Science Journal

 

 
World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ) (Quarterly)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online)

Volume 6 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 19), March 25, 2014
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0601

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Effect of Transplanting Age on Vegetative and Root Development of Maize (Zea may l.) in South Western Nigeria

 

Jacobs M. Adesina1*., Olubunmi G. Agbaje2., Adesunlola T. B. Aderibigbe1 and Ajayi F. Eleduma3

 

1Department  of Crop, Soil & Pest Management Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P. M. B 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. 2Department of Plant Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Osun State, Nigeria. 3Department of Agricultural Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P. M. B 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

*moboladesina@yahoo.com. +2348037110905

 

Abstract: An experiment was carried out to study the effects of transplanting age on the vegetative and root development of two maize varieties. (DMR-ESR-Y and DMR-LSR-Y). Maize seeds were planted directly and some were transplanted at 9 days after emergence (DAE), 14 DAE, 19 DAE and 24 DAE. The parameter studies were plant height, leaf area, root length and dry matter yield. The results showed that there were significant difference between the treatment in terms of leaf area and total dry matter at 25 days after transplanting. Seedling transplanted at 14 DAE had a significantly higher leaf area than the other transplants and direct seeded crops. Direct seeded crops had a significantly higher dry matter than the seedling transplanted at 19 DAE. From the studies, seedlings of maize can be transplanted at 14 DAE without serious retardation at the vegetative stage.

[Jacobs M. Adesina, Olubunmi G. Agbaje, Adesunlola T. B. Aderibigbe and Ajayi F. Eleduma. Effect of Transplanting Age on Vegetative and Root Development of Maize (Zea may l.) in South Western Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):1-4]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.01

 

Keyword:  Days after emergence, Seedling, Transplanting, Vegetative stage, Root development.

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2

An investigation of the relationship between major shareholder and Earnings management (EM) in companies listed in Tehran stock exchange (TSE)

 

Maryam Dowraghi 1, Mehdi Taheri2, Nazanin Hosseini

 

1. Persian Gulf International Educational Branch-Islamic Azad University- Khorramshahr-Iran (corresponding Author)

2. Persian Gulf International Educational Branch-Islamic Azad University- Khorramshahr-Iran

3. Department of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Educational Branch-Islamic Azad University- Khorramshahr-Iran

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between major shareholder and earnings management (EM) in companies listed in Tehran stock exchange (TSE). EM refers to conscious behavior from the management, and it is significantly performed in order to reduce cyclical fluctuations. The data were analyzed using a population consisted of 126 companies listed in TSE (with a reduction to55 companies through sampling) in the time period beginning in 2004 and ending in 2009. the analysis was performed in pooled data method and ordinary least square (OLS) regression. the study includes one hypothesis investigating the relationship between major shareholder percentage as an independent variable and EM as a dependent variable. The results confirmed the hypothesis at 5 percent error showing that major shareholder are significantly associated with EM, which leads to its reduction.

[Maryam Dowraghi, Mehdi Taheri, Nazanin Hosseini. An investigation of the relationship between major shareholder and Earnings management (EM) in companies listed in Tehran stock exchange (TSE). World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):5-11]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.02

 

Keywords: major shareholder, earnings management (EM), total Accruals.

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3

Legal considerations homes inspected according to Islamic law

 

Alireza Shakarbigi (M.A) 1, Piman Nmamian (M.A) 2, Ghobad Naderi (M.A) 3 Mahshid Mahtabi 4

 

1. Department of law, Payame noor University , Iran. Email: Ali.shakarbaigi@gmail.com

2. Department of law, Kharazmi University ,Tehran, Iran

3. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

4. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran. Email: MahshidMahtabi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: God gave human rights, civil rights, innate human traits considered and no one can take it away, non-transferable, indivisible and interdependent and universal rights is necessary It is the inalienable right of every member of the human family and every person in every place and in every color, race, sex, language or religion deserve to be there Civil rights derived from the teachings of Islam and the concept has now gone global and spiritual value. They searched his home and the homes of dignity in line with police work is one of the most important issues as regards the police officer searched the homes of the judiciary plays an important role Sometimes flaws and ambiguities are not fully aware of the rules and regulations of the police led to the violation of legal norms and law enforcement officers involved in responding to the However, the rules in this regard may lead to confusion and failure timely to question the officer. The main source of laws, legal books, magazines and Internet sites are Ultimately due to the changing and the rapid advancement of society and the lack of updates, some laws require police duties and to be transparent And laws to be reformed so that it is free from any legal ambiguity So requires diligence and careful consideration and analysis to understand the legal nuances, the target legislator and police officer could not function efficiently without any concerns and do as well.

