Science Journal

 

 World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1944-6543; Quarterly

Volume 7 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 26), December 25, 2015
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0704
 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Influence of Goat and Pig Manure on Growth nd Yield Potential of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) in Ikorodu Agro-Ecological Zone of Nigeria

 

1Sanni, K. O. and 2Adenubi, O. O.

 

1Department of Crop Production and Horticulture, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria.

2Department of Agricultural Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria.

*sannikehinde2002@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Food security is a major issue in the developing nations as a result of marginal soil fertility and low input levels causing declining crop yields. A trial was conducted to evaluate the influence of 5 and 10t ha-1 goat and pig manure on soil chemical properties, growth and yield of okra at the Teaching and Research Farms of Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu humid rainforest agro-ecological zone of South Western Nigeria. The trial was laid out in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five replications. Treatments consist of 5t ha-1, 10t ha-1 of goat and pig manure respectively. There was also control treatment (plots with no addition of neither goat nor pig manure). Data collected on growth and yield components were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Application of goat and pig manure positively influenced (P<0.05) okra plant height, number of leaves, stem girth. Number of harvested pods, fresh and dry pods weight were significantly (P<0.05) different compared to control. The result showed that application of 5t ha-1 goat manure resulted in improved okra growth and yield performances, while additional higher level of goat and pig manure at 10t ha-1 did not result in corresponding increase in the growth and yield of okra. The result also showed that addition of goat and pig manures brought about improvement in soil chemical properties; soil pH, total N, available P, organic matter, exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity were improved. Application of goat and pig manures could be used for soil management as it improves soil nutrient status and could be used for sustainable okra production in the study area.

[Sanni, K. O. and Adenubi, O. O. Influence of Goat and Pig Manure on Growth nd Yield Potential of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) in Ikorodu Agro-Ecological Zone of Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):1-6]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.01.

 

Keywords: agro-ecological, goat and pig manures, okra production, soil management, soil chemical properties

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2

Using Silicon for Alleviating Irregular Colouration Problem of Flame Seedless Grapes

 

Abdel Hameed, M. Wassel1, Faissal F. Ahmed1, Mohamed M. A. Abada2, and Dina A. M. Nagy2

 

1Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia. Minia. Egypt

2Viticulture Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. ARC, Giza, Egypt

E-mail: faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out during 2013 and 2014 seasons as a trail for overcoming the problem of irregular colouration of Flame seedless grapevines grown under Minia region by using potassium silicate once, twice, thrice or four times at 0.05 to 0.4%. Subjecting the vines to potassium silicate via foliage once, twice, thrice or four times at 0.05 to 0.4% was materially accompanied with enhancing growth characters, leaf pigments, N, P, K, Mg berry setting %, yield and fruit quality over the control treatment. The promotion was substantially associated with increasing concentrations and frequencies of potassium silicate. Berries colouration was remarkably enhanced due to using all potassium silicate treatments. No major differences on the investigated parameters were observed among the higher two concentrations (0.2 & 0.4%) and frequencies (thrice or four times). Carrying out three sprays of potassium silicate at 0.2% was responsible for enhancing yield and fruit quality of Flame seedless grapevines grown under Minia region conditions.

[Abdel Hameed, M. Wassel, Faissal F. Ahmed, Mohamed M. A. Abada, and Dina A. M. Nagy. Using Silicon for Alleviating Irregular Colouration Problem of Flame Seedless Grapes. World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):7-13]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.02.

 

Key words: Flame seedless, grapevines, silicon yield, berries colouration, fruit quality

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3

Trials for Alleviating the Adverse Effects of Salinity on Some Grapevine Cvs

 

Abd El- Hameed M.M. Wassel,1 Farouk H. Abdelaziz1; Mervat A. Aly 2 and Atiat A.M. Moustafa2

 

1Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

2Viticulture Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. ARC, Giza Egypt

