Science Journal

 

 World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), Quarterly

Volume 6 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 22), December 25, 2014
Cover (Print), Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0603, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1944-6543
 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Response of Superior Grapevines To Spraying Salicylic And Boric Acids

 

A.M.M.A. Akl, F.H. Abdelaziz, MA El-Sayed and T.M.M. Mohamed

 

Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2013 & 2014 seasons, Superior grapevines treated via leaves with salicylic acid at 50 to 200 ppm and / or boric acid at 0.025 to 0.1% three times. Results showed that spraying salicylic acid  at 50 to 200 ppm and/ or boric acid at 0.025 to 0.1% three times was very effective in enhancing percentages of N, P, K and Mg in the leaves, berry setting %; yield, cluster weight, berry weight, T.S.S. %, T.S.S./ acid and reducing sugars and decreasing shot berries and total acidity over the check treatment. The effect was materially associated with increasing concentrations of each compound. No measurable effect was detected among the two higher concentrations of each compound on the studied parameters. Carrying out three sprays of a mixture containing salicylic acid at 100 ppm and boric acid at 0.05% gave the best results with regard to yield and berries quality of Superior grapevines grown under Minia region.

[Akl AMMA, Abdelaziz FH, El-Sayed. MA and Mohamed TMM. Response of Superior Grapevines To Spraying Salicylic And Boric Acids. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):1-5]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.01

 

Keywords: Salicylic and boric acids, Superior grapevine,  yield, quality

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2

Savings Determinants among Rural Households in Southwest Nigeria

 

Ogheneruemu Obi-Egbedi1, Olubunmi O. Alawode1 and Adetutu E. Soneye1

 

1Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

gheneobi@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Economic development depends largely on investment, which is hinged on savings. Rural savings in Nigeria has been low and long considered as inconsequential to national savings. The negative implications of negligible rural savings for rural and agricultural development thus require that the factors influencing rural household savings be investigated. The study therefore, surveyed 200 rural household heads in Akinyele local government area of Oyo state, Southwest Nigeria, using a multistage sampling technique. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The results showed that mean age of household head was about 43 years, mean household size was about 6 persons while mean monthly income of household head was ₦16, 588.17 ($104). The most important reason for saving among the rural households was funding children’s’ education. Both formal and informal savings of the rural households were found to be generally low; however, mean monthly formal savings (in commercial banks) of ₦605.13 ($3.80) was found to be highest among the rural households. The factors which significantly determine rural household savings were; years of education, occupation, income of household head and household size. Therefore, policy options should emphasize education of rural households and birth control measures.

[Ogheneruemu Obi-Egbedi, Olubunmi O. Alawode  and Adetutu E. Soneye. Savings Determinants among Rural Households in Southwest Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):6-11]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.02

 

Key words: Rural Households, Determinants of Savings, Forms of Savings, Southwest Nigeria

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3

Assessment of Soil Heavy Metal Hazards of Cultivated Soil Irrigated With Different Irrigation Water Qualities in Al-Hassa Oasis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

Mohammed M.S.1, A. A. M. Sallam2 and S. M. Aleid3

 

1Soil and Water Dept., Fac. of Agric., Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo, Egypt. Soil and Water Expert. Al- Hassa Irrigation and Drainage Authority, KSA.

2Agriculture Operation, Date Palm Research Center of Excellence, King Faisal University, KSA (Permanent address: College of Technology and Development, Zagazig Univ., Egypt)

3Food Science, Date Palm Research Center of Excellence, King Faisal University, KSA