[Alireza Shakarbigi, Piman Nmamian, Ghobad Naderi Mahshid Mahtabi. Legal considerations homes inspected according to Islamic law. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):12-18]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.03

 

Key words: Privacy / home inspection / illegal entry / duties and powers of the police / crime evidence.

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4

Diagnosis criteria of worker and non-worker in Iran and France rights

 

Mahshid Mahtabi(M.A)1, Alireza Shakarbigi (M.A) 2, Ghobad Naderi(M.A) 3 Amir Ahmadi4

 

1. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran. Email: MahshidMahtabi@yahoo.com

2. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran. Email: Ali.shakarbaigi@gmail.com

3. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran.

4. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran. Email: Amir.ahmadiy91@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Inclusion range of labor law and the necessity of allegiance of working and employer are of labor law. In some cases, the shape and the style of contract have been accepted in a way that apparently has no other title except labor contract and essentially no written contract has been set between parties. This is evident in labors which are temporary or direct beneficiaries of services are non-encapsulated. But according to imperative features of labor law and being non-formal the contract, the 7 and 8 articles of labor law, the manner and form of contract, especially being written or oral, it cannot have any influence on nature and type of relationship. Therefore, to establish working relationships, apart from shaping aspects, substantive criteria should be used which are consistent with legal standards. In this base, studying the unity votes of procedures of court staff shows using of various criteria and different figures to recognize labor and employee relationships and as a result drawing the different domains in inclusion range of labor law. Todays, stability and job security of workers are related to fundamental labor rights. So, international instruments related to labor (Treaties and …) and civil law of countries behaves with the particular sensitivity in both constitutions and common law. On the other hand, due to the importance of subject for employers and workers, it contains significant social and economic impacts, such as create sustainable employment, reduced or increased unemployment, amount of capital and employers in the production, determine the finished cost and price of goods, impact on economic competitiveness and the possibility of change in production structure and updating industries, reduced or increased of inflation, control of social and economic crisis and other subjects related to it. According to labor law (Adopted in 1369), handling to claims of employers and employees is the responsibility of specialized reference as the reference of dispute resolution (recognition staff and dispute resolution) composed of representatives of employers, employees and governments. These references have the competency to handling the individual and collective claims of workers and employers in the field of labor relations based on legal standards. Present research is discussed about the procedure of labor rights of Iran and France, with the goal of obtaining the accurate measures to establish the labor relations and to supply the job security of workers and accurate regulation of labor relations. Research history: Similar cases have not found that related to my article except the article of Ms. S. Ali Pur, in an article with this title: “workers and employers”. Research method: Using of taking note, library and descriptive methods and valid sources of articles and books of labor law and legal sites.

[Mahshid Mahtabi, Alireza Shakarbigi, Ghobad Naderi. Amir Ahmadi. Diagnosis criteria of worker and non-worker in Iran and France rights. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):19-25]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.04

 

Key words: worker, employer, workplace, labor contracts, labor law.

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5

Women Wage Earning and Education in Rural Nigeria

 

Omowumi A. Olowa1, Adetola I Adeoti2, Kemisola O. Adenegan2 and Omobowale A. Oni2

 

1. Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.

2. Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria

Olowa2@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Determining how women’s education affects their wage earnings is remarkably important in today's society where women are increasingly entering the labor market. Human Capital Theory suggests that women who acquire more education earn more than women who have less education. Using a sample of 48067 women from Harmonised National Living Standard Survey 2010 data collected by Nigeria Bureau of Statistics in 2009/2010, an Heckman model was used to examine the effect of education on women wage earning. It was revealed that the higher the level of education, the higher the wage accruing to individual women in rural Nigeria. The study suggested that women should be encouraged to attend school and when it is necessary try to convince them to obtain higher degree of education.

