing and implementing And its performance be check under field conditions. With evaluate the performance of irrigation systems Many of Their weaknesses is visible. The aim of this study evaluate the design and operation of implemented fixed irrigation systems in the city of Khorramabad in Lorestan Province. For this purpose, four fixed irrigation systems Khorramabad city were selected, tested and evaluated. Values of coefficient uniformity(CU), distribution uniformity(DU), Potential efficiency in low quarter (PELQ), Application Efficiency in low Quarter (AELQ), wind and evaporation losses (WDEL) and deep percolation losses (DP) in solid set systems are 71.24, 59.94, 47.21, 45.71, 13.12, 30.09 percent respectively. In order to better analyze was plotted Adequacy of irrigation curve. improper Design and implementation AT Studied systems were detected Reason low yield potential. From as the most important factor can be named inappropriate pressure. The simultaneous use of many sprinklers ,the use more than one sprinklers On Irrigation Laterals have been The main reason for the low uniformity coefficient and distribution Uniformity systems. The lack of proper maintenance and management have been of the main problems studied systems.

[Boroomand nassab S, Mikhak Beiranvand Z, Maleki A, Izad panah Z. Technical evaluation of sprinkler irrigation systems in khorramabad, Iran. World Rural Observ 2013;5(3):23-27]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5

doi:10.7537/marswro050313.05

 

Key words: sprinkler; fixed classic; distribution uniformity; Potential efficiency in low quarter; Application Efficiency in low Quarter; Adequacy of irrigation; Lorestan.

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6

Understanding Poverty and Vulnerability for Fisheries Resource Management in Nigeria: A review

 

1Tafida A.A., 2Khalid Bello, Jimme M. A. and 4Arowolo K. O.

 

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, PMB 2076 Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

2Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

3Geography Department, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

4Federal College of Freshwater Fisheries Technology, New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria

tafjam2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The paper reviews poverty and vulnerability situation amongst small-scale fishers, which presents some peculiarities, and examines its relativity with fishery resources management, with the view to proffer solution towards reducing fishers’ vulnerability and poverty for effective fisheries resource management. The significance of fisheries cannot be overemphasized, small-scale fisheries underpin the socio-economic fabric of many fishing households, which is characterized broadly as underdeveloped with a wide spread of food insecurity and resources depletion among other environmental factors. Majority of the fishers are found to be poor and vulnerable. They are constantly exposed to many risks due to negative environmental forces and lack instrument to manage them. Strong and direct linkages have been found between poverty/vulnerability and resource depletion. However, fishers in Nigeria locally adopt certain strategies to address the problems, these include diversifying their livelihood portfolios by engaging in other livelihood activities such as farming, livestock, petty trading, aquaculture, others are storage and migration etc. Effective institution and governance, improvement in literacy and provision of infrastructure among others are recommended as part of strategies to address the problem.

[Tafida A.A., S.I. Ovie, Jimme M. A. and Arowolo K. O. Understanding Poverty and Vulnerability for Fisheries Resource Management in Nigeria: A review. World Rural Observ 2013;5(3):28-36]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6

doi:10.7537/marswro050313.06

 

Keywords: poverty; vulnerability; resource management; fishers

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7

Repellance Effect Of Aqueous Extract Of Alligator Pepper (Aframomum Melegueta K. Schum) On Insects Of Okra

 

Okpako E.C., Osuagwu A.N., Agbor R.B., Ekpo I.A., Kalu S.E

 

Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

E-mail: agborreagan@yahoo.com; Phone No. 08063430125

 

ABSTRACT: Food security could be achieved through the use of bio-insecticide to prevent insect attacks on crops which invariably would have cause damage to the crops, thereby resulting in poor crop production. The repellence effect of aqueous extract of Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta K. Schum) on the growth and yield of okra was investigated. The aqueous seed extract was prepared by air drying the spices material (A. melegueta) after drying, the seeds were pulverized to powder. Ten percent (10%) aqueous extract was prepared by soaking 100g of the spice powder in one liter of distilled water and allowed for 24 hours. Different concentrations of the extract were prepared consisting of control (0%), 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10%. The treatment was applied twice a week. Data were collected based on the following parameters. Days to 50% seedling emergence, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, days to 50% flowering, pod length, number of pods, and number of seeds. The result showed that there were no significant difference (P>0.05) in the days to seedling emergence, days to flowering, pod length, number of pods and number of seeds but significant difference (P<0.05) was observed on the plant height, leaf area and number of leaves per plant. This result however, indicates that the aqueous seed extract of A. melegueta possesses some insecticidal properties in repelling or preventing insects from attacking the okra plant.

