Science Journal

 

 
World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1944-6543; Quarterly

Volume 7 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 25), September 25, 2015
 Cover Page, Cover (print, jpg) Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0703
 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Investigation use of light prefabricated panels in buildings

 

Hosein Khavari

 

MSc of Civil Engineering, structural trend, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: The study focuses on the design, manufacturing, structural improvements and behavior of the floor systems during loading at the serviceability and ultimate limit states. This paper reviews recent developments in prefabricated construction systems using light steel and modular technologies, and describes the economic context in which the use of these systems has expanded. The composite construction concept offers flexibility in the assembly process, the ability to adapt to various load and boundary requirements, and efficient utilization of material properties that result in a light weight prefabricated structural element. The activities described in this paper are an extension of previous work where composite floor panels composed of light gauge steel joists were integrally cast with a thin-walled Engineered Cementations Composite slab.

[Hosein Khavari. Investigation use of light prefabricated panels in buildings. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):1-6]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.01

 

Key words: Prefabricated panels, building, off-site manufacture (OSM)

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2

Four-year retrospective survey of water, sanitation and hygiene associated diseases in Onitsha, Nigeria (2011-2014)

 

Michael U Orji1, Ikechukwu Okoli1, and Emmanuel E Ezenwaji2

 

1Department of Applied Microbiology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Geology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Nigeria

ik.okoli@unizik.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Ex-post-facto to research design was used to assess the occurrence of dysentery, diarrhea, typhoid and malaria in Onitsha, Nigeria within the period 2011-2014 using records available at four hospitals strategically located within the city. Responses from questionnaires and visual observations during on-the-spot check for practices of open defecation sources of water supply and waste disposal system in the city were used to substantiate information from the hospital records. Occurrences of the four diseases were very high in the city. Malaria had the highest occurrence (16,393 in 2011, 14,974 in 2012, 12,720 in 2013 and 12,193 in 2014). Typhoid fever had occurrence of 6,459 in 2011, 4,865 in 2012, 5,010 in 2013 and 5,061 in 2014. Diarrheal diseases recorded 5,194 in 2011 while dysentery occurrence was 1,143 in 2011, 1488 in 2012, 1,011 in 2013 and 1,123 in 2014. The occurrence of the four diseases in the area was found not to be dependent on season. Diarrhea was found to occur more among age group 0-4 years. Malaria showed slightly higher occurrence in females than males. There were evidence of bad environmental hygiene and sanitation practices in the city and these were thought to be responsible for the high prevalence of the diseases in the area.

[Orji MU, Okoli I, Ezenwaji EE. Four-year retrospective survey of water, sanitation and hygiene associated diseases in Onitsha, Nigeria (2011-2014). World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):7-11]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.02

 

Key words: water, sanitation, hygiene, diseases

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2

3

Investigation various use of GIS and GPS in Electronic Engineering Sectors

 

Firoozeh Bagheri

 

MSc in Electronic Engineering, Digital Electronics Field, Iran University of Science and Technology

 

Abstract: For power sectors, selection of suitable areas, the optimum path finding, the profile analyses, the engineering design of towers and wires, and the cost estimation can be done using GIS. The usage of GPS equipment and understanding of GIS is becoming very important in electrical engineering. GIS is not only useful in developing accurate database, improve internal efficiency levels pertaining to power supply monitoring, commercial and customer services but also extremely useful for important functions like network analysis, facility management, energy audit, trouble call management, load management, theft detection etc. Digital system provides timely, accurate and easier way of acquiring information, which is very vital in taking prompt and accurate decisions necessary in the economic development of any enterprise/ industry. The benefit of using GPS/GIS becomes obvious in the areas of analysis, modeling, simulation, design and decision making. Many engineering companies are beginning to realize the importance of using GPS/GIS applications in their day to day operations especially in data collection.