[Omowumi A. Olowa, Adetola I Adeoti, Kemisola O. Adenegan and Omobowale A. Oni . Women Wage Earning and Education in Rural Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):26-30]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.05

 

Keywords: Wage earning, Rural Nigeria, Agricultural wage, Non- Agricultural wage, Education.

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6

Reflection on Jewish zohd and mysticism

 

Fatemeh Ferdowsi1, Parvin Salari Chineh2

 

1. Teacher of Farhangian University

2. Curricular doctorate, Professor of Farhangian Uiversity of Shahid Bahonar campus

 

Abstract: Jewish religion is one of great theistic religions and the prophet Moses (peace upon him) is very respected by Muslims. Concerning that Islamic and Jewish religions are of Abraham religions, it seems that they have common religious concepts. One of those concepts is Zohd and mysticism that are manifested differently in various religions and schools. One of such religions is the old Jewish religion. The present paper is aimed to answer following questions: (1) Have Jewish people had the same opinion on zohd and mysticism during Jewish history? (2) How zohd and mysticism have been evolved in Judaism? (3) Concerning common roots of divine religions such as Islam and Judaism, what is common in relation to these two great religions? Library-based methodology has been applied to reach these objectives using related books specially those of religions’ history.

[Fatemeh Ferdowsi, Parvin Salari Chineh. Reflection on Jewish zohd and mysticism. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):31-34]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.06

 

Key words: zohd, mysticism, sect, Judaism, Islam

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7

The girls ran away with the legal perspective

 

Mahshid Mahtabi (M.A)1 , Heshmatollah  Falahat Pisheh (PhD) 2, Ghobad Naderi (M.A) 3

 

1. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: MahshidMahtabi@yahoo.com

2. Department of Political Science, University professor, Allameh Tabatabaee University, Iran

Head of Sub-Committee of Foreign Relations at Iranian Parliament (7th.&  8th.terms of Legislature).

Email: drfalahatpisheh@yahoo.com, Tel:+989121473148

3. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

 

Abstract: Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that the lack of financial and economic weakness in the family prevent personal growth in all areas, physical, psychological - psychological, socio - cultural, scientific and ... , Can influence the progression of the individual. In many cases, dropouts, child labor at a young age, steal children, abuse of children and away from home, because of the poverty and misery in families. This paper tries to explain the relationship between individual and intra-individual factors within the home, the girl’s escape, to explore the roots of this phenomenon on a variety of factors could cause there to be unsafe environment full of anxiety for children and their families to provide the intellectual background separation. This treatment resulted in children being separated from their parents and are associated with a reduction in result can lead away from home.

[Mahshid Mahtabi , Heshmatollah Falahat Pisheh, Ghobad Naderi. The girls ran away with the legal perspective. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):35-38]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.07

 

Key words: girls escape home, family, addiction, legal perspective, girls ran away

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8

Micro level study of daily migration – a case study of bhayegaon nanded india

 

Yannawar Vyankatesh B1, Kolhe Shankar M2 Kadam Avanish3& Bhosle A.B4

 

1, 2 Research Scholar & 3, 4 Assistant Professor

School of Earth Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded, Maharashtra State, India

vyanky@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Since last few decades India has experienced a rapid and unprecedented process of urbanization, created by the history’s largest flow of rural– urban migration in the world. This paper has provided a framework for thinking about the relationships between urban planning and migration. Our hope is that the work here will provide an anchor for future studies linking migration. The effects of migration on population trends and structures are well known, but they become more and more difficult to measure, following uncertainties on the size of flows and characteristics of migrants in a long time frame and cities becoming affected by both out and in-migration as well as daily/transit migration. Remittances change lifestyles and can have negative impact on health and environment while at the same times they increase access to communication technologies.

