Science Journal

 

 World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online); Quarterly

Volume 6 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 20), June 25, 2014
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0602, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1944-6543
 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Role of Women in Agricultural Activities in Abua-Odual Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

 

Emeya Salome

 

Department of Agricultural Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Ndele Campus, P.M.B 5047, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Email – salo_gee@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study focused on role of women in agricultural activities in Abua Odual Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to select five communities from the LGA and 150 women farmers. Information obtained from the women was through interview scheduled on socio-economic characteristics, agricultural activities, agricultural production and their constraints. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data collected. The result revealed that 94% of the respondents were involved in processing, 90% in harvesting and 86% in marketing of farm produce. 80% of the respondents planted pineapple, 60% planted orange and plantain while 40% planted palm fruit and pepper, and about 50% planted cassava and groundnut. The result shows that women produce crops for family consumption and generate income within their locality. The result also revealed that 50% of the respondents’ ages were 41-60years which is the active years of production. 80% of them do not have access to land, 60% of them were married while 40% had primary education. The result showed that women were involved in all farm activities from land clearing to harvesting, processing and marketing of produce. They rear animals and keep poultry. The women constraint include mainly finance, lack of land for farming, poor transportation network, lack of farm input, inaccessibility to modern production technology, poor and weak farmers groups and co-operative unions. Recommendations were made for training of females by extension workers.

[Emeya Salome. Role of Women in Agricultural Activities in Abua-Odual Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):1-6]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.01

 

Key words: Role, Women Farmers, agriculture, activities, Abua-Odual, Rivers State, Nigeria.

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2

An Assessment of Village Chicken Management Practices in Yobe state, Nigeria

 

Sule A Garba1, Abdu P Ayuba 3 , Ajogi I 2 , Umoh Jarlath U 2, Balami Aryhel4

 

1Department of Veterinary Public health and preventive Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria,

2Department of Veterinary Public health and preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria,

3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

4Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

suleadamu@yahoo.co

 

Abstract: A total of 85 questionnaires were administered on village chicken farmers across 17 randomly selected villages in Yobe state, Nigeria to obtain information on village chicken management. About five questionnaires were administered on 5 farmers that were randomly choosing per village. The results showed that most respondents (50.6%) were between 20-40 years old. Whose occupation are mainly farmers (58.3%) who had received primary or Arabic education (78.8%) with more than 5 years (88.2%) of experience in poultry production. Up to 87.1% of the respondents acquired their flocks from the market. Most farmers (71.1%) do not provide housing for their chickens. Up to 68.2% of the respondents provided supplementary feed to their birds. While all the farmers clean their chicken houses and areas where chickens rest, none of them vaccinated chickens against any disease. Rather 36.5% of them administered orthodox drugs, 32.0% administered nothing to sick chickens with only 5.9% of the respondents consulting a Veterinary or Extension Officer when their chickens were sick. Up to 62.4% did not consciously practice isolation of sick from healthy chickens. Most of the respondents (68.2%) consume sick chickens and most of them (69.5%) had experienced over 50% mortality in their flock over the last 1year. Most of the respondents (84.9%) had claimed that chicken mortality was frequent during the dry season. Dead chickens (82.4%) were usually thrown away on the garbage. The result has implication on the epidemiology of Newcastle and other poultry diseases.

[Sule A G, Abdu P A, Ajogi I, Umoh J U, Balami A. An Assessment of Village Chicken Management Practices in Yobe state, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):7-11]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.02

 

Key words: village chickens; management; Newcastle disease.

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3

Injured party’s role to mitigate damages

 

Qassem Salman Daris

 

MA in the field of Law, trend of Private Law at International Azad University, branch of Persian Gulf

 

Abstract: The injured party’s obligation to mitigate damages is an accepted principle in common law, which is a defense by the claimant’s liability. The implication of this principle implies that the injured party has to officially prevent the damage or alleviate its expansion. If the claimant can prove their neglect, the claimant will be exempt of the compensation. On the one hand, this analysis of the agent in our law shows that the enforcement of this principle is logical and simple, and on the other hand, the main realm of the agreements would be unfeasible. The damage treatment principle includes the necessity of the agreed subject in our law and the main compensation instead of the main agreement in common law. One interpretation illustrates the common principle in two systems is different without affecting the necessity of the claimant’s conventional treatment.