mshahin58@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Twenty four composite surface soil samples(0-30cm depth) representing cultivated soil irrigated for two seasons with different irrigation water qualities: (i-ground water (GW), ii-ground water + agricultural drainage water (DW), iii-ground water + tertiary treated wastewater (TTWW) and iv- ground water, (GW) + agricultural drainage water, (DW) + tertiary treated wastewater, (TTWW), were analyzed for their total heavy metal contents, of Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, As and Ni. The results showed that, the total contents of these metals in the soils irrigated with different irrigation water qualities, could be arranged in the following descending order: Fe > Cu > Mn > Zn > Ni > Pb > Co > As > Cd. Generally, the different irrigation water qualities can be arranged according to their effects on total heavy metal contents in the cultivated irrigated soil in the following order:(GW+DW+TTWW) > (GW+TTWW) > (GW+DW) > (GW). Based on the geo-accumulation index, the results indicated that the Igeo values for Mn, Fe, Co, and Cd fell into (class 0) in cultivated soil irrigated with groundwater. This indicates that the cultivated soil irrigated with groundwater is uncontaminated by these elements. On the other hand Igeo values for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are > 0 and <1, meaning that the soil is uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with these elements. The Igeo value for As falls into the category of moderately to strongly contaminated (2 < Igeo < 3) in soil cultivated irrigated with groundwater. In general, Igeo values for the cultivated soil irrigated with (GW+ DW+TTWW) showed patterns of heavy metals contamination similar to those in the cultivated soils irrigated with (GW+TTWW) or cultivated soils irrigated with (GW+DW) but with different levels. Based on the Enrichment factor (EF) the studied soils are significantly contaminated with Cu, Ni, and Zn due to irrigation with, ground water, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in cultivated soil irrigated with (GW+DW), Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and As in both cultivated soils irrigated with (GW+TTWW) and (GW+ DW+TTWW). The results reveal that the EF mean values of heavy metals in the studied cultivated soils irrigated with different irrigation water qualities, can be arranged in following descending order: (GW+ DW+TTWW) > (GW+TTWW) > (GW+DW) > (GW).

[Mohammed M.S., A. A. M. Sallam and S. M. Aleid. Assessment of Soil Heavy Metal Hazards of Cultivated Soil Irrigated With Different Irrigation Water Qualities in Al-Hassa Oasis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):12-22]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.03

 

Key words: Irrigation water qualities. Geo-accumulation index. Enrichment factor. Heavy metals pollution and Pollution index.

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4

Selecting The Best N, P and K Levels For The Newly Introduced Wounderful Pomegranate Trees Grown Under Minia Region

 

Moawad A. Mohamed, Hamdy I.M. Ibrahiem and Moustafa O.A. Omar

 

Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was initiated during 2013 & 2014 seasons to adjust the best N, P and K levels for Wounderful pomegranate trees grown under Minia region conditions. Nitrogen was applied at 100 to 400 g / tree/ year as well as both P and K were added at 50 to 100 g/ tree/ year. Increasing levels of N from 100 to 400 / tree was accompanied with enhancing all growth characters, N in the shoots and leaves, chlorophylls a & b, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids, number of flowers / shoot, fruit setting %, yield, fruit weight and dimensions, percentages of grain and juice, edible to non- edible portions, T.S.S. %, total and reducing sugars and anthocyanins in the juice and fruit peel. Shoot total carbohydrates %, C/N in the shoots, all nutrients (P,K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn), fruit peel weight and thickness, total acidity%, T.S.S./acid and total soluble tannins were gradually reduced with increasing N levels. A remarkable promotion was observed on all growth characters; shoot total carbohydrate %, C/N in the shoot, percentages of P, K and Mg, chlorophylls a & b, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids, fruit setting, yield and fruit quality with increasing both P & K levels from 50 to 100 g / tree/ Most nutrients and fruit peel weight and thickness, promace %, juice pH, total acidity % and total soluble tannins were declined with increasing levels of P & K. The best N, P and K levels for nutrition of Wounderful pomegranate grown under Minia region was the application of 300 g N + 100 g P2O5 + 100, K2O / tree/ year.

[Moawad A. Mohamed, Hamdy I.M. Ibrahiem and Moustafa O.A. Omar. Selecting The Best N, P and K Levels For The Newly Introduced Wounderful Pomegranate Trees Grown Under Minia Region. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):23-29]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.04

 

Keywords: N, P K, Wounder pomegranate, yield, fruit quality

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5

The method of building new competitive and comparative advantages for foreign trade enterprises

 

1Li ping, 2Teng zhen-zhong

 

1. Department of Economics College of Humanities and social science of Harbin Institute of Technology, China

2. Teaching equipment management center in Heilongjiang province, China

 

Abstract: With the deepening of the economic globalization, China has become the key area of international industrial transfer, sustained and stable growth of China's economy is heavily depends on the sustained and healthy development of foreign trade industries, wherein foreign trade enterprises play an important role. The 2008 global economic crisis made the economic development truly in a slump, China's foreign trade developing process tends to slowing down, and trade protectionism is growing continually. In order to ensure the healthy development of China's foreign trade, we need to explore some new competitive advantages and comparative advantages in the development of foreign trade enterprises. This paper analyzes the current situation of the development of China's foreign trade enterprises, and then analyzes the causes of these problems encountered in the development process by foreign trade enterprises, and finally find the way to building new competitive and comparative advantages addressed by these issues .