[Yannawar Vyankatesh B., Kolhe Shankar M., Kadam Avanish & Bhosle A.B. Micro Level Study of Daily Migration – A Case Study of Bhayegaon Nanded India. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):39-43]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.08

 

Key words: Daily migration, Migrant laborers, Employment, Nanded city

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9

Dairy development in jammu and kashmir- an overview

 

Bilal Ahmad Dar and Dr. Imtiyaz-ul-haq

 

1.Research Scholar, Department of Economics, University of Kashmir

2.Sr. Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, University of Kashmir

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Dairy development in the state of Jammu and Kashmir is recognised as an effective instrument for ameliorating the economic conditions of rural families, particularly those of the small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers. The reduction of rural poverty and income inequalities has been principal and paramount objectives of agricultural development in J&K. However, growth in agriculture alone cannot be sufficient to bring about substantial reduction in income inequality and poverty. Therefore reliance on dairy sector has also become an inevitable process in J&K economy. The State has registered a steady growth in milk production. The State’s milk production in 2002 was 12.40 lakhs metric tons, which increased to 15.92 lakhs metric tons in 2009-10. The per capita milk consumption is 378 grams per day, which is well above the national average of 256 grams for 2009-10.

[Bilal Ahmad Dar and Imtiyaz-ul-haq. Dairy development in jammu and kashmir- an overview. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):44-47]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.09

 

Keywords: dairy, development, agriculture, labourers, milk production, rural area

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10

The great game of china in south asia

 

Bashir Ahmad Dar

 

Ph.D Student, Department of Political Science, University of Kashmir, India

showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The focus of the present paper is China’s engagement with India and Pakistan to fulfill its two ends. On the one hand China tries to maintain the balance of power in the south Asia and checks Indian domination by providing the arms to Pakistan while as, on the other hand, it engages and enhances her trade relations with India so that to control the huge market of India and emerge as a leading economy of the world.

[Bashir Ahmad Dar. The great game of china in south asia. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):48-52]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.10

 

Key words: China, India, Pakistan, Asia

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Gender Access to Productive Asset of Farm Land among Crop Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

 

1*Kayode, AO, 1Okunade, EO and Uzokwe, UN

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria(1* Postgraduate student)

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Delta State University, Asaba campus, Delta State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author Emails: toyinkayode2000@yahoo.com, ayaba0604@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Unequal assess to farm land between the genders which made the female gender disadvantaged and marginalized is a reoccurring issue and a clog in the wheel of agricultural productivity and food security in the developing countries. This is so because the women who are the major food producers are the ones denied the major productive resource which is land, thereby crippling the process of production. Therefore, the study assessed gender access to farm land as productive asset in Kwara State, Nigeria. The minor objectives were to identify the socio-economic characteristics, determine the pattern of farm land access among gender and examine crops grown by gender. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select a sample of 168 respondents for this study comprising of 50% of each gender. Data were collected from the respondents using a semi-structured interview scheduled. Percentages, frequencies, mean, standard deviation and regression were used for data analysis. As the result indicated, due to some cultural reasons male farmers’ had better land access than female counterpart through lease and borrowing from communities, friends, and government. On farm land access, men (90.5%) had more access to farm land than women (54.8%) in terms of personal ownership. Also, men were found to be better off than women in terms of accessing farm land through purchase, inheritance, rentage and gift in the study area. The most popular crops planted among male respondents was yam (100%), groundnut (95.2%), Cassava (65.5%), maize (56.0%). While the women folk cultivated groundnut (85.7%), vegetables (81.0%), sorghum (56.0%), cassava (53.6%), maize (50.0%), cowpea (41.7%) and least was yam (39.3%). The result of hypotheses established that gender (t=9.386) was significant with the pattern of farm land access in the study area. This implies that gender is a major variable that determines farm land access in the study area. To ensure gender equity in farm access, traditional institutions and government need to sensitization and amendment of certain laws to balance the equation on farm land access.

[Kayode, AO, Okunade, EO and Uzokwe, UN. Gender Access to Productive Asset of Farm Land among Crop Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):53-59]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.11

 

Key words: Nigeria, gender, land, farm, crop

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The significance of some ruminant animals as a contributor to livestock national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions nowadays and in the near future under a changing climate

 

Fahim M. A.*1; Kadah M. S.2 and  Abou Hadid A. F. 2

 

1 Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate, P.O.Box 296 Dokki, 12411 Giza, Egypt

