Science Journal

 

World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)  (Quarterly)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online)

Volume 6 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 21), September 25, 2014
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0603; doi:10.7537/j.issn.1944-6543
 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Performance of Tertiary Sector in J&K Economy (1981-2011)

 

Bilal Ahmad Sheikh and Dr. Imtiyaz-ul-haq

 

1.Research Scholar, Department of Economics, University of Kashmir

2.Sr. Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, University of Kashmi

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract The Tertiary Sector (also known as the Services Sector) plays a pivotal role in the Jammu & Kashmir’s economic development and constitutes a major part of the economy of the State both in terms of employment potential and its contribution to the State Income. In 2011, it constitutes more than 52 percent of the NSDP as well as 54 percent in employment share in the state economy. There is high degree of output and employment equality in the tertiary sector of the state economy which represents income and productivity equalities in the tertiary sector in the state economy. The study, as a whole, highlights the performance of tertiary sector in the state economy.

[Sheikh BA, Imtiyaz-ul-haq. Performance of Tertiary Sector in J&K Economy (1981-2011). World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):1-7]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.01

 

Keywords: Tertiary sector, NSDP, Linking Factor, output and employment equality, Employment elasticity of output.

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1

2

Using Plant Extracts and Chemical Rest Breakages for Breaking Bud Dormancy and Improving Productivity of Superior Grapevines Growing Under Hot Climates

 

Faissal F. Ahmed*; Hamdy, I.M. Ibrahim* Mohamed A.M. Abada** and Mohamed M.M. Osman***

 

*Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt. *Viticulture Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. A.RC, Giza, Egypt.

*** Ministry of Justice Experts, Qena, Egypt.

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2012 & 2013 seasons, Superior grapevines growing under hot climates were exposed to ten plant extracts namely turmeric at 5%; cinnamon at 10%, ginger at 10%, colocynth at 5%; nigella at 5%, olive at 5%, clove at 5% , garlic at 5% , red chellies at 5%; and coffee at 10% as well as four chemical agents namely H2O2 at 10%, salicylic acid at 5 to 10%; thiourea at 2 to 8% and Dormex at 1 to 65. The vines received one spray when they received 200 and 210 chilling hours during 2012 and 2013 season , respectively (14th Jan.). The merit was testing the effect of these rest breakages on breaking dormancy and improving yield and quality of such grapevine cv. Using all natural and chemical rest breakages was very effective in breaking bud dormancy, hastening maturity and improving the yield and quality of the berries over the check treatments. The promotion was associated with using Dormex, thiourea, salicylic acid, H2O2 and plant extracts, in descending order. The best four plant extracts were coffee, red chellies, garlic and clove, in descending order. The best results with regard to breaking dormancy and promoting yield and quality of Superior grapevines growing under hot climates were obtained with using Dormex at 4% when the vines received 200 or 210 chilling hours (14th of Jan.). This study gives evidence to the possibility of using plant extracts as coffee, red chillies, garlic and clove as naturals and safety substances in breaking bud dormancy .

[Faissal F. Ahmed; Hamdy, I.M. Ibrahim; Mohamed A.M. Abada and Mohamed M.M. Osman. Using Plant Extracts and Chemical Rest Breakages for Breaking Bud Dormancy and Improving Productivity of Superior Grapevines Growing Under Hot Climates. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):8-18]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.02

 

Keywords: plant extracts, chemical rest breakages, Superior grapevines.

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3

Greying Population – Issues and Challenges: Role of Lifelong Learning

 

Dr. G. H. Mir

 

Director, Directorate of Lifelong Learning, University of Kashmir

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The changing demographic Scenario where large segment of the countries population striving to lead an active life after stepping into old age is rising significantly. The remarkable achievements in medical sciences, preventive / curative measures, assistive technology, developmental initiatives, quality of life and other rehabilitative measures, better nourishments, family welfare schemes and increasing literacy rates contributed meaningfully in health consciousness which inevitably resulted in declining trend in fertility, birth and death rates and promoted increase in life span of the older persons beyond expectation. This is significantly considered one of the humanitys greatest triumphs. The census of 2001 estimated India’s elderly population at 77 million. The annual growth rate is higher (3%) as compared to the growth rate of total population.