[Li ping, Teng zhen-zhong. The method of building new competitive and comparative advantages for foreign trade enterprises. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):30-35]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 30

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.05

 

Key wordsForeign trade enterprises, Competitive, Advantage, Comparative advantage

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6

Reducing Mineral N Fertilizer Partially In Thompson Seedless Vineyards By Using Fulvic Acid And Effective Microorganisms

 

Abd El- Hameed M.M. Wassel1; Ali A. Gobara1; Esis A. Rizk2 and Ahmed, R.M. El-Wany2

 

1Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

2 Viticulture Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. ARC, Giza, Egypt.

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was initiated during 2013 and 2014 seasons as an attempt for replacing mineral N fertilizer partially in Thompson seedless vineyards by using fulvic acid and Effective microorganisms (EM). Mineral N fertilizer was applied at 25 to 100% of the suitable N (80 g / vine/ year). Both fulvic acid and EM were applied once at 10 to 25 ml / vine/ year. Using the suitable N via mineral N at 60 to 75% of the suitable N with fulvic acid and EM each at 10 to 15 ml was very effective in improving the yield comparing with using N completely via mineral N or when mineral N was applied at percentages lower than 60%. The promotion on vine nutritional status and quality was associated with reducing mineral N fertilizer percentages from 100 to 25% of N and at the same time increasing the levels of both fulvic acid and EM from 10 to 25 ml/ vine/ year. Supplying Thompson seedless grapevines with N (80 g / vine / year) through 60% mineral N fertilizer + fulvic acid and EM each at 15 ml / vine / year was suggested to be beneficial for promoting yield and fruit quality.

[Abd El- Hameed M.M. Wassel; Ali A. Gobara; Esis A. Rizk and Ahmed, R.M. El-Wany. Reducing Mineral N Fertilizer Partially In Thompson Seedless Vineyards By Using Fulvic Acid And Effective Microorganisms. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):36-42]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.06

 

Keywords: Reducing; Mineral; Fertilizer; Vineyard; Fulvic Acid; Microorganism

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7

Using Plant Compost Enriched With Spirulina Plantensis Algae as a Substitute for Mineral N Fertilizer in Flame Seedless Vineyards

 

Farouk H. Abdelaziz1; Hamdy I.M. Ibrahim1; Mohamed , M.A.Abada2and Samar S.A. Hasan 1

 

1 Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt

2 Viticulture Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. ARC Giza, Egypt

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Flame seedless grapevines fertilized with N via mineral N as 25 to 100% either alone or in combination with plant compost at 25% to 75% of N plus the algae biofertilizer namely Spirulina plantensis at 40 to 160 ml/vine/ year. This study was performed during 2013 and 2014 seasons as a trial for substituting mineral N partially with organic and biofertilization. Growth, vine nutritional status, yield and quality of the berries in response to the present treatments were investigated. Using mineral N along with plant compost enriched with algae was favourable than using mineral N alone in enhancing growth characters, vine nutritional status, yield and berries quality. Growth characters and yield were obviously reduced with application of mineral N below 50% of N even with the application of plant compost enriched with algae. Reducing mineral N percentages from 100 to 25% of the suitable N and at the same time increasing percentages of both plant compost from 25 to 75% and levels of algae from 40 to 160 ml / vine/ year resulted in a progressive promotion on chlorophylls a & b, total chlorophylls and total carotenoids and berries quality. Supplying Flame seedless grapevines with N via 50% inorganic N + 50 % plant compost enriched with 80 ml Spirulina plantensis vine / year was suggested to be beneficial for improving yield and quality of the berries.

[Farouk H. Abdelaziz; Hamdy I.M. Ibrahim; Mohamed, M.A. Abada and Samar S.A. Hasan. Using Plant Compost Enriched With Spirulina Plantensis Algae as a Substitute for Mineral N Fertilizer in Flame Seedless Vineyards. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):43-49]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.07

 

Keywords: Flame seedless, mineral N, plant compost, Spirulina plantensis algae , growth and fruiting.