[Qassem Salman Daris. Injured party’s role to mitigate damages. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):12-19]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.03

 

Keywords: Damage mitigation, injured party, breach of contract, offense, conventional

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4

Using Some Amino Acids Enriched With Certain Nutrients for Improving Productivity of El- Saidy Date Palms

 

Faissal F. Ahmed1, Ali H. Ali1, Abbas S. Abdalla2 and Ola M.S. Omar1

 

1Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt

2Tropical Fruit Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. ARC Giza, Egypt

FaissalFadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2012 and 2013 seasons, El- Saidy date palms treated twice, thrice or four times with amino acids (tryptophan, methionene and arginine) enriched with NPKMgZnFeMn and B at 0.05 to 0.2%. Growth characters, plant pigments, leaf content of N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu, total carbohydrates %, C/N, yield and fruit quality in response to application of these amino acids and various nutrients were investigated. Foliar application of amino acids enriched with nutrients twice, thrice or four times at 0.05 to 0.2% was very effective in enhancing growth, all nutrients, plant pigments, total carbohydrates %, yield and fruit quality in relative to the check treatment. The promotion was in proportional to the increase in concentrations and frequencies of spraying amino acids enriched with nutrients. Supplying El- Saidy date palms three times with amino acids (tryptophan, methionene and arginine) enriched with NPKMgZnFeMn and B at 0.1% proved to be effective for promot0ing productivity.

[Faissal F. Ahmed, Ali H. Ali, Abbas S. Abdalla and Ola M.S. Omar. Using Some Amino Acids Enriched With Certain Nutrients for Improving Productivity of El- Saidy Date Palms. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):20-27]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.04

 

Keywords: Amino acids, nutrients, growth, plant pigments, yield, fruit quality and El Saidy date palms.

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5

The Promotive Impact of Using Silicon and Selenium with Potassium and Boron on Fruiting of Valencia Orange Trees Grown Under Minia Region Conditions

 

Ibrahim, H. I. M. * and Al-, M. M.**

 

*Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

**Hort. Dept. Qena Fac. of Agric. South Valley Univ. Egypt.

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2011 and 2012 seasons, Valencia orange trees received four sprays of boric acid at 0.05 % and/ or potassium sulphate at 0.5 % either alone or in combined with application of potassium silicate at 0.1 % and sodium selenite at 50 ppm. This study focused on elucidating the synergistic effects of using silicon and selenium besides boron and/ or potassium on fruiting of the trees. Results revealed that using silicon and/ or selenium along with boron and potassium effectively enhanced growth characters, nutritional status of the trees, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in relative to using boron and/ or potassium alone. Spraying all nutrients either singly or in all combinations was very effective in this connection rather than non- application. Using silicon with boron and potassium was superior than spraying selenium plus boron and potassium and silicon and selenium with boron and potassium together was preferable than using each alone. Treating Valencia orange trees grown under Minia region conditions four times with a mixture of boric acid at 0.05 % + potassium sulphate at 0.5 % + potassium silicate (as a source of silicon) at 0.1 % + sodium selenite (as a source of selenium) at 50 ppm gave the best results with regard yield and fruit quality.

[Ibrahim, H. I. M. and Al- Wasfy, M. M. The Promotive Impact of Using Silicon and Selenium with Potassium and Boron on Fruiting of Valencia Orange Trees Grown Under Minia Region Conditions. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):28-36]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.05

 

Key words: potassium, boron, silicon, selenium, Valencia orange, yield & fruit quality.

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6

mplementation of Wage Employment Programme in District Anantnag (J&K)

 

Shabir Ahmad Padder and G.M. Bhat

 

1.Teacher Fellow, Department of Economics, University of Kashmir, J & K, India

2.Professor, H.O.D of Economics & Dean School of Social Science, Central University of Kashmir, J & K, India