E.mail: faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2013 and 2014 seasons, transplants of three grapevine cvs Flame seedless, Red Roomy and Superior were subjected to soil salinity at 1000 to 2000 ppm and three antioxidants namely citric acid at 1000 ppm, potassium silicate at 1000 ppm and salicylic acid at 50 ppm as an attempt for enhancing the tolerance of these grapevines cvs to soil salinity. Flame seedless grapevine cv showed a remarkable tolerance to soil salinity till 2000 ppm, especially when accompanied with using any one of the three antioxidants. The best antioxidant in controlling salinity was salicylic acid followed by potassium silicate. Based on the obtained results, Flame seedless grapevine could tolerate 2000 ppm salinity in the soil when subjected to spraying salicylic acid at 50 ppm. Both Red Roomy and Superior grapevine cvs could tolerate 1000 ppm soil salinity also when the transplants were subjected to spraying salicylic acid at 50 ppm.

[Abd El-Hameed M.M. Wassel; Farouk H. Abdelaziz; Mervat A. Aly and Atiat A.M. Moustafa. Trials for Alleviating the Adverse Effects of Salinity on Some Grapevine Cvs. World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):14-21]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.03.

 

Keywords: grpevien cvs, soil salinity, tolerance, antioxidants

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4

Response of Superior Grapevines to Spraying Some Antioxidants

 

Moawad, A. Mohamed, Mohamed A. El- Sayed, Ahmed M.K. Abdelaal and Moustafa A. A. Ebrahiem

 

Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out during 2013 and 2014 seasons for examining the effect of single and combined applications of vitamins B (B1 + B2+ B6 + B12) at 50 to 100 ppm as well as ascorbic and citric acids each at 500 to 1000 ppm on growth, vine nutritional status, berry setting %, yield, shot berries %, and quality of the berries. The three antioxidants were sprayed three times at growth start, just after berry setting and at one month later. Single and combined applications of the three antioxidants namely vitamins B, ascorbic acid and citric acid was very effective in improving growth, vine nutritional status, yield and fruit quality over the check treatment. The best antioxidant in this respect was citric acid followed by ascorbic acid and vitamins B. The antioxidant treatments effectively controlled shot berries %. Carrying out three sprays of a mixture of vitamins B at 50 ppm as well as both ascorbic and citric acids each at 500 ppm three times is suggested for promoting yield and fruit quality of Superior grapevines grown under Luxor conditions.

[Moawad, A. Mohamed, Mohamed A. El- sayed, Ahmed M.K. Abdelaal and Moustafa A. A. Ebrahiem. Response of Superior Grapevines to Spraying Some Antioxidants. World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):22-30]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.04.

 

Keywords: vitamins B, ascorbic acid, citric acid, yield, quality, Superior grapevine

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5

Evaluation Parent-Reported Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD in Teenagers

 

Simin Siri

 

MSc in Health Education, Tarbiat Modarres University

 

Abstract: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used as an international standardised instrument measuring child behaviour. The primary aim of our study was to examine whether behavioral symptoms measured by SDQ were elevated among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to the rest of the population, and to examine the predictive value of the SDQ for outcome of parent-reported clinical diagnosis of ASD/ADHD. A secondary aim was to examine the extent of overlap in symptoms between children diagnosed with these two disorders, as measured by the SDQ subscales. A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Birth Cohort (n = 19,519), was conducted. Data were weighted to be representative of the UK population as a whole. ADHD or ASD identified by a medical doctor or health professional were reported by parents in 2008 and this was the case definition of diagnosis; (ADHD n = 173, ASD n = 209, excluding twins and triplets). Study children's ages ranged from 6.3–8.2 years; (mean 7.2 years). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the parent-reported clinical diagnosis of ASD/ADHD and teacher and parent-reported SDQ subscales. All SDQ subscales were strongly associated with both ASD and ADHD. There was substantial co-occurrence of behavioral difficulties between children diagnosed with ASD and those diagnosed with ADHD. After adjustment for other subscales, the final model for ADHD, contained hyperactivity/inattention and impact symptoms only and had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%; (AUC) = 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90–0.97). The final model for ASD was composed of all subscales except the ‘peer problems’ scales, indicating of the complexity of behavioural difficulties that may accompany ASD. A threshold of 0.03 produced model sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 93% respectively; AUC = 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86–0.95). The results support changes to DSM-5 removing exclusivity clauses.