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8

Kinetin and Tryptophan Enhance Yield and Production Efficiency of Lupine (Lupinus Termis L.)  Plants

 

Amin, A.A.1, M. E. Awadi 1, M. G. Dawood1, F. A. E. Gharib2 and Esmat, A. Hassan1

 

1 Botany Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Botany & Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

el_awadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two field experiments were carried out in Research and Production Station, Nubaria, Egypt during the two successive seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. This study aimed to investigate the response of yield and its components as well as oil content and some metabolites of lupine (Lupinus termis L. cv. Giza 2) seeds to foliar application of kinetin (Kin; 20, 40 and 60 mg L-1) and the amino acids tryptophan (Trp; 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1) either alone, or combination. Kin or Trp either alone, or combination, significantly increased yield of lupine plants at harvest stage (i.e. plant height, number of (branches, pods and seeds/plant), pod length (cm) and DW/plant, seed index (100 seed weight), seed and straw yield (per plant and per fed), biological yield/fed., crop and harvest index). Kin was more effective than Trp in increasing lupine yield and its contributing characters. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, crude protein, total soluble sugars, free amino acids as wells oil content (oil percent, yield per plant and fed) in lupine seeds were significantly promoted by increasing Kin and/or Trp concentrations up to 60 or 100 mg/L, respectively alone or combination. Generally, foliar application of Kin at 60 mg L-1 and Trp at 100 mg L-1 singly or combined, effectively produced larger numbers of pods which resulted in substantially higher seed yield and quality. The most promising results of seed, straw, biological and oil yield/fed (ton) was observed at 60 mg L-1 Kin + Tryp at 100 mg L-1, followed by 60 mg L-1 Kin alone. In conclusion, agronomic traits, production efficiency, overproduction of low-cost protein, minerals, amino acids and aromatic metabolite have a promising potential for possible use as food/feed supplements in the diets by application of Kin and/or Trp.

[Amin, A.A., M. E. Awadi, M. G. Dawood, F. A. E. Gharib and Esmat, A. Hassan. Kinetin and Tryptophan Enhance Yield and Production Efficiency of Lupine (Lupinus Termis L.)  Plants. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):50-56]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.08

 

Key words: lupine plants; kinetin; tryptophan; yield; protein, total soluble sugars, amino acids , oil content

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9

Impact of Vitamins B and C, Glutamic Acid and Silicon on Fruiting of Superior Grapevines

 

Al- Khawaga, A.S.

 

Hort. Dept. Qena Fac. of Agric. South Valley Univ.

Email: faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Growth, plant pigments, vine nutritional status, yield and berries quality of Superior grapevines in response to foliar application of vitamins B at 50 ppm, C at 1000 ppm, glutamic acid at 1000 ppm and potassium silicate at 0.1% were investigated during 2013 & 2014 seasons. The vines received four sprays. Spraying vitamins B& C and glutamic acid with or without silicon considerably enhanced growth characters, plant pigments, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn, yield and quality of the berries relative to the check treatment. Using glutamic acid was superior than using vitamins B & C in this connection. Using silicon along with vitamins B & C and glutamic acid was preferable than using vitamins B & C in combined with glutamic acid in this connection. For promoting yield and fruit quality of Superior grapevines, it is advised to spray the vines four times with a mixture containing vitamins B (B1 +B2 +B6 + B12) at 50 ppm + vitamin C at 1000 ppm + glutamic acid at 1000 ppm + potassium silicate at 0.1%.

[Al- Khawaga, A.S. Impact of Vitamins B and C, Glutamic Acid and Silicon on Fruiting of Superior Grapevines. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):57-62]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.09

 

Keywords: Vitamins B and C, glutamic acid, silicon, Superior grapevines

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10

Impact of extension service to rice farmers

 

Abed Vahedi1, Esmaeil Yasari2

 

1Corresponding author: Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Qaemshahr, Mazandaran, 48148-35497. Cell: +98-09356211306. Iran. abedvahedy@gmail.com