2  Climate Change Information Center, Giza, Egypt

ali.mohamed73@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The rearing of animals for domestic consumption invariably lead to the production of methane as a product of digestion. This study investigated the emission of GHG (e.g. methane and NO2) from Egyptian buffalo during a last decade and projection period towards 2050. Approach used: animal population numbers were obtained from a national organization for animal census; estimation of methane was based on the IPCC Tier 1 methods. Available statistics show a significant increase in the numbers of buffalo. Buffalo heads increased to be 4.2m in 2012. Linearized models form was used to estimate animal numbers in 2050, which will be 7.4m heads. Mapping of buffalo population over governorates are created.  Buffalo has emission 48.2% in 2012 from total GHG emission from livestock sector. Total annual emissions of CH4 from buffaloes due to enteric fermentation and manure management revealed an increase from 186.5 Gg in year 1999 and 217.6 Gg in year 2005 to 233.2 Gg in 2012. While, in 2050, total annual GHG emission will increased to be 478.3 Gg with 51% increase than 2012. Regression analysis for projected trends of GHG du to manure management under chaining climate were obtained. The emission of methane from livestock has relatively stabilized in the past few years. This is expected to rise with the aggressive nature of people demands intervention in the agricultural sector with the special emphasis on expansion of cattle and goat population. To stem this expected increase in methane emission requires the formulation and adaptation of appropriate mitigation measures. This calls for further investigation of the factors affecting enteric fermentation and manure management.

[Fahim M. A.; Kadah M. S. and Abou Hadid A. F. The significance of buffalo as a contributor to livestock national greenhouse gas emissions now todays and in the near future under a changing climate. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):60-66]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.12

 

Key Words:  GHG, buffalo, enteric fermentation, manure management, regression analysis.

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DNA's role in helping law court and judgment

 

Mahshid Mahtabi (M.A)1 , Ghobad Naderi (M.A) 2, Seyed Saeid Heidari Taib3

 

1. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: MahshidMahtabi@yahoo.com

2. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

3. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Judge Justice

 

Abstract: The purpose of this research is the role of DNA technology is helping to judge the methodology used for data collection was performed using a library Vazrvsh Mnzvrgrdavry field data file is used Abzarshmarsh This information is necessary to investigate the reliability of the data and analyze the major results of the study indicate shalt Aztjzyh lining properly collect biological samples increases utilization Khvahdshdvmyzan request DNA testing DNA tests on criminal cases increased Also among the mass of biological samples Mvjvddrshnh blood Vbyshtryaft is easily visible.

[Alireza Shakarbigi, Piman Nmamian, Ghobad Naderi Mahshid Mahtabi. DNA's role in helping law court and judgment. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):67-71]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.13

 

Key words: Biotech - DNA typing - Biology Lab - Scientific Discovery crime.

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Religious-legal survey of “Al-mashhura bezena”

 

Pegah Roshan (M.A) (Corresponding author) 1, Jamal Rezaie Hosein Abadi (ph.D) 2

 

1. Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

2. Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

E-mail: Jamal-rezaei@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Al-mashhura bezena is considered to be a woman who earns her living by prostitution. In law and other branches of knowledge including sociology and psychology this word has very affinity of meaning in general and specifically. Importance of these issues is so much that in any historical era it has not been eradicated completely. For example in ancient Greece Aphrodite was known as goddess of beauty and prostitution. In any Aphrodite temple there was a circle called Aphrodite circle which consisted of only young and beautiful woman and girls. Also in the Arabian age of ignorance such women usually set up a flag over their houses. All of revealed religions have reproached prostitution and in some of religions have imposed some penalties on it. But Islam as the most complete religion has established some rules against it in Quran and traditions, the most important one is verse3 surah light. Shiite and Sunnite commentators have commented a lot about marriage with such women. The jurisprudents have divided the religious rules in 3 groups: 1- They can’t get married before repentance.2-Being permitted by divorce. 3- The difference between prostitution and not prostitution. Concerning legal action nothing has been brought into the “Islamic punishment law “directly. This crime thus can be verified in 2 aspects: 1- social (general aspect):Not any specific rule has not been declared about it explicitly but it can be subject to articles 638,637 and 639 of part punishments of Islamic punishment law because continuing and prevalence of this behavior is against public regulations and good ethics (Article 975 of civil law). 2- Jurisprudential: considering the lack of explicit rule on this issue one can referred to articles 167 of constitution according to which: Judge has to try to find the rule of any case in the codified law and if he cannot, referring to credited Islamic sources or credited religious decree issues order for the case and he cannot refuse from verifying the case or from issuing a verdict with the excuse of lack or imperfection or brevity or contradiction of codified law. And article 214 of penal legal procedure rule of revolutionary courts in penal cases specifies that judge, referring jurisprudential texts, must issue a verdict and such an absence of rules is not justifiable and in credited Islamic sources such women have not been neglected and in case of an evidence this act is zena (illicit intercourse) per se and is subject to punishment for adultery which is specified by Saint Legislator in the chapter of Islamic punishments.