[Firoozeh Bagheri. Investigation various use of GIS and GPS in Electrical Engineering Sectors. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):12-15]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.03

 

Key words: Geographic Information System (GIS); Global Positioning System (GPS), Electronic Engineering

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4

Evaluation applying Supply Chain Management (SCM) in organizations

 

Iman Khaledi

 

MSc student of Industrial Engineering, economic and social systems engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: In this paper, applying Supply Chain Management (SCM) in various organizations has been studied. SCM is the management of the flow of goods and services. Effective supply chain management (SCM) has become a potentially valuable way of securing competitive advantage and improving organizational performance since competition is no longer between organizations, but among supply chains. This research conceptualizes and develops five dimensions of SCM practice (strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship, level of information sharing, quality of information sharing, and postponement) and tests the relationships between SCM practices, competitive advantage, and organizational performance. Data for the study were collected from 196 organizations and the relationships proposed in the framework were tested using structural equation modeling. The results indicate that higher levels of SCM practice can lead to enhanced competitive advantage and improved organizational performance. Also, competitive advantage can have a direct, positive impact on organizational performance.

[Iman Khaledi. Evaluation applying Supply Chain Management (SCM) in organizations. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):16-21]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.04

 

Key words: Supply chain management; Organizational performance; Industrial Engineering

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5

The relationship between tolerance of ambiguity and self-esteem, positive thinking staff at the University of Ilam

 

Saeed Sheikhi1*, Zahra Ahmadi2, Simin Nasiri1

 

1. MA, Curriculum Development, Department of Psychology & Educational Sciences, PNU University Abdanan, Ilam, Iran

2. MA, Business Management, Department of Business Management Sciences PNU University Abdanan, Ilam, Iran

 

Abstract: Rapid technological progress, despite plentiful benefits has created a vacuum for modern man, a growing wave of pessimism and depression, desperation and despair, many psychological problems-social, have a major impact on employee s performance. In such circumstances, teaching of optimism skills for employees in order to strengthen and improve the positive relationship with himself and others, as well as increase the level of tolerance and self-esteem seems to be very useful. The purpose of this study was to answer the question: is there a Connection among the tolerance of ambiguity, self-esteem, positive thinking among employees? In this study, all employees of the city of Ilam university that number were 103 participated, it was used random sampling, sample size n=82, respectively. It was used Pearson's correlation test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and SPSS software and eqs for testing. The findings show that after just tolerance of ambiguity and complexity of social and academic self-esteem there is a positive significant relationship with positive thinking. According to the tests conducted in this study, the correlation between tolerance of ambiguity and self-esteem and positive thinking in order to 0.206 and 0.386 is significantly lower than 0.05, so the there is a significant positive correlation between tolerance and self-esteem with positive thinking, this correlation between self-esteem and optimism is over tolerance of ambiguity.

[Saeed Sheikhi, Zahra Ahmadi, Simin Nasiri. The relationship between tolerance of ambiguity and self-esteem, positive thinking staff at the University of Ilam. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):22-28]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.05

 

Key words: tolerance of ambiguity, self-esteem, positive thinking, academic staff

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6

Evaluation Efficiency and Theoretical Review of Performance in Tehran Stock Exchange

 

Hamed Asl Hadad, Ahmad Asl Hadad

 

Msc in Business Management, Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch

Assistant Professor in Industrial Engineering Dept., K.N.Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluation efficiency and theoretical review of performance in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) and to investigate the impacts of publishing positive and negative information and news about the stock return of the companies listed in TSE on the investors' understanding of the persistence of accruals. Profit management for managers, provides certain trade benefits to the species that seem good at the end of the year. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, linear regression with combined data, simultaneous equations system with combined data were used for to data analysis. The results indicate that accruals and ROE have a significant negative relationship with their capital structure. By comparing result of this research with result of the research in this field which was conducted, this paper concludes that some factors such as sanction are effective on full efficiency.

[Hamed Asl Hadad, Ahmad Asl Hadad. Evaluation Efficiency and Theoretical Review of Performance in Tehran Stock Exchange. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):29-32]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.06

 

Key words: TSE, ROE, Profit management

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7

Response of Matured Tissue Cultured Bartemoda and SakkotiDate Palms to Spraying Vitamins K, A& B

 

Faissal F. Ahmed1; Ahmed Y.Mohamed2 Ali A. Gobara1 and Samah, O.A. Osman2

 

1Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

2 Tropical Fruits Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. ARC, Giza, Egypt

E.mail: faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out during 2013 and 2014 seasons to test the beneficial effects of using vitamins K, B, A each at 50 ppm on yield and fruit quality of matured tissue cultured Sakkoti and Bartemoda date palms grown under Aswan conditions. The palms were sprayed four times at the first week of Feb April, June and August. Single and combined applications of vitamins K, A , B each at 50 ppm materially caused an obvious promotion on all vegetative growth characters, chlorophylls a & b , total chlorophylls, total carotenoids, total carbohydrates %, nutrients , flowering , fruit setting %, yield and fruit quality in both cvs. over the check treatment. The best vitamin in this respect was vitamin B followed by vitamin A and K. The studied vitamin treatments had pronounced effect on advancing harvesting date in both date palms cvs. Treating matured tissue cultured Sakkoti and Bartemoda date palms grown under Aswan conditions four times with a mixture of vitamins K, A, B each at 50 ppm proved to be very effective in improving yield and fruit quality.

[Faissal F. Ahmed; Ahmed Y. Mohamed Ali A. Gobara and Samah, O.A. Osman. Response of matured tissue cultured bartemoda an sakkoti date palms to spraying vitamins k, a & b. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):33-41]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.07

 

Keywords: Sakkoti and Bartemoda date palm cvs; vitamins, yield, fruit quality.

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8

Hindrances to effective Vegetable production in Secondary Schools in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State

 

Offor, U.S, Johnson Opurum and Tambari, N. Allison

 

Department of Agricultural Science Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt

E-mail: sos2212003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study investigated factors that militate against vegetable production in secondary schools in Ikwerre local Government Area of River state. Four research questions were used to guide the study. The design of the study is descriptive survey design. A sample of 120 SSS III Students was drawn from the population using simple random sampling technique. An instrument tilted “factors militating against vegetable production scale (FMAVPS) was used for collection of data, which was analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The result revealed that there is low engagement of students in vegetable gardening, lack of facilities and equipment, schools give lesser support in few areas to vegetable gardening and there is need for adequate provision of human and non-human resource for vegetable gardening in schools. Based on the above findings, recommendations were made.

[Offor, U.S, Johnson Opurum and Tambari, N. Allison. Hindrances to effective Vegetable production in Secondary Schools in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):42-45]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.08

 

Keywords: School participation, vegetable gardening, factors, and students engagement

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9

Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among community primary school pupils in Amagunze, Enugu State, Nigeria

 

Joachim O Ezeadila 1, Ikechukwu Okoli 1, Marcel Agomuo 1, Francis C Aneke 2, and Chukwudi M Egbuche3

 

1 Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, PMB 5025, Awka, Nigeria

2 Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozala, Enugu State, Nigeria

3 Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

ik.okoli@unizik.edu.ng

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among pupils (aged 6- 13 years) of Community Primary School, Amagunze in Nkanu East LGA, Enugu State, Nigeria. A total of two hundred (200) urine samples were randomly collected from the pupils (87 males and 113 females). The urine samples were collected in the month of August, 2013 into sterile urine containers and were examined microscopically in the laboratory using string sedimentation technique. Hematuria was assessed using chemical reagent strip (medi-test combi-9 sticks). The overall prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection was 11 (5.5%); with 7 (8.0%) cases for males and 4 (3.5%) for females but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Prevalence rate was also observed to be higher among age group of 10-13 years with 4 (6.5%) compared to age group of 6-9 years with7 (5.1%), but the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference (P ˂ 0.05) between the pupils who were positive for schistosomiasis (11) and those who presented with hematuria (21). However, there was no close association between hematuria and the presence of eggs of S. haematobium in the urine. Hematuria gave a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 93% when compared to microscopy. The results of the findings show that the disease is endemic in the area under study. It is thus, recommended that control programs be organized in the state that would be geared towards creating awareness amongst the people and reducing the rate of infection.