2Assistant Prof, Payame Noor University, Sari, Mazandaran, 48189-35455. Cell: +98-9113511510, Iran. e_yassari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study has been to investigate the effectiveness of the education received by the rice growers of the city of Babol from the extension service in raising rice yield. The population studied contained 179 farmers who had taken part in educational programs organized by the extension service regarding the operations of planting, maintaining, and harvesting rice. This research was of the applied, retroactive, and semi – empirical type; and it was carried out in a descriptive – correlative way employing the field study method and using questionnaires. The SPSS software was used to analyze the gathered data. Results obtained from the correlation coefficient among variants suggest that there is a positive and significant relationship between the independent variables (level of education, income, the acreage of paddy field owned, participation in educational classes organized by the extension service, the use of the method of delivering talks, the use of practical training, organizing work labs, making use of educational media, and the compatibility of the main points presented to the farmers with the dependent variable of the effectiveness of the educational courses, but that the independent variables of age, the number of contacts with extension agents, the number of visits to the model fields, the screening of video films, the use of group discussions, and the extent of experience and knowledge of extension agents do not have a significant relationship with the effectiveness of the educational courses. Results obtained from the Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney tests on the effects of individual dependent variables suggest that the main occupation, the use of bank facilities, and the use of support facilities offered after the educational courses influence their effectiveness, but that the type of the place the education is offered and whether the instructor is native or non-native do not affect the effectiveness of the educational courses. Results obtained from the step-by-step regression concerning the combined effect of the independent variables on the dependent variables indicate that the variables of the acreage of paddy field owned by the farmer, participation in educational classes organized by the extension service, and the use of work labs have positive effects on the effectiveness of the educational courses. Y =1.27+0.2095+0.1537+0.30727.

[Abed Vahedi, Esmaeil Yasari. Study of medical plant distribution in Lasem area of Northern IranWorld Rural Observ 2014;6(4):63-69]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.10

 

 Key words: Effectiveness, educational programs organized by the extension service, rice farmers, the extension service and the education of farmers

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11

Rural Youth and Agriculture ‘Problem’ in Sudan: A case from the Nuba Mountains

 

Hassan Abdelnabi Allajabou * and Abdel Raouf Suleiman Bello**

 

*Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Dallanj University, Sudan

**College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Corresponding author’s email: raoufbello@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study is carried out to identify the personal characteristics affecting the rural youth decision towards agricultural work. It was conducted in AL-Kurgul Administrative Unit of the Nuba Mountains/South Kordufan State, Sudan. The random sampling method was adopted to select 100 respondents. Data were collected in the face-to-face interviews by using a pretested questionnaire and observation. Frequency distribution, percentages, correlation and chi-square, were used for data analysis. The study findings indicated that there is significance negative correlation between age and work in agriculture, while there is no significance correlation between education level and agricultural work. It is also revealed that there is no significant difference between both sexes and marital status variables, and work in agriculture. The study proposed some recommendations to encouraging rural youth to work in agricultural sector and to make the rural areas more attractive. These including provision of incentives like subsidies agricultural inputs, banking facilities and extension services, technical education, vocational training, to equip rural youth with agricultural skills and knowledge, both the public and private sectors may establish small rural industries depending on available agricultural products as a raw materials to absorb the rural youth in workforce.

[Allajabou H., and Bello A. Rural Youth and Agriculture ‘Problem’ in Sudan: A case from the Nuba Mountains. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):70-74]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.11

 

Key words: sustained adoption; decision behaviors; intercrop technology

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Impact of Spraying Extracts of Fenugreek and Rocket Seed Sprouts on Fruiting of Keitte Mango Trees

 

Mahmoud M. Refaai

 

Central Lab. for Organic Agric. ARC, Giza

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2013 & 2014 seasons, Keitte mango trees treated four times with fenugreek seed sprout extract and/ or rocket seed sprout extract each at 0.5 to 4 %. The study focused on the effect of these seed sprout extract treatment, on growth, tree nutritional status, yield and fruit quality of such mango cv. Single and combined applications of fenugreek and rocket seed sprout extracts each at 0.5 to 4.0 % considerably enhanced all growth characters, nutritional status of the trees, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits compared to the check treatment spraying fenugreek seed sprout extract was materially Superior than using seed sprout extract of rocket in this respect. Combined application surpassed the use of each alone in this respect. The promotion was considerably related to the increase in fenugreek and rocket seed sprout concentrations from 0.5 to 4.0 % without material stimulation among the higher two concentrations namely 1.0 and 2.0%. Carrying our four sprays of a mixture of fenugreek and rocket seed sprouts at 1% gave the best results with regard to yield and fruit quality of Keitte mango trees grown under sandy soil condition.