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Government of India is implementing a number of Centrally Sponsored Schemes in the areas of rural development throughout the Country, including Jammu and Kashmir. The main objectives of all these schemes are to generate employment, reduce poverty & economic inequality and improve the quality of life. Besides, some of these schemes aim at creation of basic infrastructure and assets essential for economic development in rural areas. Despite the fact that huge allocations have been made by the Central Government through Rural Development Programmes in Jammu and Kashmir, the development in basic infrastructure and improvements in amenities/facilities has not been adequate, especially in rural areas of the state. The standard of living of the people has not improved to the desired extent and the employment opportunities for the youths are few and far between. Hence, it becomes imperative at this stage to know as to what extent these schemes have been in a position to achieve the stated objectives. Such an exercise will help to identify the problems/short comings in implementing these schemes. It will also help the policy makers and implementing agencies to introduce the necessary interventions to enhance the efficiency of the programmes and to ensure better utilization of the resources. It is in this context that present study titled; “Appraisal of Post 1999 Rural Development Programmes in District Anantnag” was undertaken. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 (NREGA) guarantees 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to any rural household whose adult members are willing to participate in unskilled manual work The Act is an important step towards realization of the right to work and aims at arresting out-migration of rural households in search of employment simultaneously enhancing people’s livelihood on a sustained basis, by developing the economic and social infrastructure in rural areas.

[Shabir Ahmad Padder and G.M. Bhat. Implementation of Wage Employment Programme in District Anantnag (J&K). World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):37-43]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.06

 

Keywords: MGNREGA, Implementation, Appraisal, Financial year, Infrastructure.

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7

Design, Fabrication and Testing of Cassava Chipping Machine

 

Oladeji, J. T.

 

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

research222a@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A 0.75 m x 1m x 1.07 m (0.8025 m3) capacity cassava chipper was designed, fabricated and tested. The main features of the machine are: the frame and stand; the hopper, the chipping mechanism, the outlet chute; the shaft and bearings, and the power transmission unit. These component parts depending on their functions were made from cast iron, mild and stainless steel and aluminium. The uniqueness of the machine is that, the chipper can be operated using 3.75kW gasoline motor or manually operated by using the handle connected to the shaft. When tested with the 3.75 kW gasoline motor and manually driven, fine chips were produced with an average working capacity of 346 kg/hr and 36.28 kg/hr respectively. The efficiency of the machine was found to be 87.09% when powered with 3.75 kW gasoline motor and 91.83% when manually operated. The estimated cost of the machine is approximated to be N84, 500.00.

[Oladeji, J. T. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Cassava Chipping Machine. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):44-47]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.07

 

Key words: Cassava, chipping machine, capacity, chipping efficiency.

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8

Attempts for Reducing Alternate Bearing in Balady Mandarin Trees by Spraying Some Amino Acids and Vitamins

 

Faissal F.A.;* Moawad, A.M.*, Yousef, A.H.** and Hassan, S.H.E. **

 

* Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

** Citriculture Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. ARC, Giza, Egypt.

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract : During 2012 and 2013 seasons, Balady mandarin trees on two fruiting states namely off and on years received there sprays of vitamins K, E, D, A and B complex (B1+B2+B6+ B12) each at 50 ppm and amino acids namely methionene, tyrptophan and cystene at 0.05 %. The target was finding out the relation between fruiting state and using these antioxidants.  Single and combined applications of all vitamins and amino acids was favourable in enhancing growth, vine nutritional status, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits rather than non- application. A great reduction on alternate bearing was observed with using all vitamins and amino acids together three times. Using amino acids was superior than using vitamins in this respect. Using all vitamins and amino acids was superior than using each alone in this respect.  Treating Balady mandarin trees on off year fruiting state three times with a mixture of vitamins K, E, D, A and B (B1+B2+B6+ B12) and amino acids ( methionene, tyrptophan and cystene) at 0.05 % was very effective in controlling alternate bearing and at the same time improving yield and fruit quality.

[Faissal F.A.; Moawad, A.M., Yousef, A.H. and Hassan, S.H.E. Attempts for Reducing Alternate Bearing in Balady Mandarin Trees by Spraying Some Amino Acids and Vitamins. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):48-57]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.08

 

Keywords:  Balady mandarin trees, vitamins, amino acids, alternate bearing, yield and fruit quality.

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9

Relation of Yield and Berries Quality of Thompson Seedless Grapevines to Foliar Application of Some Vitamins

 

Abdelaal; A.H.M.1, El- Masry, S. E. M. A1; Abd El- Wahab, M.A.2 and Abd El- Latief M.M. H.2

 

1Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. El- Azhar Univ. Assiut , Egypt.