[Dr. G. H. Mir. Greying Population – Issues and Challenges: Role of Lifelong Learning. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):19-25]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.03

 

Keywords: Greying, Population, Issues, Challenges, Lifelong Learning

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4

Slow Tourism Development Using Ecological Potentials in Case Study of Naein Town, Iran

 

Majid Rahmani Seryasat1,*, Mohammad Salmani2, Mojtaba Ghadiri Maesoum3

 

1. Ms.c Student, Geography and Tourism Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2. Accosiat Prof. Geography And Rural Planninng , University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3. Prof. Geography And Rural Planninng , University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding Author Email: Ma.Rahmani@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The great importance of tourism in economic, political, and cultural field as well as the ever-increasing growth of destruction of subterranean and natural resources have made the existence of slow tourism significant as a filter to prevent from their destruction, since slow travelling is coordinated and consistent with some of the purposed values in ecotourism and there is no doubt that sustainable growth and development of tourism requires the flourishing of this tourism type in Iran and the world. The current research has been carried out in Naein, Iran and with enjoying a lot of potentials and capabilities, this area is one of the regions which can be employed for slow tourism. The current investigation is intended to examine the slow tourism development through local potentials in the region. Methodology of this study is descriptive- analytic and the given data were collected through questionnaire and its face validity and reliability were confirmed with Cronbach's alpha of 0.80. Also, data were analyzed using SPSS software and statistical tests were conducted. The results indicated that using some variables such as historical buildings and houses (mean value of 4.56), citizens participation with host community in tourism growth of region (mean value of 4.83), using camel as vehicle for transportation (mean value of 4.65) that have the highest mean values have resulted in increasing and developing occupational and financial opportunities for the host community at mean value of 4.56. The simple linear regression analysis indicates that economic predictor variable in the studied region (0.735) might interpret variance of development dimension of slow tourism by the means of the potentials in the studied region, beta coefficient is 0.735. In other words, the dependent economic variable will change up to 0.735 per unit change in independent variable of slow tourism.

[Majid Rahmani Seryasat, Mohammad Salmani, Mojtaba Ghadiri Maesoum. Slow tourism development using ecological potentials in the case study of Naein town, Iran. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):26-35]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.04

 

Keywords: Tourism, Slow Tourism, Ecological Potentials, Naein, Iran.

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5

Technical Evaluation of Drip Irrigation Systems (Case Study of  Shahid Rajaayi Agro-Industry – Dezful)

 

Mostafa Ashiri1, Saeed Boroomand-Nasab2, Abdolrahim Hooshmand2

 

1-       M.S Student, Irrigation and Drainage Department, Shahid Chamaran University of Ahvaz-Iran

2-       Irrigation and Drainage Department, Shahid Chamaran University of Ahvaz-Iran

boroomand@scu.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Correct and essential design is one of the important factors in development and improvement of pressurized irrigation systems. This research was performed using Miriam-Keller method in order to investigate drip irrigation system implemented in Shahid Rajaayi Agro-Industry, Dezful. To do this, five systems were selected as a drip irrigation system. These systems were different in terms of lateral pipe layout and nominal discharge of drippers. Drippers used in these systems were Compensating Emitters with 2.2, 4 and 8 liters/hour Flow rates and had parallel and pig-tail configurations. To evaluate irrigation systems, Christiansen Uniformity Coefficient (CU), Emission Uniformity (EU), Potential Efficiency of Low Quarter (PELQ) and Actual Efficiency of Low Quarter (AELQ) parameters were used. Mean values of the above parameters in the evaluated systems were obtained 95.12%, 91.68%, 82.91% and 91.2%, respectively. Among systems evaluated, System D from Plot 110, with pig-tail lateral layout and 8 liter/hour drippers was selected as the best system in terms of measured parameters. Values of Uniformity Coefficient (CU), Emission Uniformity (EU), Potential Efficiency of Low Quarter (PELQ) and Actual Efficiency of Low Quarter (AELQ) for this system were 98, 95.8, 86.22 and 95.8 percent, respectively. Values of Emission Uniformity obtained for the evaluated five systems were in "Perfect" class. Low difference of values of PELQ and AELQ indicates good management of these systems and suitable design of them.