[Simin Siri. Evaluation Parent-Reported Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD in Teenagers. World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):31-36]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.05.

 

Key words: Autism, ADHD, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

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6

Effect of Spraying Seaweed Extract and Potassium Silicate on Growth and Fruiting Of Al-Saidey Date Palms

 

Frouk H. Abd El-Aziz, Ali H. Ali and Abdalla I.A. Omar

 

Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

Email: faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted during 2013 and 2014 seasons to examine the effect of single and combined applications of seaweed extract and/or potassium silicate each at 0.0-0.4% on leaf area, palm nutritional status, yield and fruit quality of Al-Saidey date palms grown under New Valley environmental conditions. The selected palms received three sprays from each biostimulant. Treating the palms three times with seaweed extract and/or potassium silicate each at 0.05-0.4% was very effective in improving leaf area, total chlorophylls, N, P, and K, yield and fruit quality over the check treatment. The promotion was materially associated with increasing concentrations. Meaningless promotion on these characters was observed with increasing concentrations of both materials from 0.2 to 0.4%. The best results with regard to yield and fruit quality of Al-Saidey date palms grown under New Valley conditions were obtained due to spraying the palms three times with a mixture of seaweed extract and potassium silicate each at 0.2%.

[Frouk H. Abd El-Aziz, Ali H. Ali and Abdalla I.A. Omar. Effect of Spraying Seaweed Extract and Potassium Silicate on Growth and Fruiting Of Al-Saidey Date Palms. World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):37-43]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.06.

 

Keywords: Seaweed extract, potassium silicate, Al-Saidey date palms, yield, fruit quality.

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7

Effect of Spraying Seaweed Extract and Silicon on Fruiting of Alphonse Mango Trees

 

Abd El-Hamid M.M. Wassel, Mohammed A. El-Sayed, Ali H. Ali, and Mohamed G.M. Noaman

 

Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

Email: faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted during 2013 and 2014 seasons to examine the effect of single and combined applications of seaweed extract and/or potassium silicate each at 0.0-0.2% on growth characters, percentages of N, P, K, and Mg, yield and fruit quality of Alphonse mango trees grown under Minia Region conditions. The selected mango trees received three sprays from each biostimulant treatment. Treating Alphonse mango trees three times with seaweed extract and/or potassium silicateeach at 0.05-0.2% proved to be very effective in improving leaf area, shoot length, N, P, K, and Mg, yield and fruit quality over the control treatment. These effects were concentration-dependent in both seasons. Meaningless promotion on these characters was observed when the concentrations of both materials were increased from 0.1 to 0.2%. The best results with regard to yield and fruit quality of Alphonse mango trees grown under Minia conditions were obtained due to spraying the trees three times with a mixture of seaweed extract and potassium silicateeach at 0.1%.

[Abd El-Hamid M.M. Wassel, Mohammed A. El-Sayed, Ali H. Ali, and Mohamed G.M. Noaman. Effect of Spraying Seaweed Extract and Silicon on Fruiting of Alphonse Mango Trees. World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):44-50]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.07.

 

Keywords:Seaweed extract, potassium silicate, Alphonse mango trees, yield, fruit quality

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8

Effect of Spraying Royal Jelly on Productivity of Flame Seedless Grapevines

 

Abd El-Hamid M. Wassel, Ali A. Gobara, Mahmoud A. M. Hussein

 

Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

Email: faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2013 and 2014 seasons, Flame seedless grapevines treated with Royal Jelly at 0.0125 to 0.05% once, twice, or thrice as a trial for detecting the best concentration and frequency of the Royal Jelly that are responsible for obtaining an economical yield and producing better fruit quality of Flame seedless grapevines. Treating Flame seedless grapevines with Royal Jelly at 0.0125 to 0.05% caused a remarkable stimulation on all growth characters, leaf pigments, leaf content of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe), berry setting, yield and berries quality over the check treatment. The promotion was clearly associated with increasing concentrations and frequencies of Royal Jelly application. Negligible effects on these parameters were observed among the higher two concentrations namely, 0.025 and 0.05% and frequencies i.e., twice and thrice. For improving yield and quality of Flame seedless grapevines crawled under Minia region conditions, it is suggested to spray the vines twice with Royal Jelly at 0.025%.