2Viticulture Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. ARC, Giza, Egypt

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out during 2012 and 2013 seasons to examine the effect of single and combined application of three vitamins namely A at 100 ppm, B (B1+B2+B6+ B12) at 50 ppm and C at 500 ppm on growth , vine nutritional status , yield and quality of Thompson seedless grapes. The vines received four sprays of these vitamins at growth start, just before bloom and berry setting and at one month later. Single and combined application of these vitamins namely A at 100 ppm, B- complex at 50 ppm and C at 500 ppm four times was very effective in enhancing shoot length, leaf area, chlorophylls a & b, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids, leaf content of N, P, K, berry setting %, yield and quality of the berries in relative to the check treatment This promotion was associated with using vitamins A, B and C , in ascending order . in all cases, Combined applications of these vitamins were favourable in enhancing growth, vine nutritional status, yield and berries quality comparing with using each vitamin alone. Four sprays of a mixture of vitamins A at 100 ppm, B ((B1+B2+B6+ B12) at 50 ppm and C at 500 ppm succeeded  in promoting yield and quality of Thompson seedless grapes.

[Abdelaal; A.H.M., El- Masry, S. E. M. A; Abd El- Wahab, M.A. and Abd El- Latief M.M. H. Relation of Yield and Berries Quality of Thompson Seedless Grapevines to Foliar Application of Some Vitamins. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):58-64]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.09

 

Keywords: Vitamins A, B & C, Thompson seedless grapevines, yield and berries quality.

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10

Evaluation the effect of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy skills on emotional intelligence

 

Farnaz Dada

 

Lecturer in Payam-e-Noor University, Doolatabad, Isfahan

 

Abstract: Cognitive-behavioral is a new developmentally sensitive psychosocial intervention for pediatric bipolar disorder that is intended for use along with medication. Participants included 34 male and female (mean age 12.20 years, SD = 2.98) who were treated in a specialty clinic. All higher quality studies reported positive effects favoring the cognitive-behavioral treatment program. Specifically, positive reductions in recidivism were observed for moral recognition therapy, reasoning and rehabilitation, and various cognitive-restructuring programs. The evidence suggests the effectiveness of cognitive skills and cognitive restructuring approaches as well as programs that emphasize moral teachings and reasoning.

[Farnaz Dada. Evaluation the effect of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy skills on emotional intelligence.. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):65-71]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.10

 

Key words: cognitive-behavioral, psychotherapy, emotional intelligence

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Microbial Contaminants of Wooden Toothpicks in Abakaliki Metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 

Elom, Michael Okpara1, Ugah, Uchenna Iyioku2 and Omote, Victor1

 

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo

ugahuchennaiyioku@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Evaluation of microbial contaminants of wooden toothpicks was carried out in Abakaliki metropolis, of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A total of one hundred (100) samples comprising of ten (10) toothpicks each from four different sources within six zones were analyzed for microbes, using wet preparation techniques, concentration techniques, culture, and biochemical tests. Out of the 80 (eighty) test samples analyzed, 53 (66%) showed microbial contamination while 27 (34%) were sterile. Of the 53 positive samples, 24 (45%) gave mixed contaminations while 29 (55%) were contaminated by single microbes. Bacteria accounted for the highest contamination (positive for 42 samples out of the 53) while parasites were recovered from 2 samples only. Ogoja Road and Ishieke village showed the highest rates of contamination with 78% and 77% respectively while PRESCO and CAS campuses gave 57% and 54% contaminations respectively. Samples collected from restaurants showed 86% contamination while those collected from eateries gave 54% contamination. Yeast cells and fungal spores contaminated 22 (twenty-two) and 18 (eighteen) of the 53 positive samples respectively while staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were the most recorded bacteria with prevalence of 8 (eight) each. Proteus and Salmonella contaminated 2 (two) samples each while Giardia lambia and Ascaris lumbricoides were isolated from one sample.

[Elom, Michael Okpara, Ugah, Uchenna Iyioku and Omote, Victor. Microbial Contaminants of Wooden Toothpicks in Abakaliki Metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):72-76]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.11

 

Keywords: Toothpick, contaminants, restaurants

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Diseases of a (Claries gariepinus) Fresh Water Fish  from River Kaduna, Nigeria.

 

*Emere M C * D M Dibal

 

*Department of Biological Sciences, Nigerian Defense Academy P M B 2109 Kaduna,    Nigeria

*Phone number of the corresponding author: +2348065482681

* E-mail of the corresponding author:  otichiemere@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Investigations into the diseases of Claries gariepinus from river Kaduna, Nigeria was carried out. The diseases found include Head and Lateral line erosions, skin lacerations, fin rots, velvet and ich: The bacterial diseases occurred more among the fishes but the ich disease was not commonly encountered. The female were more infected than the male whilst larger and heavier fishes had more disease infect.