[Ashiri, M., Boro0mand-Nasab S., Hooshmand A. Technical Evaluation of Drip Irrigation Systems (Case Study of  Shahid Rajaayi Agro-Industry – Dezful). World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):36-43]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.05

 

Keywords: Evaluation of Drip Irrigation, Emission Uniformity, Uniformity Coefficient, Dezful.

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6

Profitability Of Traditional Honey Production In Zuru Emirate, Kebbi State, Nigeria.

 

Musa D Baba1, Jamilu S Dabai2, Ishaq D Sanchi1,  Amina Y Sabo1

 

1Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Kebbi State College of Agriculture Zuru, Nigeria.

2Department of Agricultural Technology, Kebbi State College of Agriculture Zuru, Nigeria.

Email: musababs1970@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study examined the profitability traditional honey production in Zuru Emirate of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used for the study. The first stage involved selecting districts using proportionate random sampling technique, from Danko-Wasagu, Fakai, Sakaba and Zuru Local Government Areas of the Emirate. The second stage involved selecting purposively two villages from each of the districts selected. The third stage involved selecting honey producers using proportionate random sampling technique. Thus, one Hundred and forty five (145) honey producers constitute the sample size for the study. Primary data were collected using interview schedule. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, farm budgeting technique, financial analysis and Pearson product moment correlation. Result revealed that majority of honey producers in the study area were young and honey production is dominated by males (67.6%). About 69.7% of honey producers in the study area were married. Majority of honey producers in the study area were literate, only 13.8% of honey producers in the study area take honey production as their primary occupation. 42.1% of honey producers in the study area were within the range of 1 – 5 years’ experience in honey production. The budgetary analysis revealed that variable cost amounted to N3, 880.46 accounting for 69.1% of the total cost of honey production, while fixed cost amounted to N1, 737.31 accounting for the remaining 30.9% of the total cost of honey production in the study area.  The total revenue of honey production was N27, 817.17 and the net farm income was N22, 199.40, indicating that honey production in the study area was profitable. Profitability index (PI) was 0.79; rate of return on investment was estimated at 395.2% and capital turnover (CTO) is 4.95. However, the major problem faced by honey producers in traditional honey production in the study area was inadequate capital, while on the test of hypothesis; no significant relationship was established between socio-economic characteristics of honey producers included in the analysis and profit in honey production. The hypothesis is therefore accepted. It is therefore recommended that loan facilities should be sought by honey producers in the study area to facilitate increase in scale of production and the adoption of modern techniques of honey production.

[Musa D Baba, Jamilu S Dabai, Ishaq D Sanchi,  Amina Y Sabo. Profitability Of Traditional Honey Production In Zuru Emirate, Kebbi State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):44-49]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.06

 

Key words: Profitability, Traditional, Honey, Production, Zuru Emirate

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7

Investigation the effect of percent and ratio of length to diameter (l/d) in steel fiber on the compressive strength of fiber concrete

 

Kazem Yavari nasab1, Elahe sadat Mirkhalili2

 

1. Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University, Sadoughi Faculty of Engineering, Yazd, Iran

2. Department of Architecture, University of Payam Noor, Bandar Abbas Branch, Iran

yavari_nasab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Conventional concrete is a relatively brittle material, while the fibrous concrete in the construction of the addition of cement, aggregates, water and additives, the fibers in the concrete mix used, because it has a higher strength and has the property to prevent cracking and fiber strands are actively involved in limiting the crack width and increasing capacity utilization is concrete, it is superior compared to conventional concrete. The use of fibers in concrete to changes in compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength, resistance to dynamic loads, cross-resistance against cracking, the rate of energy absorption, the rate of shrinkage, creep and wear of the surface. As a result of the behavior of fiber concrete strength should be studied. This paper is the result of laboratory research on the effects of the length to diameter ratio of steel fiber concrete compressive strength of the fiber is analyzed.