[Ezeadila JO, Okoli I, Agomuo M, Aneke FC, and Egbuche CM. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among community primary school pupils in Amagunze, Enugu State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):46-51]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.09

 

Key words: Schistosoma haematobium, urinary schistosomiasis, hematuria, Amagunze, Nkanu East LGA

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10

Analyze the role of leisure time in relation to rural and urban communities in the Shahidiyeh region (Maybod)

 

Mahdiyeh Khorsand

 

Msc in Geography and Rural Planning, Rezvanshahr Payam Noor University, Yazd, Iran

 

Abstract: Leisure time is one of the most important time of human life (part of the daily hours) that a person with the rest, have recreation, development of awareness deals social the participation. A golden opportunity that can provide fertile ground for grow and flourish of individuals provided that we know worth and with inattention do not cross it. According to the experts, people who have useful and desirable leisure time, in terms of economic, social, ecological have better efficiency and further life. This leisure time can include from home to habitat and outside house and if becoming regional and from urban and rural leisure could change relations within the developmental framework. The purpose of this study is analysis of the leisure time role in relationship between city and village in the region Shahidieh (Maybod). To with analyzing the actions and activities in the field of leisure time in city and village for spending leisure time of citizens provide effective strategies and programs for research one of the ways the relationship between city and village. Type of research is "functional" and its method in form of library, survey with method of descriptive research and content analysis. Research findings and results of researcher field studies in the area studied show that these factors, respectively, social, ecological, economical have a place in the field of spend leisure time and relationship between the city and the villages.

[Mahdiyeh Khorsand. Analyze the role of leisure time in relation to rural and urban communities in the region Shahidiyeh (Maybod). World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):52-58]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.10

 

Key words: Leisure time, Rural planning, Shahidiyeh region

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11

Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species isolated from blood and urine

 

Ikechukwu Okoli and Joel A Olabode

 

Department of Applied Microbiology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, PMB 5025, Awka, Nigeria

ik.okoli@unizik.edu.ng

 

Abstract: This study was aimed at isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility characterization of isolates of Salmonella species from blood and urine culture of outpatients attending hospital whose clinical history of fever fell within a period of first to fourth week of infections. A total of 24 (17.52%) isolates identified as Salmonella species by using cultural, biochemical and serological analysis were recovered from 137 samples (75 blood samples and 62 urine samples). Predominant isolates were S. typhi 16 (11.7%), followed by S. paratyphi A 6 (4.38%) and S. paratyphi C 2 (1.45%). Isolates were from all age groups studied, the median age being 30 years. There were 58 (42.3%) male and 79 (57.7%) female outpatients and the male to female ratio was 1:1.36. Infection was more prevalent in the age group 6-15years 6 (8.0%) followed by age group above 46 years 3 (5.30%) in blood cultures. Meanwhile, in urine cultures prevalence was highest in the age group above 46 years (3 (4.84%)) followed by age group 26-35 years (2 (3.20%)). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using 6 different antimicrobial agents suggested by Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the 16 (100%) Salmonella typhi isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, 15 (93.8%) to Ceftriaxone, 14 (87.5%) to Chloramphenicol and 12 (75%) to Ampicillin. On the other hand, 10 (62.5%) were resistant to Tetracycline, and 12 (75%) resistant to Co-trimoxazole. Out of 6 Salmonella paratyphi A isolates, all the 6 (100%) were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin and 5 (83.3%) susceptible to Ceftriaxone, 4 (66.7%) susceptible to Chloramphenicol while 4 (66.6%) were resistant to Tetracycline and Co-trimoxazole. Furthermore, 2 (100%) of Salmonella paratyphi C were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin and Ceftriaxone. The finding indicates that Ciprofloxacin can be used as a first line therapy for treatment and the need of blood culture, along with the urine culture and clinical history should be taken into consideration for an accurate diagnosis of enteric fever caused by Salmonella spp.

[Okoli I and Olabode JA. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species isolated from blood and urine. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):59-66]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.11

 

Key words: Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, antimicrobial susceptibility, antibiotics

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Impact of Spraying Some Plant Extracts on Fruiting and Storability of Balady Mandarin Trees

 

Faissal F. Ahmed 1, Ahmed H.M. Abdelaal 2, Salah, M.A. El- Masry 2 and Mubarake A. Shoug Ferag2

 

1Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

2 Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Al- Azhar Univ. Assiut branch Egypt.