[ Emere M C, D M Dibal. Diseases of a (Claries gariepinus) Fresh Water Fish  from River Kaduna, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):77-81]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.12

 

Keywords: Diseases, Claries gariepinus, River Kaduna.

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A Study of Attitude of Male and Female Secondary School Teachers in Srinagar

 

Nighat Basu and Shabir Ahmad Bhat

 

1.       Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Kashmir, J&K, India

2.       Assistant Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Kashmir, J&K, India

 

ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to compare the undergraduate male and female secondary school teachers. The sample for the present study consisted of 400 teachers in which 200 were male teachers and 200 were female teachers. The investigators used S.P. Alluwalia Teacher Attitude Inventory to assess the attitude of sample subjects. The investigators used various statistical techniques viz, mean, S.D., t-test to analyze the data. The statistical data revealed that there is significant difference between male and female secondary school teachers on attitude. Female teachers were found to have better attitude towards teaching as compared to male teachers.

[Nighat Basu and Shabir Ahmad Bhat. A Study of Attitude of Male and Female Secondary School Teachers in Srinagar. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):82-85]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.13

 

Keywords: attitude, male, female, teachers

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Mineral composition, Antioxidants and Antimicrobial activities of freshwater algae (spirogyra genus) from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT).

 

Rutikanga Adrien1, Leonard Mwangi Gitu2, Nathan Oyaro3

 

1 Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya

3 Department of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, school of Science, Maasai Mara University, Narok, Kenya

rutikad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Dry biomass of algae is a good source of nutrients and biologically active substances, which in the recent years attracted the interest of the specialists in their search for natural, ecologically and healthy sound foods for the animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the mineral composition, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the dry biomass of freshwater algae (spirogyra genus). The freshwater algae were collected in February and March 2010 at the pond of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). The Mineral content by acid digestion (HNO3:HClO4) in mg /100g was : 387.22 38.72 Ca, 384.99 39.17 Mg, 244.4417.10 Fe, 2.53 0.48 Cu, 7.25 0.55 Zn, Phytochemical screening of methanolic and water extract showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, but only the water extract showed the presence of total reducing sugars. The content of phenolic compounds and tannins was 10.63 0.05g gallic acid/100g of extract and 0.399 0.02g tannic acid/100g of dried sample and the level of flavonoids was 6.86 0.14g Quercetin/100g of extract. The algal antioxidant activity expressed in a dose able to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50%, or IC50 was 0.078 mg/ml. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract was efficient against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The water extract didn’t show any activity. The freshwater algae used in this study were identified as Spirogyra nitida associated Spirogyra weberi both filamentous green algae. The mineral composition showed that they contain minerals which give the possibility of using them as food for fish and also by human as food supplement. The levels of Ca, Mg and Fe were very high as the Spirulina and Chlorella are used as food supplement. The strains showed a relative antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

[Rutikanga A., Mwangi GL.Oyaro N. Mineral composition, Antioxidants and Antimicrobial activities of freshwater algae (spirogyra genus) from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):86-91]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 14

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.14

 

Key words: Spirogyra, chemical composition, mineral composition

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Trials for Reducing Pollution and Improving Productivity of Valencia Orange Trees

 

Faissal, F. Ahmed1;  Aly, H. Aly1; Tawfiek A., Ebrahiem2 and Huda M.H. Ismael2

 

1Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia univ. Egypt

2 Citriculture Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. ARC, Giza

Faissalfadel@yahoo.com  

 