[Kazem Yavari nasab, Elahe sadat Mirkhalili. Investigation the effect of percent and ratio of length to diameter (l/d) in steel fiber on the compressive strength of fiber concrete. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):50-56]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.07

 

Key words: fiber concrete, steel fiber, Compressive strength, ratio of length to diameter of the fibers

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8

Response of Superior Grapevines to Foliar Application of Some Micronutrients, Calcium, Amino Acids and Salicylic Acid

 

Faissal F. Ahmed1; Ahmed H.M. Abdelaal2; Salah, E.M.A. El- Masry2 and Wael, B.M.M. Farag2

 

1Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt

2Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Al Azhar Univ. Assiut branch Egypt

E mail: failssalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out during 2012 and 2013 seasons to examine the effect of treating Superior grapevines four times with chelated Zn, Fe and Mn each at 0.05%, calcium chloride at 0.05%, amino acids (tryptophane, methionene and cysteine) at 0.05 % and salicylic acid at 50 ppm on fruiting of the vines. Foliar application of micronutrients (Zn, Fe and Mn) and calcium besides amino acids/ or salicylic acid was very effective in enhancing the leaf area, weight of prunings, percentages of N, P, K and Mg in the leaves, yield and berries quality of Superior grapes over the check treatment. Using all nutrients, amino acids and salicylic acid gave the best results relatively to all the investigated treatments. The best results with regard to yield and quality of Superior grapes were obtained owing to spraying the vines four times with a mixture containing Zn, Fe and Mn in chelated form at 0.05%, calcium chloride at 0.05%, amino acids (tryptophane, methionene and cysteine) at 0.05% and salicylic acid at 50 ppm. This promised treatment materially controlled the phenomenon of shot berries in the clusters.

[Faissal F. Ahmed; Ahmed H.M. Abdelaal; Salah, E.M.A. El- Masry and Wael, B.M.M. Farag. Response of Superior Grapevines to Foliar Application of Some Micronutrients, Calcium, Amino Acids and Salicylic Acid. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):57-64]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.08

 

Keywords: Micronutrients, calcium, amino acids, salicylic acid, growth, yield and fruit quality

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9

Impact of ICT-based Initiative (Mobile Phone) On Market Access by Women Farmers in Nigeria,

 

Oluwatoyin B. Chete1, Subuola B. Fasoyiro2

 

1WOAFA Centre for Development Policy and Management, Ibadan.Nigeria

2Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Ibadan, NIGERIA

cheteob@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Information and communication technology (ICT) is a novel and crucial kernel of the Nigerian government agricultural service delivery architecture. The initiative has the principal objective of delivering government subsidised inputs directly to farmers through their GSM telephone sets. There is considerable evidence that women smallholder farmers’ access to markets is constrained by asymmetric information which causes moral hazard, raises transaction costs, impedes output performance, squeezes income and exacerbates poverty. ICT-based market interventions is therefore a potentially useful tool for improving women farmers’ access to markets for agricultural produce by providing timely, reliable and accurate information about actual market conditions. The basic objective of the study is to assess the degree to which ICT (mobile phones) enhances market access by women farmers. The methodology involves gathering primary data from women farmers in Nigeria which are analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics and a regression model. The results show that the scheme is hampered by poor literacy, poor understanding on use of ICT for agricultural transactions and lack of mobile phones by some farmers. Despite these challenges, the study found high rate of adoption of mobile phones for agricultural purposes by women farmers and increased aptitude of farmers to access market to sell their products.

[Chete OB, Fasoyiro SB. Impact of ICT-based Initiative (Mobile Phone) On Market Access by Women Farmers in Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):65-71]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.09

 

Key words: e-wallet, ICT, transaction cost, Nigeria, asymmetric information, Gender, moral hazard, inputs

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10

Response Of Sakkoti And Bartemuda Date Palms To Spraying Seaweed Extract

 

Faissal F.Ahmed1 Moawad A.Mohamed1; Ahmed Y.Mohamed2 and Mostafa S. Abd El aaty1

 

1Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt

2Tropical Fruits Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. ARC. Giza, Egypt

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2012 & 2013 seasons both date palm cvs  Sakkoti and Bartemuda were subjected to spraying with seaweed extract three or four times at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% . Growth, palm nutritional status and productivity in such two date palm cvs in response to seaweed extract treatments were investigated. Carrying out three or four sprays of seaweed extract at 0.05 to 0.2 % was very effective in enhancing growth characters, total chlorophylls, different nutrients, yield and fruit  quality relatively to the check treatment. The promotion was associated with increasing concentrations and frequencies of seaweed extract.  The best results with regard to yield and fruit quality of Sakkoti and Bartemuda date palms were obtained with using seaweed extract three times at 0.1%.