[Pegah Roshan, Jamal Rezaie Hosein Abadi. Religious-legal survey of “Al-mashhura bezena”. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):72-78]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 14

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.14

 

Key words: Al-mashhura Bezena, prostitute, shohrat (fame), zena (adultery), hadd (Islamic punishment), Moallana (openly prostitute).

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Determination of bioactive compounds of Punicagranatum punicaceae and studying its antimicrobial activities against bacteria isolated from El-Manzala water treatment planet

 

Haroun B.M. 1, Elghamry A.A. 1, Abdel-Shakour E.H. 1*, Elmorsy S.M. 2 and Zahem Y.H. 1

 

1 Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Bacteriology Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Mansoura, Egypt

*essam_hussain@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Punicagranatum punicaceae was found to be an effective antimicrobial agent especially in the field of water treatment as reviewed in literature. In this study, tow organic solvent [Methanol:H2O; Methanol:Chloroform] extracts of pomegranate peels were screened for the potential antimicrobial activity through well agar diffusion method against 25 bacterial strains isolated from El-Manzala water treatment planet. All the extracts showed inhibitory activities for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The Methanol:Chloroform extract was found to be effective against 23 bacterial strains and the methanol:H2O extract exhibited a higher inhibition activities against 24 bacterial strains. The phytochemical screening of extracts through GC-MS analysis answered for the major derivatives of pomegranate peels bioactive compounds.

[Haroun B.M., Elghamry A.A., Abdel-Shakour E.H., Elmorsy S.M. and Zahem Y.H. Determination of bioactive compounds of Punicagranatum punicaceae and studying its antimicrobial activities against bacteria isolated from El-Manzala water treatment planet. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):79-86]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 15

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.15

 

Keywords: pomegranate peels; GC/MS; antimicrobial activity; agar well diffusion method.

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Controlling Fruit Splitting and Improving Productivity of Manfalouty Pomegranate Trees by Using Salicylic Acid and Some Nutrients

 

Ahmed, F.F.1, Mohamed, M.M.1 Abou El- Khashab, A.M.A.2 and Aeed, S.H.A.2

 

1Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt

2Hort. Res. Instit. A.R.C., Egypt

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An attempt was made for alleviating fruit splitting and improving productivity of Manfalouty pomegranate trees grown under Assiut region conditions by spraying salicylic acid at 100ppm, magnesium sulphate at 0.5%; chelated –Zn at 0.05%, boric acid at 0.05% and calcium chloride at 2% either singly or in all possible combinations. The selected trees received four sprays at the first week of March, April, May and June. Single and combined applications of salicylic acid at 100ppm, magnesium sulphate at 0.5%; chelated –Zn at 0.05%, boric acid at 0.05% and calcium chloride at 2% was very effective in checking fruit splitting and improving yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits. Nutrients were superior than salicylic acid in this respect. The promotion was materially associated with using calcium chloride, boric acid, chelated- Zn, magnesium sulphate and salicylic acid, in descending order. For reducing fruit splitting and improving productivity of Manfalouty pomegranate trees grown under Assiut region conditions, it is suggested to spraying the trees four times with a mixture containing salicylic acid at 100 ppm, magnesium sulphate at 0.5%; chelated –Zn at 0.05%, boric acid at 0.05% and calcium chloride at 2%.