Abstract: During 2011/ 2012 and 2012/ 2013 seasons, Valencia orange trees fertilized with N as 100% inorganic N , as well as 37.5 to 75% inorganic N + 12.5 % organic + 50 to 400 ml EM/ tree and/ or foliar fertilized with amino acids (tryptophan, methionene and arginine) enriched with NPKMgFeZnFe and B. Leaf area, nutritional status of the trees, yield , physical and chemical characteristics of fruits as well as nitrate and nitrite in the juice in response to the present treatments were investigated. The impact of these treatments on the amount of CO2, nitrogenase activity and total counts of bacteria in the soil was also studied. Results showed that using N as 50 to 75% inorganic + 12.5% organic + 50 to 200 ml EM/ tree was superior than using N as 100% inorganic N or as 37.5% inorganic N + 12.5 organic N + 400 ml EM/ tree in improving the leaf area, total chlorophylls, leaf content of N, P, K and Mg, initial fruit setting%, fruit retention % and yield. The same trend was observed with foliar application of amino acids enriched with nutrients. Decreasing percentages of mineral N from 100 to 37.5% and increasing levels of EM from 0.0 to 400 ml / tree caused a gradual promotion on both physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits as well as amounts of CO2, nitrogenase activity and total counts of bacteria in the soil. A progressive reduction on both nitrate and nitrite in the juice was observed with reducing percentages of inorganic N and increasing levels of EM. Application of amino acids enriched with nutrients materially improved fruit quality. The best results with regard to yield and fruit quality of Valencia orange trees were obtained with supplying the trees with N as 50% inorganic N + 12.5 % organic + 200 ml EM / tree in combined with spraying amino acids enriched with nutrients at 0.1 % three times.

[Faissal, F. Ahmed; Aly, H. Aly; Tawfiek A., Ebrahiem and Huda M.H. Ismael. Trials for Reducing Pollution and Improving Productivity of Valencia Orange Trees. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):92-101]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 15

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.15

 

Keywords: EM, amino acids, nutrients and Valencia orange trees.

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Reducing Inorganic N Partially in Zaghloul Date Palm Orchards by Using Humic Acid and Effective Microorganisms

 

Faissal F. Ahmed1; Hamdy I.M. Ibrahim1 and Mohamed Kh. Kamel2

 

1 Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt

2 Experts of Ministry of Justice, Minia, Egypt

faissalfadel@yahoo.com, Hamdi20052005@yahoo.com  

 

Abstract: Zaghloul date palms fertilized with N (1000 g N / palm/ year) via 100% inorganic N as well as through 25 to 75% inorganic besides humic acid and EM each at 50 to 200 ml/ palm/ year during 2012 and 2013 seasons. Area of pinnae and leaf, leaf content of N, P, K and Mg, yield and fruit quality in response to different N management treatments were investigated. Application of N via 50 to 75% inorganic plus 50 to 200 ml humic acid and EM significantly improved the area of pinnae and leaf, N, P, K and Mg in the leaves, yield as well as fruit quality and total counts of bacteria in the soil over the check treatment (using N via inorganic N at 100%) or when inorganic N was applied at 25%. A significant reduction on all characters was observed with reducing inorganic N from 50 to 25% even with the application of humic acid and EM each at 50 to 200 ml/ tree. The promotion was associated with increasing levels of both humic acid and EM. Increasing levels of both humic acid and EM from 100 to 200 ml/ tree had a slight effect. Using N as 50% inorganic + 100 ml humic acid + 100 ml EM/ palm gave the best results with regard to yield and fruit quality of Zaghloul date palms

[Faissal F. Ahmed; Hamdy I.M. Ibrahim and Mohamed Kh. Kamel. Reducing Inorganic N Partially in Zaghloul Date Palm Orchards by Using Humic Acid and Effective Microorganisms. World Rural Observ 2014;6(2):102-110]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 16

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.16

 

Key words: Humic acid, EM and Zaghloul date palms.

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17

A Study on Seemingly Unrelated Model of Forest Ecological Benefit

 

Bi Lei1 , Li Changsheng2, Xue Yu3

 

 1School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, China

2School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, China

3Correspondence author,  School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, China

Email - xueyuhenry@126.com, bl9999456@126.com

 

Abstract: Based on a modern statistical model, which is seemingly unrelated model, the paper defines the dependent and the independent variable set of forest ecological benefit, and then formulates seemingly unrelated model of forest ecological benefit, and finally devises three methods to solve least square estimation of seemingly unrelated model, GM estimation of parameter when covariance matrixis given, and GM estimation of parameter  when covariance matrix is unknown.

[Bi Lei, Li Changsheng, Xue Yu. A Study on Seemingly Unrelated Model of Forest Ecological Benefit. World Rural Observations 2014; 6(2):111-115]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 17

doi:10.7537/marswro060214.17

 

 

Key Words: Forest Ecological Benefit; Seemingly Unrelated Model; Solution

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