Email: faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2013 and 2014 seasons, Balady mandarin trees received three sprays of five plant extracts and oils namely extract of turmeric as well as oils of garlic, onion, eucalyptus and flax each at 0.05 to 0.1%. The merit was testing the effect of these plant extracts on growth, tree nutritional status, yield, fruit quality and storability of the fruits on the trees. Treating the trees three times with these plant extracts (turmeric extract and oils of garlic, onion, eucalyptus and flax) at 0.05 to 0.1% proved to be very effective in enhancing shoot length, leaf area and number of leaves / shoot, in the Spring growth cycle, leaf pigments, leaf content of N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn fruit setting, yield and fruit quality over the check treatment. All plant extract treatments effectively prolonged storage duration of fruits on the trees and reduced loss in fruit weight. Physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits stored on the trees were greatly improved due to using these plant extracts. The promotion on all the investigated parameters was slight among the two studied concentrations. (0.0 & 0.1%) Treating Balady mandarin trees three times with turmeric extract or oils of garlic and onion at 0.05 % was responsible for promoting yield, fruit quality and storability of fruits on the trees of Balady mandarin trees.

[Faissal F. Ahmed, Ahmed H.M. Abdelaal, Salah, M.A. El- Masry and Mubarake A. Shoug Ferag. Impact of Spraying Some Plant Extracts on Fruiting and Storability of Balady Mandarin Trees. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):67-75]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.12

 

Keywords: Plant extracts, yield, fruit quality, storability, Balady mandarin trees.

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Using Some Organic Manures and Em As a Partial Replacement of Mineral N Fertilizers in Superior Vineyards

 

Faissal F. Ahmed 1, Ahmed H.M. Abdelaal2, Salah E; Deen, M.A. El- Masry 2 and Sherif M.M. Hassan 2

 

1 Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

2Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Al-Azhar Univ. Assiut, Egypt

Email. Faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2013 and 2014 seasons, Superior grapevines fertilized with N as 100 % inorganic N fertilizer or through 25 to 75% inorganic N fertilizer + 25 to 75% three organic manures namely poultry manure (2.5 % N); plant compost (2 % N) and farmyard manure (0.25% N) + 15 to 45 ml EM/ vine/ year. The merit was replacing inorganic N partially by using these organic manures and EM for improving yield lowering pollution and enhancing the efficiency of exportation to foreign markets. Growth characters, berry setting %, yield and cluster characters were remarkably improved with using N as 50% inorganic N + 50% organic manures + 30 ml EM/ vine/ year. Leaf pigments, various nutrients as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the berries were gradually improved owing to decreasing the percentages of the inorganic N from 100 to 25.0 and increasing the percentages of organic manure from 0.0 to 75% and levels of EM from 0.0 to 45 ml/ vine / year. Shot berries % was gradually reduced with decreasing percentages of inorganic N and increasing organic and biofertilization levels. The best results with regard to yield and quality of the berries were obtained due to treating the vines with N as 50% inorganic N + 50 % poultry manure + 30 ml EM/ vine / year Both nitrite and nitrate in the juice were substantially reduced in such promised treatment.

[Faissal F. Ahmed, Ahmed H.M. Abdelaal, Salah E; Deen, M.A. El- Masry and Sherif M.M. Hassan. Using Some Organic Manures and Em As a Partial Replacement of Mineral N Fertilizers in Superior Vineyards. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):76-84]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.13

 

Keywords: Inorganic N, organic manures, EM, pollution, yield, Superior grapevines.

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Relationship between Leadership style and organizational justice

 

Hamid Reza Ranjbar Jamalabadi1 (corresponding author), Sajjad Dehghan2

 

1Department of Accounting, Yazd Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Department of accounting, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran.

2Department of management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran.

 

Abstract: Based on this research, the study of perceived organizational justice and support were investigated by Yazd province financial instruments staff and was investigated the relationship between managers' leadership style with support and organizational justice. For this purpose, variables of organizational support, organizational justice and leadership style of relationship oriented - the task oriented was measured by a standard questionnaire. The sample size of 178 patients was determined using Cochran formula results showed a positive and significant relationship between managers relationship oriented leadership style with organizational justice. But there is no significant relationship between the task-oriented with organizational justice.