[Ahmed, F.F., Mohamed, M.M., Abou El- Khashab, A.M.A. and Aeed, S.H.A. Controlling Fruit Splitting and Improving Productivity of Manfalouty Pomegranate Trees by Using Salicylic Acid and Some Nutrients. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):87-93]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 16

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.16

 

Keywords: Manfalouty Pomegranate, Salicylic Acid, Nutrients, Growth, Yield and fruit quality.

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Reducing Inorganic N Fertilizer Partially In Hayany Date Palm Orchards By Using Animal And Chicken Manures

 

Al-Wasfy, M.M.M. and Abd El- Rahman, M.M.A.

 

Hort. Dept. Qena Fac. of Agric. South Valley Univ. Egypt.

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2011 and 2012, Hayany date palms grown under dandy soil were fertilized with the suitable N (1200 g N / palm/ year) through 25 to 100% inorganic N, 50% organic N plus 50% animal or chicken manures as well as via 100% animal or chicken manures. The target was adjusting the best ratio and source of organic N fertilizers applied with mineral N source that was responsible for reducing pollution and at the same time improving yield and quality of the fruits. Using the suitable N (1200 g N/ palm/ year) via 50% mineral N plus 50% animal or chicken manure remarkably improved percentages of initial fruit setting and fruit retention, yield, bunch weight and both physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in relative to using N completely via inorganic form or using N as 100% animal or chicken manure. Using chicken manure organic source was superior in this respect than using animal manure source. A great decline on the yield per palm was observed with using N completely via animal or chicken manure (the neglection of using mineral N fertilization). A gradual promotion on fruit quality was observed with reducing inorganic N and increasing organic manures. Under sandy soil conditions, it is recommended to fertilize Hayany date palms with N (1200 g N/ palm/ year) through 50% inorganic (1.8 kg ammonium nitrate/ palm/ year) plus 50% chicken manure (24.0 kg/ palm/ year) for avoiding environment pollution and at the same time improving yield and fruit quality.

[Al-Wasfy, M.M.M. and Abd El- Rahman, M.M.A. Reducing Inorganic N Fertilizer Partially In Hayany Date Palm Orchards By Using Animal And Chicken Manures. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):94-98]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 17

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.17

 

Key words: Hayany date palms, mineral N, animal and chicken; manures, yield and fruit quality.

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Improvement of organizational Performance through the Technology

 

Ali Taheri1, Majid Jamali2, Davood Gharakhani3 (Corresponding author)

 

1 Department of business management, Abhar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abhar, Iran

2,3 Department of Industrial management, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

 

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a research framework to discuss the relationships between technology and organizational performance (OP) in Iran. A lot of researchers have in the past focused on technology transfer, technology acquisition, and technology management in this region. Though some researchers have discussed the relationships between information and communication technology (ICT) and economic growth in developed countries, seldom have studies been conducted to consider the issue of the influences of T on OP in developing and less-developed countries. In this study, a cluster analysis on T achievements is used to distinguish the different patterns of such influences in the Iran.

[Taheri A, Jamali M, Gharakhani D. Improvement of organizational Performance through the Technology. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):99-106]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 18

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.18

 

Keywords: Technology development; organizational performance; technology transfer

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Control of Pathogenic Fungi on Pleurotus tuber-regium cultures

 

Oyelakin AO1., Fasidi IO2., Odebode AC3., Jonathan SG3 and Babalola BJ3.

 

1 College of Agriculture, P.M.B 10 Igboora, Oyo State; 2 Department of Plant Science & Biotechnology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria,3Mycology/Biotechnology Unit, Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