[Mahmoud M.Refaai. Impact of Spraying Extracts of Fenugreek and Rocket Seed Sprouts on Fruiting of Keitte Mango Trees. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):75-80]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.12

 

Keywords: Fenugreek, rocket, Keitte mango.

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13

Physiological Studies on Intercropping of Some Legumes on Sewy Date Palms

 

Nagwa , R.A. 1 ; Faissal, F. Ahmed 2 and Al- Hussein, S.A. Hamad3

 

1Field Crops Res. Instit., ARC, Giza, Egypt.

2 Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

3 Hort. Res. Instit. ARC. Giza. Egypt.

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was initiated during 2011/ 2012 & 2012/ 2013 seasons to evaluate the impact of intercropping three under story legume crops namely Egyptian clover, Balady fenugreek or field bean with the over story crop namely Sewy date palm on growth, yield and quality of main crop and the three intercrops in comparison with pure stand of these crops.  Growth, palm nutritional status, yield and fruit quality of the main crop namely Sewy date palm were positively affected by all intercropping systems relative to the date palm sole. The best intercrop was Egyptian clover followed by fenugreek and field bean occupied the last position in this respect. Growth, yield and its attributes of the three intercrops did not change negatively with intercropping with Sewy date palm.  Evaluation of growing clover, fenugreek or field bean with Sewy date palm indicated that growing clover with date palm could be used for combating desertification in sandy soil in arid land regions and gave the highest net return per unite area.

[Nagwa , R.A.; Faissal, F. Ahmed  and Al- Hussein, S.A. Hamad. Response Of Sakkoti And Bartemuda Date Palms To Spraying Seaweed Extract. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):81-88]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.13

 

Keywords: Intercropping, legumes, Sewy date palms yield.

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14

Attaching Greater Importance to the Study of Management Issues of Ecological Environment Protection

 

Guo Ying 1, Huang Haichen 2

 

1 Faculty of Western Languages and Literatures, Harbin Normal University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150025, China

2 School of Economic Management, Harbin Normal University, Harbin, 150025, China

E-mail: gychristina@126.com

 

Abstract: Under the circumstance of the ecological product shortage and serious ecological environmental situation, realizing the harmonious development of man and nature is not only a technical problem, but an issue concerning many aspects of reform and innovation. It is the objective requirement of the ecological protection and environmental construction to establish and perfect scientific management system (or mechanism). In order to protect the ecological environment, a series of macroscopic and microscopic management policies and measures should be put forward and the implementation of effective supervision to form a new and scientific management system and code of conduct needs to be strengthened.

[Guo Y, Huang H. Attaching Greater Importance to the Study of Management Issues of Ecological Environment Protection. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):89-92]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 14

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.14

 

Key words: Ecological environment protection, system construction, management innovation

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Phenotypic Stability of Some Egyptian Cotton Genotypes Grown at Different Environments of Upper Egypt

 

Ibrahim, M.M. 1; M.S.H.Ahmad; 1 I.S.M. Hassan; 2A.A.Abd El-Sameea2

 

1Agronomy Dep., Fac. of Agric., Al-Azhar Univ., Assiut, Egypt

2 Cotton Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Five promising cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) advanced lines viz., [G.83 x (G.75x 5844)] x G.80, ( G.90 x Australy ), [G.83 x (G .75  x 5844 )] x G.85, [G.83 x (G .75  x 5844 )] x G.90 and [G.83 x (G .75  x 5844 )] x [G.83  x (G .72  x Dandara )] with two varieties (Giza 80 and Giza 90) of Egyptian cotton were evaluated for their yield, , yield components and fiber properties performance under five environments for two years which gave ten field experiments.The ten field experiments were conducted during the two successive seasons 2012 and 2013 at five different regions at Upper Egypt (El-Mattana, Sohag, Assiut, Beni–Soueif and El–Fayium) governorates, to study the phenotypic stability for seven Egyptian cotton genotypes. Adaptability estimates indicated that Giza 80 which yielded below average mean yield over environments are poorly adapted to all environments. However, the promising strain [G.83 x (G .75 x 5844)] x [G.83 x (G .72 x Dandara )] which were above average mean yielding ability had general adaptability or well adapted to all environments. The remaining commercial cultivar Giza 90 and the promising strain (G.90 x Australy) were not significantly different from the average mean performance of all genotypes had average stability. The promising strain [G.83 x (G .75 x 5844)] x [G.83  x (G .72  x Dandara )] which was above average mean performance of all genotypes had stable for seed cotton yield (k/f) and lint cotton yield (k/f). While, the promising strains [G.83 x (G .75 x 5844)] x G.80, [G.83 x (G .75 x 5844 )] x G.85 and [G.83 x (G .75  x 5844 )] x G.90 which were above or below average mean performance of all genotypes had unstable for seed cotton yield (k/f) and lint cotton yield (k/f).