[Abd El-Hamid M. Wassel, Ali A. Gobara, Mahmoud A. M. Hussein. Effect of Spraying Royal Jelly on Productivity of Flame Seedless Grapevines. World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):51-59]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.08.

 

Keywords:Royal Jelly, Flame seedless grapevines, yield,berries quality.

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9

Dinitroaniline Herbicide effects on Mitotic Division in Faba Bean: Possible Damage Recovery via Certain Growth Factors` Seed Treatments

 

Esmat A Hassan, M. E. El-Awadi, Y. R. Abdel-Baky

 

Botany Department, Division of Agriculture and Biological Research, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12311, Giza Egypt

esmat_hassan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A pre-sowing overnight faba bean seeds soaked in tryptophan, methionine amino acids and in a pyrimidine derivative SG93 were cultivated in soil incorporated with the two dinitroaniline herbicides butralin and pedimethalin. The herbicides generally caused the decline of mitotic indices in root tip cells of faba bean and in percentage of divided cells at prophase. The divided cells` percentage at ana-telophase stage of mitosis was significantly inhibited. Maximum inhibitory effect was exerted by the butralin in comparison to control. On the contrary, the exposure to the herbicides resulted in an increase in percentage of divided cells at the metaphase stage .The mitotic abnormalities caused by the herbicides were recorded as stickiness, C-metaphase, anaphase bridges and micronuclei. From the results, the growth factors under test, i.e. tryptophan , methionine and the pyrimidine derivative substance while; showed variable effects; all exerted significant counteraction influence against the herbicide-induced inhibitory damageable symptoms on the mitotic division stages in root tip cells of faba bean.

[Esmat A Hassan, M. E. El-Awadi, Y. R. Abdel-Baky. Dinitroaniline Herbicide effects on Mitotic Division in Faba Bean: Possible Damage Recovery via Certain Growth Factors` Seed Treatments. World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):60-64]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.09.

 

Keywords: Dinitroanilines, faba bean, methionine, mitosis, trypophan

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10

Diversity and Species Composition of Periphyton in a Tropical Earthern Pond in South Eastern Nigeria.

 

George, Ubong Uwem1, Atakpa, Edidiong Okokon2

 

1Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Cross River  State, Nigeria.

2Department of Zoology, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

talk2georgeubong@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: Studies were conducted on periphyton species diversity and composition in the University of Calabar Fish Farm, Nigeria between January and March, 2014 using samples obtained from bamboo substrates. Samples were taken 30.0cm below the top of the submerged region of the substrates 90 days after installation using known area of 5.0cm2. Forty-one taxa of periphyton belonging to seven families namely: Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Protozoa and Rotifera. Bacillariophyceae had 7 taxa with 282 individuals (22.26%), while Chlorophyceae had 12 taxa, which contained 397 individuals forming 31.33% of the periphyton population. Others were Cyanophyceae with 9 taxa, 318 individuals (25.10%), Euglenophyceae had 5 taxa, 78 individuals (6.15%), Protozoa had 2 taxa, 62 individuals (4.89%) and Rotifera had 3 taxa, 49 individuals (3.88). Margalef’s diversity index d, ranged between 0.24 and 1.84 with a mean of 0.92, while Shannon-wiener index ranged between 2.29 - 3.04, with a mean of 2.76. Results of the study are discussed in relation to periphyton-based aquaculture especially in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farming as the cichlid is known to feed on periphyton, both in the wild and under culture condition in fish pond.
[
George, U. U., Atakpa, E. O. Diversity and Species Composition of Periphyton in a Tropical Earthern Pond in South Eastern Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):65-70]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.10.

 

Key words: Diversity, Species Composition, Periphyton, Tropical, Earthern Pond, Oreochromis niloticus Nigeria.