[Okpako E.C., Osuagwu A.N., Agbor R.B., Ekpo I.A., Kalu S.E. Repellance Effect Of Aqueous Extract Of Alligator Pepper (Aframomum Melegueta K. Schum) On Insects Of Okra. World Rural Observ 2013;5(3):42-46]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8

doi:10.7537/marswro050313.07

 

Key words: Okra, Aframomum melegueta, insect, repellant.

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8

Groundwater Quality Assessment Of Some Selected Boreholes In Calabar

 

1Agbor R.B., 1Ekpo I.A., 1Ekaluo U.B., 1Okpako E.C., 1Okigbo A.U., 2Osang J.E., 1Kalu S.E

 

1Department of Genetics & Biotechnology, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria

2Departmnet of Physics, Cross River State University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria

E-mail: agborreagan@yahoo.com. Phone No: 08063430125

 

Abstract: Groundwater quality assessment of some selected boreholes was carried out. Nine boreholes water samples were collected from three different locations (Orok Orok, Okoro Agbor and Mount Zion). Water samples collected were taken to the laboratory and analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. The result obtained showed that significant difference (p<0.05) exist in the Physicochemical properties and heavy metal content of the borehole water samples in the three sample locations but the mean values were significantly lower than the WHO standard for drinking water. It can therefore be concluded that water samples from these boreholes are suitable for human consumption.

[Agbor R.B., Ekpo I.A., Ekaluo U.B., Okpako E.C., Okigbo A.U., Osang J. E., Kalu S. E. Groundwater Quality Assessment Of Some Selected Boreholes In Calabar. World Rural Observ 2013;5(3):37-41]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8

doi:10.7537/marswro050313.08

 

Keywords: Groundwater, Quality, Assessment, Boreholes

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9

Non-developed Countries: Third Wave and Position of NAM in Development Process

 

Ansar amini, Shabnam Shafieie, Mohammad Hassan Najmi

 

Islamic Azad University, Department of Politic and International Relations, Central Tehran Branch, Iran
ansar.amini66@yahoo.com, shabnam.sh2002@gmail.com, najmi1364@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In 1961 Non–Aligned Movement announced its existence. It also introduced itself as a self-foundation for newly arrived independent countries, mostly non-developed countries against colonial powers. In our opinion, what makes non-aligned movement as the biggest foundation in an assembly of world countries (with 120 members) after the United Nations, is organizing this movement by non-developed countries. Therefore, a practical transformation from non-development to development is necessary in order to change the current position of these countries. This study has been founded on the assumption that all non-aligned countries are non-developed. So, world countries, with regard to the forward-looking predictions, have been divided into three parts: non-developed countries as the first wave, countries which are close to developed countries as the second wave and developed countries as the third wave.

[Ansar amini, Shabnam Shafieie, Mohammad Hassan Najmi. Non-developed Countries: Third Wave and Position of NAM in Development Process, World Rural Observ 2013;5(3):47-53]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9

doi:10.7537/marswro050313.09

 

Key words: development, non-development, first wave, second wave, third wave, Non-Aligned Movement

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10

Assessing characteristics of Online Education and comparing of Traditional Education

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi 2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance education dictates changes in behavior for both the teacher and the learner. The successful student develops persistence and skills in self-directing work. The successful distance education teacher becomes conversant with new technology and develops new instructional styles, moving from creating instruction to managing resources and students and disseminating views. Administrative and faculty support for distance education are critical to the success of this instructional method. Administrators should take note that the implementation of a distance education program may allow access to a greater number of students. However, the time and work associated with teaching at a distance exceeds the normal requirements of campus-based instruction. Students in distance education settings perform as well or better on assignments, class activities, and exams when compared to campus-based students .Nevertheless, students must maintain persistence and a clear focus to succeed in a distance learning situation. Self-direction, a passion for learning, and strong individual responsibility are important influences on achievement. There are indications that distance education works best for more mature, motivated, well-organized, and already accomplished learners .