gbolagadejonathan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The inhibitory effect of the pesticides was tested against the growth of the pathogenic fungi associated with cultures of the Pleurotus tuber-regium. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma sp. and Mucor sp. were isolated in the mycelia culture plates of P. tuber-regium.  The pesticides applied were copper sulphate, benlate (benomyl), formalin, ridomil, (metalaxyl), demosan, tecto-60, brestan and kocide. The results obtained indicated that copper sulphate, formalin, brestan and kocide at 50 ppm and 100 ppm showed highly inhibitory effect on the sporulation and mycelia growth of the pathogenic fungi. The effect of CuS04 on A. niger is significantly different from benlate, nacl, ridomil,kocide,na2s204, formalin, tecto-dust and demosan while brestan shows the highest significant effect on A. niger and significantly different from CuS04. NaCl, Tecto-Dust and Demosan produced high significant effect on A. flavus while the effect were non significantly different from each other. The tecto-dust effect on Trichoderma sp is significantly different from formalin on Trichoderma sp. The effect of Tecto-dust is higher Formalin, Tecto-Dust and Demosan Mucor sp and significantly different from all other pesticides used. There is a high significant effect on A. niger at the concentration of 200ppm.The effect of the concentration at 100,200 and 250ppm are non-significantly different for A. flavus but significant different from 0 concentration. The effect of the concentration at 50,100,150, 200 and 250ppm were non significantly different on Trichoderma sp but significantly different from concentration at 0 ppm, also the same effect was recorded for Mucor sp. The effect of pesticides is highly (p<0.01) significant for A. flavus, Trichoderma sp and Mucor sp but non significant for A. niger. The effect of concentration on the A .niger is significant (p<0.05) but highly significant for A. flavus, Trichoderma sp and Mucor sp.  A. niger shows significant relation to A. flavus and Trichoderma sp but non significantly correlated with Mucor sp and negatively related to concentration. The results in this study showed the usage of chemicals to control contaminating fungi.

[Oyelakin AO ., Fasidi IO ., Odebode AC ., Jonathan SG and Babalola BJ . Control of Pathogenic Fungi on Pleurotus tuber-regium cultures. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):107-113]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 19

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.19

 

Keywords: Pleurotus tuber- regium, pathogenic fungi, pesticides, control, inhibitory, sporulation, mycelia growth.

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Survey juridical and legal OF Cancelling

 

Rouholah Haqmoradi (M.A) 1, Hormoz Ghanbari (M.A) 2, Ghobad Naderi (M.A) 3 Younes Ghanbari 4

 

1. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

2. Department of law, Kharazmi University,Tehran, Iran

3. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

4. Department of Law, Islamic Azad University, Ilam science Research Branch

 

Abstract: Cancelling or rescission of agreement between two porgies o contract is for disturbing and abolishing it's effects in future Cancelling is also a kind of contract and it is one of their causes of dissolution of contract beside of options and cancellation (compulsory dissolution of contract) cancelling means in word: negligence and ignoring of an affair anal in term: cancellation of contract from side of Transacting parties after rumoring one of parties and demanding cancellation from that party and admission this demand by another party. There Fore, if one of two parties – suchasclient – remorse’s from the transaction and he/ she is not no wary for Cancellation he/ she requests cancellation of that transaction from the seller and seller also accept and he cancel the sale, transaction cancels, and the request of client is called resignation.

[Rouholah Haqmoradi, Hormoz Ghanbari, Ghobad Naderi, Younes Ghanbari. Survey juridical Andlegal OF Cancelling. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):114-116]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 20

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.20

 

Key words: cancelling, contract, the right of cancellation Introduction.

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Measurement on Forest Ecological Benefits in Forest Industry Group of Heilongjiang Province

 

1Ruisong Qin,  2Changsheng Li

 

School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001, China.

1 Email: qinruisong@126.com

2 Correspondence Author. Email: lichangsheng100@163.com

 

Abstract: The integral diffusion models were established using standardized ecological benefit dependent variable, regional independent variables and stand independent variables. Three important parameters including effective area coefficient, market approximation coefficient and conversion factors (According to the law of substitute goods, State Statistical Yearbook gets a reasonable price of the substitute goods and converts physical forest ecological benefit volume to money factors.). Then forest ecological benefits including water reservation, soil fixation, fertility reservation, C02 absorption, atmosphere purify, microclimate improvement, wind sand suppression, flood and draught mitigation, forest recreation,  animal protection,  plant protection and  noise elimination n Forest Industry Group of Heilongjiang Province were calculated. The total ecological benefit in study area was 17.91 billions RMB .

[Ruisong Qin, Changsheng Li. Measurement on Forest Ecological Benefits in Forest Industry Group of Heilongjiang Province. World Rural Observ 2014;6(1):117-122]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 21

doi:10.7537/marswro060114.21

 

Key words: Forest ecological benefit, Integral diffusion model, Forest Industry Group of Heilongjiang Province

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