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11

FAO Contribution to food and income security in Sudan: An Assessment

 

Abdel Raouf Suleiman Bello* and Eiman Musa Ahmed Fadul**

 

*Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Society, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, and Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

** Eiman Musa Ahmed Fadul, Training Administration, Ministry of Agriculture, and Irrigation, Sudan.

Corresponding Author’s Email: raoufbello@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the impact of the FAO’s Special Program for Food Security in Ombadda Locality of Khartoum State. The simple random sampling procedure was used to select 80 respondents from two villages purposively selected. Primary data were obtained through a survey by using a structured interview schedule and observation. The study findings indicated that the program has succeeded in sufficiency crops product and improving income of the beneficiaries which are reflected in achieving food security and improvement of their standard of living. T-test analysis showed significant difference between participants and non-participants groups with respect to number of variables, namely crop production, crop consumption, net crops income and incomes after and before the program. The study proposed some recommendations including: expansion and replication of the existing project activities with special emphasis on income-generating activities, and raising of environmental awareness among the targeted group, especially women.

[Bello AS, Fadul E MA. FAO Contribution to food and income security in Sudan: An Assessment. World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):71-76]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.11.

 

Key words: Food security, crop production, crop technology, farmers’ income

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12

Determinants of Poverty in Mountain Region of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

 

Fazal Ali Khan1 & Kifayat Ullah2

 

1Rural Economist, Rural Support Programmes Network (RSPN), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan

2Lecturer/PhD Scholar, Integrated Mountain Area Research Centre (IMARC), Karakoram International University, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

 

Abstract: Using data collected from 159 households in a mountainous village of Ghizer District in Gilgit-Baltistan, this paper examines the prevalence, penetration and severity of poverty in the mountain region of Pakistan. The paper analyses household-specific variables to determine their contribution in increasing (or otherwise) the per – capita income of residents. The results suggest that, although women actively participate in livelihood activities, the high female to male ratio does not contribute to enhancing incomes. The authors argue that investing in productive assets, in addition to the land, will help people to escape from poverty.

[Fazal Ali Khan & Kifayat Ullah. Determinants of Poverty in Mountain Region of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):77-86]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.12.

 

Key Words: Dependency Ratio, Participation rate, Poverty gap ratio, Severity of poverty

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Effect Of Exposures On The Mechanical Properties Of Polymers .1. Poly(Methylmethacrylate)

 

Muyiwa Turoti*1, C.E. Gimba2

 

1Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: Tel: +2348033766099, Fax 036-231245

*E-mail address: muyiwaturoti@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The degradation of PMMA films exposed to outdoor environment, ultraviolet irradiation at 254nm and oven aging at 300K was monitored by IR spectroscopy to determine the carbonyl and hydroxyl indices, determination of viscosity average molecular weight, tensile strength, Young’s modulus, elongation at break and time to embrittlement. The results generally showed that there was correlation between the mechanical properties and the accumulation of oxidation products. The ultraviolet irradiation was most effective in decreasing most of the properties of PMMA film shortening its longevity to 179h only. The results also indicated that the some of the properties of PMMA films were indeed improved at the early stage of exposure to oven followed by the outdoor environment hence these two environments would be where PMMA films could be better utilized.

[Muyiwa Turoti, C.E. Gimba. Effect Of Exposures On The Mechanical Properties Of Polymers .1. Poly(Methylmethacrylate). World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):87-95]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.13.

 

Key words: oxidation, Young’s modulus, tensile strength, elongation at break, embrittlement time

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Nutritional Evaluation Of Sprouted Barley Grains On Agricultural By-Products On Performance Of Growing New Zealand White Rabbits

 

Mohsen, M.K.1; E.M. Abdel-Raouf1; H.M.A. Gaafar2 and A.M. Yousif2

 

1 Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.