[Faissal F.Ahmed, Moawad A.Mohamed; Ahmed Y.Mohamed. and Mostafa S. Abd El aaty. Response Of Sakkoti And Bartemuda Date Palms To Spraying Seaweed Extract. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):72-78]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.10

 

Keywords: seaweed extract, Sakkoti, Bartemuda, growth, yield  and fruit quality

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11

Analysis Of Cost Efficiency Of Sorghum Producers In Nigeria

 

Jimjel Zalkuwi, Rakesh Singh, O. P Singh

 

Department of Agricultural Economics, Institute of Agricultural science, BHU, Varanasi-221 005.

Corresponding Author’s Email: jzalkwi4u@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study examined the cost efficiency of sorghum production in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 240 farmers using purposive and simple random sampling with aid of structured schedule. The result of the stochastic frontier production function analysis shows that the variance parameters, that is the sigma squared (δ2) and the gamma (γ) were statistically significant at 1 % level for sorghum production. The coefficient of farm size, family labor, seed and fertilizer were positive and significant at 1%, 5% and 10% levels while fertilizer was not significant. Profit level can be increased by increasing the amount of farm size, quantity of seed, labor and chemical and decreasing the use of fertilizer. Mean efficiency was 0.68; Farmers operate at 32% below frontier level due to variation in cost efficiency. The inefficiency model shows that the coefficient of Age, literacy level and credit have negative a priori sign and in consonance with the a priori expectation.

[Jimjel Zalkuwi, Rakesh Singh, O. P Singh. Analysis Of Cost Efficiency Of Sorghum Producers In Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):79-82]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.11

 

Keywords: Cost efficiency, Sorghum and Adamawa state

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Chemical and biological studies on Some Novel Benzimidazole Derivatives for Management of Certain Pathogenic Citrus Fungi

 

Abdel-latif A.R. Helalia1, Nasser A. Ibrahim2 and Hisham A. Elbakhshwingy 3

 

1Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2Central Agric. Pest. Lab. (CAPL), Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

3Agronomist of Locust Affairs & Agro-Aviation Department in Ministry of Agriculture

yassarwahied@yahoo.com, yassarwahied@gmail.com

 

Abstract: New twelve benzimidazole derivatives that are recently published were evaluated for their fungicidal activity. Such compounds having numerous functional groups attached to C-2 of benzimidazole ring. The mentioned substitutes are thiocarbamate, thiophosphate, phenylamine and other different phenoxy groups. The evaluation process was carried out on Penicillium digitatium and Penicillium italicium fungi that affect badly on the storage process of citrus. Data obtained revealed that, the sensitivity of fungi to the tested compounds depends on the functional groups belt in the benzimidazole ring system and the type of fungi. Generally, some thiophosphate, flouro and nitrochlorophenoxy derivatives were found to be highly active towards the tested fungi.

[Abdel-latif A. R. Helalia, Nasser A. Ibrahim and Hisham A. Elbakhshwingy. Chemical and biological studies on Some Novel Benzimidazole Derivatives for Management of Certain Pathogenic Citrus Fungi. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):83-90]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.12

 

Keywords: Benzimidazole, thiocarbamate, thiophosphate, fungicidal activity, Penicillium digitatium, Penicillium italicium pest management.

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Evaluation and assessment of job stresses and its relation with employees’ performance in not-for-profit organizations working in rural settings of Northern Pakistan.

 

Razia Bano, Tika Khan*

 

Integrated Mountain Area Research Centre, Karakorum International University Pakistan.

*Corresponding author: Tika Khan, tika.khan@kiu.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Stress plays a critical role in performance of employees of any organization and therefore, organizational standing rests with the overall effective delivery of its employees. Study was aimed at investigation of stress caused by organizational culture and policies on job performance of employees working in nongovernmental organizations across mountainous region of Gilgit-Baltistan. Hypothesis so framed shows the relationship between existing stress level and performance of employees. Using stratified random sampling techniques, organizations, their locale (geography) and management’s tiers were tested using a structured instrument. Results reveal that performance level of employees is indirectly proportional to the stress level.