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Assessing characteristics of Online Education and comparing of Traditional Education,World Rural Observ 2013;5(3):54-59]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10

doi:10.7537/marswro050313.10

 

Keywords: Online Education, Traditional Education

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[World Rural Observ 2013;5(3):60-72]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11. doi:10.7537/marswro050313.11

Withdrawn

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The relationship between the use of computer games and mental health and academic achievement of students of elementary school in Zahedan

 

Hossein Jenaabadi1 (Corresponding author), Sanam Ghahri2

 

1. Associate Professor of Psychology department, University of Sistan and Baluchestan

2. MA student of elementary education

hjenaabadi@ped.usb.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the use of computer games and mental health and academic achievement of students of elementary school in Zahedan. Descriptive research method used was Correlation. The study population consisted of all sixth grade students of elementary school in Zahedan with 9600 people in academic year 2013. In this study, random - cluster procedure and Morgan table is used. Data were collected through a) questionnaire including demographic characteristics, the rate of playing computer games Questionnaire 90-item Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R) and took the student average. The validity of this study is content and Cronbach's alpha to determine reliability coefficient for was obtained 0.97. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the hypotheses. Results of correlation coefficient also showed that more playing with computer game students engage, their mental health is at greater risk and will have academic failure. Also results showed between playing computer games with Somatization - Obsession - sensitive relationships - depression - anxiety - anger - phobias (fear of disease) - thoughts of paranoia and psychosis of the students there was a direct and significant relationship.

[Hossein Jenaabadi, Sanam Ghahri. The relationship between the use of computer games and mental health and academic achievement of students of elementary school in Zahedan. World Rural Observ 2013;5(3):73-82]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12

doi:10.7537/marswro050313.12

 

Key words: computer games, mental health, academic achievement

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Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus Isolates from the Phyllosphere and Rhizosphere of Ficus sycomorus Linn

 

Babalola Michael Oluyemi

 

Adekunle Ajasin University, Department of Microbiology, P.M.B. 001, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria;

mikeolubabs@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: I report here a microbiological study of the Rhizosphere and the phyllosphere of Ficus sycomorus plant, with particular focus on Staphylococcus species, to provide the scientific explanation for an age-long observation and mythology of the Yoruba ethnic group of Nigeria, which says “ ja ewe opoto kio ri ija eewo” which translates to “pluck the fig leaves and incur the brunt of boils”. Various species of microorganisms have been discovered to inhabit different parts of plants. The Phyllosphere and the Rhizosphere of 40 samples of Ficus sycomorus plants were investigated to specifically isolate using the dilution plate technique, determine the pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance of the associated Staphylococcus microbiota. In this study, the prevalent bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (60%), Staphylococcus intermedius (20%), Micrococcus sp (10%) and Staph. xylosus (10%) from the Phyllosphere, while Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, S. xylosus and Micrococcus sp were recovered from the Rhizosphere at 19.5%, 54.2%, 15.5% and 10.8% respectively. Of all the isolates, Staph. aureus from all the samples were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Ampicillin and Streptomycin. While Micrococcus sp was only susceptible to Ampicillin, Staph. intermedius, S. saprophyticus and S. xylosus were resistant to Penicillin. Ciprofloxacin and Augmentin were the most active against the bacterial isolates. Based on the use of extracts of the leaves by some local cheese (“Wara”) producers for cud coagulation, as well as in ethnomedicine, the presence of this antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains have the potentials to elicit preformed toxins and enteric infections if consumed, or elicit boils and abscesses on contact with abraided skin. Such patient may experience treatment failure using the first line antibiotics. This study indicate the potentials of Ficus sycomorus plant as a reservoir for dissemination of pathogenic multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus species in the environment. [Babalola Michael Oluyemi. Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus Isolates from the Phyllosphere and Rhizosphere of Ficus Sycomorus Linn. World Rural Observations 2013;5(3):83-89]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13

doi:10.7537/marswro050313.13

 

Key Words: Ficus sycomorus, Phyllosphere, reservoir, Staphylococcus, boils, antibiotic resistant.

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The above manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from July 18, 2013. 

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