2 Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Egypt.

hamedgaafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Sprouted barley grains was produced using agricultural by-products as bedding media and the treatments were hydroponic barley with 0.5% urea (HBU), sprouted barley on rice straw with 0.5% urea (SBRSU), sprouted barley on wheat straw with 0.5% urea (SBWSU), sprouted barley on bean straw with 0.5% urea (SBBSU), sprouted barley on rice straw with 100 g poultry dropping (SBRSPD) and sprouted barley on rice straw with 100 g animal feces (SBRSUAF). Three digestibility trials were conducted using mature male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits with an average body weight of 2.5 kg and aged 8 months to evaluate sprouted barley grains (HB, SBRS and SBBS). A total of 40 NZW rabbits at 8 weeks of age (16 males with 103936.65 g live body weight (LBW) and 24 females with 934.7539.78 g LBW). Rabbits in the 1st group were fed commercial rabbit diet (CRD) served as control (G1). While, 30% of CRD was replaced by HB (G2), SBRS (G3) or SBBS (G4), respectively during feeding period from 8 to 16 weeks of age. Results showed that DM content increased in sprouted barley grains on agricultural by-products especially SBRSU, SBRHU and SBBSU. Hydroponic barley (HBU) showed the higher OM content and SBRSU had the higher CP content. While, HBU revealed the higher NPN content. The CF content increased and NFE content decreased in sprouted barley grains on agricultural by-products compared with HBU. The EE content increased in SBRSAF compared with the other sprouted barley grains. However, SBRHU had the higher contents of ash and celica. Fresh and dry yield ranged from 5.80 and 1.02 kg/kg barley grains HBU to 7.12 and 1.83 kg/kg barley grains for SBRHU. Sprouted barley grains on agricultural by-products increased the fresh yield by 12.07-22.76% and dry yield by 47.06-79.41% per kg barley grains compared to hydroponic barley grains. The digestibility of DM and OM and TDN and DE values of HB were significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to SBBS, while the values of SBRS were intermediate without significant differences. Meantime, CF digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for SBSR and SBBS compared with HB. Chemical composition of commercial rabbit diets and different sprouted barley grains on agricultural by-products were nearly similar except the contents of OM and NFE were higher and CF and ash contents were lower in HB. The digestibility coefficients of different nutrients and nutritive values were nearly similar for CRD and the other diets contained 30% sprouted barley grains. Initial and final live body weight and total and daily weight gain were nearly similar for the rabbits fed the different experimental diets. However, means of final live body weight, total and daily weight gain were significantly (P<0.05) higher for male than female rabbits. Total feed intake, feed conversion ratio and performance index (PI) were nearly similar for the different groups and tended to increase in male than female rabbits. The price of total weight gain was almost similar for male and female rabbits fed the different diets, while the mean price of total weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) higher for male than female rabbits. Meantime, male and female rabbits fed CRD (D1) revealed significantly (P<0.05) the higher total feed cost and lower net revenue and net revenue improvement compared with those fed diets contained 30% HB (D2), SBRS (D3) or SBBS (D4). The net revenue improvements were about 16 and 13% for male and female rabbits, respectively. The pH value and the concentrations of TVFA’s concentrations in TVFA's experimental diets are presented. NH3-N were insignificantly affected by feeding sprouted barley grains. Neither the slaughter and carcass weights nor dressing percentage were insignificantly affected by sprouted barley grains inclusion in diets. Also, the weights and percentages of organs were insignificantly affected by sprouted barley grains inclusion in diets except liver percentage, spleen weight and the weight and percentage of shoulder fat revealed significant differences (P<0.05). The physical characteristics of rabbit meat including pH value, color, tenderness and water holding capacity and chemical characteristics of rabbit meat including moisture, protein, ether extract and ash were not significantly affected with feeding sprouted barley grains.

[Mohsen, M.K.; E.M. Abdel-Raouf; H.M.A. Gaafar  and A.M. Yousif. Nutritional Evaluation Of Sprouted Barley Grains On Agricultural By-Products On Performance Of Growing New Zealand White Rabbits. World Rural Observ 2015;7(4):96-107]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 14. doi:10.7537/marswro070415.14.

 

Keywords: NZW rabbits, sprouted barley, digestibility, body weight gain, economic efficiency and carcass traits

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