[Ibrahim, M.M.; M.S.H.Ahmad; I.S.M. Hassan; A.A.Abd El-Sameea.  Phenotypic Stability of Some Egyptian Cotton Genotypes Grown at  Different Environments of Upper Egypt. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):93-102]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 15

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.15

 

Keywords: Phenotypic Stability, Egyptian Cotton Genotypes, Environments, Upper Egypt.

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Effect of Spraying Fenugreek Seed Sprout and Some Nutrients on Fruiting of Keitte Mango Trees Grown Under Aswan Region Conditions

 

Ahmed Y.M. Ahmed

 

Tropical Fruits Dept, Hort. Res. Instit. ARC, Giza, Egypt

Faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2013 and 2014 seasons Keitte mango trees subjecting four times to foliar application of fenugreek seed sprout at 0.5 to 2.0% singly or in various combinations with NPKMg at 0.5% and / or ZnFeMn at 0.05%. The study focused on the impact of these treatments on growth, nutritional status of the trees, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits. Spraying fenugreek seed sprout at 0.5 to 2% either alone or in combination with macro and/ or micronutrients was very effective in enhancing growth traits, tree nutritional status, yield and fruit quality rather than non- application. The promotion was associated with increasing concentrations of fenugreek seed sprout. Using fenugreek seed sprout was superior than using all nutrients in this respect. Combined application of fenugreek seed sprout as well as macro and micronutrients was materially favourable than using each one alone in improving fruiting of such mango cv. The best results with regard to growth, tree nutritional status, yield and fruit quality of Keitte mango trees grown under Aswan region conditions were obtained due to using a mixture of fenugreek seed sprout at 1% besides NPKMgat 0.5% and Zn Fe Mn at 0.05% four times.

[Ahmed Y.M. Ahmed. Effect of Spraying Fenugreek Seed Sprout and Some Nutrients on Fruiting of Keitte Mango Trees Grown Under Aswan Region Conditions. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):103-108]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 16

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.16

 

Keywords: fenugreek seed sprout, nutrients, Keitte mango tree, fruiting and fruit quality.

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Productive Performance of Washington Navel Orange Trees in Relation to Foliar Application of Barley Seed Sprout and Royal Jelly

 

Faissal F. Ahmed * and Randa E.Y. Habasy**

 

*Hort. Dep. Fac. of Agric., Minia Univ. Egypt

**Citriculture Dept. Hort. Res., Instit. ARC, Giza Egypt

E. mail : faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out during 2013 and 2014 seasons to examine the impact of spraying barley seed sprout at 0.25 to2.0 % either alone or in combination with royal jelly at 0.0125% on growth, tree nutritional status, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of Washington Navel orange fruits. The trees received four sprays of these natural extracts at the first week of March and at 45 day intervals. Treating the trees four times with barley seed sprout at 0.25 to 2.0% singly or in combination with royal jelly at 0.0125% was very effective in enhancing the leaf area, total chlorophylls, leaf content of N, P, K and Mg , fruit retention %, yield and fruit quality relative to the check treatment. The promotion on such parameters was materially in proportional to the increase in barley seed sprout concentrations. Negligible stimulation on these characters was observed when concentration was increased form 1.0 to 2.0 %.For producing healthy and vigour Washington Navel orange trees, maximizing yield and promoting fruit quality, it is advised to treating the trees four times with a mixture of natural nutrients containing barley seed sprout at 1% besides royal jelly at 0.012%.

[Faissal F. Ahmed  and Randa E.Y. Habasy. Productive Performance of Washington Navel Orange Trees in Relation to Foliar Application of Barley Seed Sprout and Royal Jelly. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):109-114]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 17

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.17

 

Keywords: Barley seed sprout, royal jelly, Washington Navel orange, yield and fruit quality.