[Hamid Reza Ranjbar Jamalabadi, Sajjad Dehghan. Relationship between Leadership style and organizational justice. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):85-90]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 14

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.14

 

Keywords: relationship-oriented, task-oriented, justice, Yazd economic system

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Response of Wonderful Pomegranate trees to foliar application of Amino Acids, Vitamins B and Silicon

 

Wassel, A.H.M.; Gobara, A. A. ; Ibrahiem, H.I.M and Shaaban-Mai, M.

 

Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

E.mail: faissal fadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This investigation was carried out during 2013 and 2014 seasons to examine the effect of spraying amino acids namely (methionine, cysteine and tryptophan) at 250 ppm, vitamins B (B1+B2+B6+B12) at 50 ppm and potassium silicate at 0.1% on wonderful pomegranate trees either separately or in combinations. Spray was applied three times annually at growth starting, after fruit set and at one month later. The following parameters were measured (main shoot length (cm), number of leaves /shoot, leaf area (cm2), primary and finally fruit set, number of fruits/tree, yield/tree (Kg), weight per fruit (g), percentages of juice, grain, pomace and edible/non edible. Moreover, total acidity%, T.S.S, tannins and reducing sugar were estimated. The best results for all parameters were obtained due to using a mixture of amino acids at 250 ppm, vitamins B at 50 ppm and potassium silicate at 0.1%.

[Wassel, A. H. M.; Gobara, A. A. ; Ibrahiem, H. I. Mand Shaaban-Mai, M. Response of Wonderful Pomegranate trees to foliar application of Amino Acids, Vitamins B and Silicon. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):91-95]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 15

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.15

 

Key words: Wonderful pomegranate amino acids, silicon and reducing sugars

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Overcoming Poor Yield and Irregular Berries Colouration in Flame Seedless Grapevines Growth under Upper Egypt Conditions.

 

Mohamed A. El- Sayed1; Ahmed M.K. Abdelaal1; Maher, Kh. M. Uwakiem 2 and Ahmed H.A. El- Dawwey2

 

1 Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt

2 Viticulture Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. ARC, Giza, Egypt

Email. faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2013 and 2014 seasons, Flame seedless grapevines grown under Luxor region condition subjected to one, two, three or four sprays of salicylic acid at 0.0, 50, 100, 200 or 400 ppm. The impact of different concentrations and frequencies of salicylic acid application on overcoming the problems of poor yield and berries colouration was investigated. Carrying out one to four sprays of salicylic acid at 50 to 400 substatically succeeded in stimulating all growth characters, vine nutritional status, yield and fruit quality and at the same time enhancing colouration of the berries over the check treatment. These effects were in proportional to the increase in concentrations and frequencies of salicylic acid application. No. measurable effects on all the investigated parameters were observed among the higher two concentrations (200 & 400 ppm) and frequencies (thrice & four times) of salicylic acid application.  For promotion yield and berries quality and at the same time overcoming irregular colouration of the berries in Flame seedless grown under Upper Egypt condition, it is advised to spray salicylic acid three times (growth start, just after berry setting and two weeks later) at 200 ppm.

[Mohamed A. El- Sayed; Ahmed M.K. Abdelaal; Maher, Kh. M. Uwakiem and Ahmed H.A. El- Dawwey. Overcoming Poor Yield and Irregular Berries Colouration in Flame Seedless Grapevines Growth under Upper Egypt Conditions. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):96-101]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 16

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.16

 

Keywords: Salicylic acid concentrations, frequencies, yield, fruit quality, berries colouration, Flame seedless grapevines

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Effect of Using Plant Compost Enriched With Spirulina Platensis Algae as a Partial Replacement of Inorganic N Fertilization on Fruiting of Ewaise Mangoes

 

Abd El- Hameed M. Wassel1; Mohamed A El- Sayed; Ahmed Y. Mohamed2 and Ebrahim A.M. Hassan2

 

1Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

2Tropical Fruits Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. ARC, Giza, Egypt