[Bano R, Khan T. Evaluation and assessment of job stresses and its relation with employees’ performance in not-for-profit organizations working in rural settings of Northern Pakistan. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):91-95]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.13

 

Keywords: NGOs, Stress, Job performance, Gilgit-Baltistan, Civil society, policies, Gender

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The Role of Total Quality Management on enhancing labor productivity (Power Plant of Jahrom)

 

Alireza Manzari Tavakoli, Hassan soltani

 

1kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, kerman, Iran)

2science & research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran)

samartashkiran@mail.ru

 

Abstract: This study is a descriptive study which it examines the relationship between Total Quality Management establishment and improving Labor productivity In the Power Plant of Jahrom. The employees of this power plant have been the statistical population. Their number has been 120 people and the sample size were selected 68 individuals based on random sampling. Statistical analysis was performed by Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis and Spss software for data analysis. Two types of questionnaires were used in this study. A questionnaire was used to measure levels of productivity derived from the study of Jahed and the questionnaire has been used to measure Total Quality Management prepared by the researcher. The Reliability of the questionnaires has been calculated respectively 0.884 and 0.875 by Cronbach's Alpha. The results show that there is a positive correlation between the dimensions of total quality management (employee involvement, employee empowerment and continuous improvement) and labor productivity. As a result implementing of total quality management leads to productivity growth of labor and organizational productivity.

[Alireza Manzari Tavakoli, Hassan soltani. The Role of Total Quality Management on enhancing labor productivity (Power Plant of Jahrom). World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):96-105]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 14

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.14

 

Key words: total quality management, labor productivity, Employee participation, employee empowerment, continuous improvement

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Surveying the relationship between the auditor independence and rate of audit fees change in Tehran Stock Exchange (Iran)

 

. Mahmod Nozarpour

 

 Student of Persian Gulf International Educational Branch-Islamic Azad University- Khorramshahr-Iran

 

Abstract: This study examines the relationship between auditor independence and audit fees of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. Discretionary accruals used to measure independent auditors. Research data using statistical sample of 80 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange for the period 2005-2010 have been analyzed in the method of least squares regression analysis and the combined data. Study includes two hypotheses that they investigate the relationship between company auditor independence and changing the audit fees with the change of company size. It means, with increasing auditor independence, audit fees paid to auditors also increased. Also, the hypothesis test results showed that the larger the size of the client company, additional fees paid to the auditors.

[Mahmod Nozarpour. Surveying the relationship between the auditor independence and rate of audit fees change in Tehran Stock Exchange (Iran). World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):106-110]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 15

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.15

 

Keywords: audit fees, discretionary accruals, auditor independence, corporate size

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Comparative studies between Gum Arabic recognized as a natural prebiotic and Bfidobacterium as probiotic as potential cure for experimental bacterial infection in mice

 

Amnah A.H. Rayes

 

Faculty of Applied Sciences. Umm Al- Qura University Makkah Saudi Arabia

Amnaa_rayes_50@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Gum Arabic as natural prebiotic is food ingredients that stimulate the growth of useful bacteria which lives in the large intestine of the human being or animal and beneficial to the digestive system, body's immunity, disposal of poisons, fats and excreta. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that can be found in various foods, or in the form of dietary supplements. Common strains of probiotics are Lactobacillis and Bifidobacterium families of bacteria. So present study aimed to investigate the effect of Gum arabic as natural prebiotics in comparison with Bfidobacterium animalis sub sp. lactis (Bb12) as probiotic and combination of prebiotic and probiotic when administrated as food additive when challenged the experimental mice with salmonella typhimuarium. The results indicated that there were symbiosis between prebiotic and probiotic, gum Arabic is good for health as natural prebiotic especially in the large dose, Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 also good for health and immune status while the combination between gum Arabic as prebiotic and Bifidobacterium as probiotic (5 g GA+ Bb12) was better whether the combined application of PRO and PRE (synbiotics) has synergistic and additive significant effects, they give good results than each one alone and improved the health conditions, physiological and immune response; cellular and humeral for challenged mice with salmonella typhimuarium.