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Effect of Spraying Wheat Seed Sprout and Some Nutrients on Fruiting of Wounderful Pomegranate Trees

 

Faissal F. Ahmed* and Mahmoud R. Gad El- Kareem **

 

*Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt

**Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Sohag Univ. Egypt

Faissal.fadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Wounderful pomegranate trees received four sprays of a mixture containing wheat seed sprout at 0.5 to 2%, NPKMg at 0.5% and Zn Fe Mn at 0.05% either alone or in all possible combinations. The study focused on the effect of these treatments on growth, tree nutritional status, yield and fruit quality of such pomegranate cv. Single and combined applications of wheat seed sprout at 0.5 to 2% as well as macro and micronutrients had an announced promotion on growth aspects nutritional status of the trees, yield and fruit quality relative to the check treatment. The promotion on these parameters were considerably associated with increasing wheat seed sprout concentrations. Negligible promotion on these parameters was detected with increasing concentrations from 1.0 to 2%. Using wheat seed sprout at all concentrations was materially superior than using macro and /or micronutrients in this connection. Combined applications were favourable than using each material alone in this respect. Four sprays of a mixture of wheat seed sprout at 1% plus NPKMg at 0.5 % and Zn Fe Mn at 0.05 % was responsible for maximizing yield and improving fruit quality of Wounderful pomegranate trees grown under Minia region conditions.

[Faissal F. Ahmed and Mahmoud R. Gad El- Kareem. Effect of Spraying Wheat Seed Sprout and Some Nutrients on Fruiting of Wounderful Pomegranate Trees. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):115-120]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 18

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.18

 

Keywords: Wheat seed sprout, macro and micronutrient, growth, yield, Wounderful pomegranate trees.

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Phenotypic Stability of Some Egyptian Cotton Genotypes Grown at Different Environments of Upper Egypt

 

Ibrahim, M.M. 1; M.S.H. Ahmad; 1 I.S.M. Hassan; 2A.A. Abd El-Sameea2

 

1Agronomy Dep., Fac. of Agric., Al-Azhar Univ., Assiut, Egypt

2 Cotton Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Five promising cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) advanced lines viz., [G.83 x (G.75x 5844)] x G.80, (G.90 x Australy), [G.83 x (G.75 x 5844)] x G.85, [G.83 x (G.75 x 5844)] x G.90 and [G.83 x (G.75 x 5844)] x [G.83 x (G.72 x Dandara)] with two varieties (Giza 80 and Giza 90) of Egyptian cotton were evaluated for their yield, yield components and fiber properties performance under five environments for two years which gave ten field experiments. The ten field experiments were conducted during the two successive seasons 2012 and 2013 at five different regions at Upper Egypt (El-Mattana, Sohag, Assiut, Beni–Soueif and El–Fayium) governorates, to study the phenotypic stability for seven Egyptian cotton genotypes. Adaptability estimates indicated that Giza 80 which yielded below average mean yield over environments are poorly adapted to all environments. However, the promising strain [G.83 x (G.75 x 5844)] x [G.83 x (G.72 x Dandara)] which were above average mean yielding ability had general adaptability or well adapted to all environments. The remaining commercial cultivar Giza 90 and the promising strain (G.90 x Australy) were not significantly different from the average mean performance of all genotypes had average stability. The promising strain [G.83 x (G.75 x 5844)] x [G.83 x (G.72 x Dandara)] which was above average mean performance of all genotypes had stable for seed cotton yield (k/f) and lint cotton yield (k/f). While, the promising strains [G.83 x (G.75 x 5844)] x G.80, [G.83 x (G.75 x 5844)] x G.85 and [G.83 x (G.75 x 5844)] x G.90 which were above or below average mean performance of all genotypes had unstable for seed cotton yield (k/f) and lint cotton yield (k/f).

[Ibrahim, M.M.; M.S.H. Ahmad; I.S.M. Hassan; A.A. Abd El-Sameea. Phenotypic Stability of Some Egyptian Cotton Genotypes Grown at Different Environments of Upper Egypt. World Rural Observ 2014;6(4):121-129]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 19

doi:10.7537/marswro060414.19

 

Keywords: Some Egyptian Cotton Genotypes, evaluation, Upper Egypt

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