E mail. Faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out during 2013 and 2014 seasons to examine the effect of replacing 25 to 75% inorganic N partially by using plant compost enriched with Spirulina platensis algae at 25 to 75% on fruiting of Ewaise mango trees grown under Upper Egypt conditions. Using the suitable N (1000 g N / tree year) via 50% inorganic N + 50% plant compost enriched with Spirulina platensis algae gave the best results with regard to growth aspects, fruit retention % and yield. There was a gradual promotion on leaf pigments, total carbohydrates % and nutrients namely N, P, K, Mg, Fe and Mn and fruit quality with reducing the percentages of inorganic N from 100 to 25% and at the same time increasing percentages of plant compost enriched with Spirulina platensis algae from 0.0 to 75%. In all cases combined application of inorganic N plus plant compost enriched with Spirulina platensis algae was Superior than using inorganic N alone. For promoting yield and fruit quality of Ewaise mango trees grown under Upper Egypt conditions and at the same time reducing pollution with nitrite in the fruit pulp, it is suggested to use N as 50% inorganic N plus 50% plant compost enriched with Spirulina platensis.

[Abd El- Hameed M. Wassel; Mohamed A El- Sayed; Ahmed Y. Mohamed and Ebrahim A.M. Hassan. Effect of Using Plant Compost Enriched With Spirulina Platensis Algae as a Partial Replacement of Inorganic N Fertilization on Fruiting of Ewaise Mangoes. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):102-109]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 17

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.17

 

Keywords: Inorganic N, plant compost, Spirulina platensis; Ewaise mango trees, fruiting

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Free Trade Area and China's Economy from the Perspective of Import and Export

 

Li Ping

 

Department of Economics College of Humanities and social science of Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, China

Email: hitlipingls@aliyun.com

 

Abstract: In-depth development of economic globalization, the world's economic development extension features has been enhanced, international trade in national economic development plays an increasingly important role, in 2012 the sum of China's import and export accounted for more than 50% of GDP, the establishment of a free trade area for the realization of bilateral and multilateral trade liberalization with a significant role. Eighteen Third Plenary Session will promote the construction of the free trade zone, and make Shanghai as a pilot area of the Free Trade Area, in order to increase financial support for cross-border investment and trade, and financial reform’s further deepen, promoting the Chinese economy’s stable and healthy development. Therefore, this paper will choose empirical analysis of the relationship between export and import growth and GDP growth in the import and export data in 1979--2012, and focus on exploring the effects of free trade zones for import and export of China's economic growth from the perspective of a free trade area for the healthy development provide a reference recommendations.

[Li Ping. Free Trade Area and China's Economy from the Perspective of Import and Export. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):110-115]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 18

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.18

 

Keywords: Import and export, Free trade zone, Chinese economy.

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Enrollment, infrastructure and qualification of teachers at higher secondary level in Education Zone Anantnag

 

Hafiz Mudasir 1, Dr. M.Y. Ganaie 2, Assifa Rahman 3

 

1. Research Scholar, Deptt. of Education, Dr. C.V Raman University, India

2. Associate Professor, Deptt. of Education, Kashmir University

3. M. Ed Student, School of Education, IGNOU

hafizmudasir@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted with a view to study the enrollment, infrastructure and qualification of teachers at higher secondary level in Education Zone Anantnag. The investigator prepared self constructed information Blanks and Schedules for the collection of data. The study revealed that there are only eight higher secondary schools in education zone Anantnag. Out of these eight higher secondary schools 50% are Govt. and 50% are Private Institutions. It further reflected that that there are six thousand one hundred and thirteen students enrolled in eight higher secondary schools of district Anantnag. Out of these three thousand one hundred sixty one are male students and two thousand nine hundred fifty two are female students. The percentage of male students is 52 % and that of female students is 48%. The study further revealed that there are 249 teachers working in the higher secondary schools of education zone Anantnag out of which 55.82% of teachers are working in Government schools and 44.18% of teachers are working in private schools. Out of 3941 students 2063 are boys and 1878 are girls i.e., 52% are boys and 48% are girls. The table further depicts that 2040 students are enrolled in class 11th and 1901 students are enrolled in class 12th.

[Hafiz Mudasir, Dr. M.Y. Ganaie, Assifa Rahman. Enrolment, Infrastructure and Qualification of teachers at Higher Secondary level in Education Zone Anantnag. World Rural Observ 2015;7(3):116-120]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 19

doi:10.7537/marswro070315.19

 

Keywords: Enrolment, Infrastructure, Higher Secondary Students, ICDS, SSA, NCF

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The above manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from June 16, 2015. 

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