[Amnah A.H. Rayes. Comparative studies between Gum Arabic recognized as a natural prebiotic and Bfidobacterium as probiotic as potential cure for experimental bacterial infection in mice. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):111-118]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 16

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.16

 

Key words: Gum Arabic; Bifidobacterium; phagocytic activity; lysozyme;AST; ALT; Uric acid; Creatinine.

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The position of interactivity in electronic education and learning system

 

Motahareh Hosseini *, Mostafa Zamanian **

 

* Ph.D. candidate, Department of Foreign Languages, Qeshm  Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm, Iran

Email: m.hoseini580@gmail.com

** Ph.D. Department of Foreign Languages, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad, University, Shiraz, Iran

Email: mostafazamanian@yahoo.com  

 

Abstract: The rapid and increasing growth of information and communication technology (ITC) leads to changes in the various fields of human life, including the education system. Cyberspace gives many capabilities in education field to its users with enormous resources and facilities in science and knowledge field and features like timelessness, spacelessness and interactivity, etc. Expressions like class without wall, smart schools and virtual University, etc. refer to new type of e-training, which in contrast with traditional education, is being fit in educational systems of various countries. In traditional education because of the physical presence in time and place, student, professor and the content and school resources, the participation and interactivity is face to face and the main features of the education are the interactivities which knowledge and information are exchanged through them. With the introduction of e-educating, as a manifestation of the penetration of ICT to education field and teaching-learning process, the concept of interactivity in teaching and learning process has also undergone extensive transformation. Successful learning is achieved when the learners can interact well with the content, means of communication and ... until the enough motivation is created in the learner. In fact, in e-learning environment a condition should be created that the leaner see himself in front of the problem and seek and think to solve it. Some believe that if a technique or tool is in coordination with the technology and interactive, then it will be in the bests. The main question in this article is to investigate the interoperability of distance educating and answer to this question regarding that in virtual educating environment the interactivities are not face to face, whether this has an impact on the learning of learners or not?

[Motahareh Hosseini, Mostafa Zamanian. The position of interactivity in electronic education and learning system. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):119-124]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 17

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.17

 

Key words: e-learning, interactivity, communications

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Impact of ICT-Based Initiative (Mobile Phone) on Market Access By Women Farmers in Nigeria

 

Oluwatoyin Bukola CHETE (Ms) *, Subuola Bosede FASOYIRO (Ms) **

 

 

* WOAFA Centre for Development Policy and Management. Plot 9, Block B, Oduduwa Avenue, Oluyole Estate, Ibadan, NIGERIA. Tel: 234-8054468604, email: cheteob@yahoo.com

 

** Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Ibadan, NIGERIA. Tel: 234-8052181883, email: subuolafasoyiro@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Information and communication technology (ICT) is a novel and crucial kernel of the Nigerian government agricultural service delivery architecture. The initiative has the principal objective of delivering government subsidised inputs directly to farmers through their GSM telephone sets. There is considerable evidence that women smallholder farmers’ access to markets is constrained by asymmetric information which causes moral hazard, raises transaction costs, impedes output performance, squeezes income and exacerbates poverty. ICT-based market interventions is therefore a potentially useful tool for improving women farmers’ access to markets for agricultural produce by providing timely, reliable and accurate information about actual market conditions. The basic objective of the study is to assess the degree to which ICT (mobile phones) enhances market access by women farmers. The methodology involves gathering primary data from women farmers in Nigeria which are analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics and a regression model. The results show that the scheme is hampered by poor literacy, poor understanding on use of ICT for agricultural transactions and lack of mobile phones by some farmers. Despite these challenges, the study found high rate of adoption of mobile phones for agricultural purposes by women farmers and increased aptitude of farmers to access market to sell their products.

[Oluwatoyin Bukola CHETE. Impact of ICT-Based Initiative (Mobile Phone) on Market Access By Women Farmers in Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2014;6(3):125-132]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 18

doi:10.7537/marswro060314.18

  

Key words: e-wallet, ICT, transaction cost, Nigeria, asymmetric information, Gender, moral hazard, inputs

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